Perfect employee
HUMRES
Patrick L. Reyes
MM2012
Perfect employee
Disclaimer
• This presentation is part of the mandatory
requirements of Prof. Hilda Teodoro’s AGSB Human
...
Perfect employee
Why the “Perfect Employee”?
• Where to look for employees
• How to select employees
• Who to select
• How...
Perfect employee
What to expect
• Be informed – not told what to do
• Personnel Selection
• Selection Standards
• Selectio...
Perfect employee
Are you in or are you out?
• Personnel Selection is the process by which
companies decide who will or who...
Perfect employee
5 Selection Standards
• Reliability
• Validity
• Generalizability
• Utility• Utility
• Legality
Perfect employee
Why Selection Standards?
• Selection involves measuring characteristics
of people to determine who will b...
Perfect employee
Reliability
• Reliability – the degree a measure is free from random
error
– Ex.: Height – use of measuri...
Perfect employee
Validity
• Validity – the extent performance on the measure is
related to performance on the job
• Criter...
Perfect employee
Generalizability
• Generalizability – degree to which validity of a
selection method established in one c...
Perfect employee
Utility
• Utility – degree to which the information
provided by selection methods enhance the
bottom line...
Perfect employee
Legality
• Selection methods should conform to existing
laws and legal precedents
• Affirmative Action
• ...
Perfect employee
Selection Methods
• Interviews
• Reference Checks
• Biographical Information
• Physical Ability Tests
• C...
Perfect employee
Interviewing
• Interview – a dialogue initiated by one or more
persons to gather information and evaluate...
Perfect employee
Still Interviewing
• Situational Interviews
– Experienced-based – What did you do?
– Future-oriented – Wh...
Perfect employee
Background Checks and Bio Data
• References are unreliable due to applicant
choose those who think highly...
Perfect employee
Physical Ability Tests
• Tend to favor males over females
• Adverse impact on those with disabilities and...
Perfect employee
Cognitive Ability Tests
• Tests individuals based on their mental rather
than physical abilities
• 3 Most...
Perfect employee
Personality Inventories
• What the applicants are like
• Remember Leadership class? - Enneagram
• Big 5 –...
Perfect employee
Sample! Sample!
• Work Samples – through case study, role play, job
tryout, hire temporary (6 mos. to a y...
Perfect employee
Honesty and Drug Tests
• Lie detector/Polygraph – banned in 1988.
Now, paper-based
• Drug test
– Invasive...
Perfect employee
How Selection Methods
Measure Up
METHOD RELIABILITY VALIDITY GENERALIZABILITY UTILITY LEGALITY
Interviews...
Perfect employee
Summary
• Measure Stable Characteristics
• Use a Mix of Selection Methods
• Structured Interview
Research...
Perfect employee
• Stumbled upon a book
• By Nolan Bushnell
– Inventor of Pong
– Founder of Atari, Chuck E. Cheese’s – Piz...
Perfect employee
The Book
• Book on Selection and Placement? – Book
on Creativity!
• How to Find, Keep, and Nurture Talent...
Perfect employee
Pong
• Pong – A piece of advice, only where it applies,
flexible, unlike
• Rules – applies to everything,...
Perfect employee
Some Interesting Pongs
#1 – Make your workplace an advertisement of
your company (Atari – lobby was a gam...
Perfect employee
More Interesting Pongs
#4 – Hire for Passion and Intensity
You can train employees with the ways of the
c...
Perfect employee
More Interesting Pongs
#5 – Ignore credentials (dropouts – Steves,
Jobs & Wozniack, Bill Gates, David Gef...
Perfect employee
More Interesting Pongs
#33 – Create a creative chain. Products/ideas
evolve
#43 – Make Something for the ...
Perfect employee
Last Pong
ACT!
“Everyone who has ever taken a shower has had
a good idea, the thing that matters is whata...
Perfect employee
HUMRES
Patrick L. Reyes
MM2012
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WANTED: Perfect Employee

  1. 1. Perfect employee HUMRES Patrick L. Reyes MM2012
  2. 2. Perfect employee Disclaimer • This presentation is part of the mandatory requirements of Prof. Hilda Teodoro’s AGSB Human Resources Management class • The data included in this report are based on publicly available data such as those on internet websites,available data such as those on internet websites, news, package declarations, and public reports • When appropriate, data are “masked” so as to not create unexpected conflicts • The reports may be posted and linked on slideshare, blogs, and facebook so that there is easier sharing among students
  3. 3. Perfect employee Why the “Perfect Employee”? • Where to look for employees • How to select employees • Who to select • How to repeat great hires• How to repeat great hires • How to avoid bad hires
  4. 4. Perfect employee What to expect • Be informed – not told what to do • Personnel Selection • Selection Standards • Selection Methods• Selection Methods • Selection Methods against the Standards
  5. 5. Perfect employee Are you in or are you out? • Personnel Selection is the process by which companies decide who will or who will not be allowed into organizations “What could possibly be more important than who gets hired? Business is a game, and as with all games, the team that puts the best people on the field and gets them playing together wins. It’s that simple.” – Jack Welch
  6. 6. Perfect employee 5 Selection Standards • Reliability • Validity • Generalizability • Utility• Utility • Legality
  7. 7. Perfect employee Why Selection Standards? • Selection involves measuring characteristics of people to determine who will be accepted • Need to quantify people on some dimension so we can rank them from High to Low basedso we can rank them from High to Low based on characteristic of interest • First 4 Standards build on each other
  8. 8. Perfect employee Reliability • Reliability – the degree a measure is free from random error – Ex.: Height – use of measuring instrument versus a guess • Reliability of the measuring instrument not the characteristic • Correlation Coefficient – measure of degree to which two• Correlation Coefficient – measure of degree to which two sets of numbers are related (measure versus expected performance) – May be +, -, 0 – Example: SAT scores at junior high versus senior high • Test-retest reliability – scores at one time compared to scores at another time. Measured over a short time lapse scores should be close
  9. 9. Perfect employee Validity • Validity – the extent performance on the measure is related to performance on the job • Criterion-Related Validity – substantial correlation between test scores and job-performance scores (ex. SAT score vs. GPA in freshman college) – Predictive validation – applicants test scores correlated High SAT = High GPAHigh SAT = High GPAHigh SAT = High GPAHigh SAT = High GPA – Predictive validation – applicants test scores correlated with eventual performance on the job – Concurrent validation –incumbents test scores correlated with current job performance • Content Validation – an alternative. Questions or problems posted are representative of situations or problems that occur on the job
  10. 10. Perfect employee Generalizability • Generalizability – degree to which validity of a selection method established in one context extends to other contexts – Ex. SAT predictor for under-graduate, but not for graduate programs, need GRE, GMAT, etc.graduate programs, need GRE, GMAT, etc. – Future performance • Two primary ”contexts” – Different situations (job roles or organizations) • Example: nurse in a large hospital or small hospital – Different samples of people (gender, race)
  11. 11. Perfect employee Utility • Utility – degree to which the information provided by selection methods enhance the bottom line effectiveness of the organization – Example: Extroversion of sales person correlated– Example: Extroversion of sales person correlated to sales revenue • Money, money, money
  12. 12. Perfect employee Legality • Selection methods should conform to existing laws and legal precedents • Affirmative Action • Does not discriminate against race, gender,• Does not discriminate against race, gender, age, and disability
  13. 13. Perfect employee Selection Methods • Interviews • Reference Checks • Biographical Information • Physical Ability Tests • Cognitive Ability Tests• Cognitive Ability Tests • Personality Inventories • Work-sample Tests • Honesty Tests • Drug Tests
  14. 14. Perfect employee Interviewing • Interview – a dialogue initiated by one or more persons to gather information and evaluate qualifications of an applicant for employment • To be effective – keep it structured, standard,• To be effective – keep it structured, standard, and focused on accomplishing small goals – Quantitative ratings for observable behaviors (ex. ability to express oneself) – Avoid rating abilities that are better measured by tests (intelligence)
  15. 15. Perfect employee Still Interviewing • Situational Interviews – Experienced-based – What did you do? – Future-oriented – What would you do? • Group/Panel (vs. individual)• Group/Panel (vs. individual) – “Trained” panel (for consistency) – With scoring/rating • Video Recording • Live video (Skype)
  16. 16. Perfect employee Background Checks and Bio Data • References are unreliable due to applicant choose those who think highly of them • Biographical data supplied by applicant should be verifiablebe verifiable • Interestingly, background checks – only in America (and the Philippines?) compared to Europe – Illegal in many countries – Europeans carry less debt compared to Americans
  17. 17. Perfect employee Physical Ability Tests • Tend to favor males over females • Adverse impact on those with disabilities and females • 2 Key questions for this test• 2 Key questions for this test – Essential to performing the job – firefighters – Failure to adequately perform results in risk to safety and health of applicant, co-workers, and others
  18. 18. Perfect employee Cognitive Ability Tests • Tests individuals based on their mental rather than physical abilities • 3 Most Dominant – 3R+1 – Verbal Comprehension – Reading wRiting (and– Verbal Comprehension – Reading wRiting (and spoken) – Quantitative Ability – aRithmetic – Reasoning Ability – ability to invent solutions to diverse problems
  19. 19. Perfect employee Personality Inventories • What the applicants are like • Remember Leadership class? - Enneagram • Big 5 – Extroversion, Adjustment, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Openness to Experience • Conscientiousness – which captures the concept of self-regulation and self-motivation and one of the most important characteristic of employees lack validity and self-motivation and one of the most important characteristic of employees lack validity • Despite generic lack of validity, becoming more popular possibly due to wider-use of team-based structures that put emphasis on collaboration • Choices: Similar (for harmony) versus dissimilar (for diversity and creativity) • EQ – self-awareness, self-regulation, self-motivation, empathy, social skills
  20. 20. Perfect employee Sample! Sample! • Work Samples – through case study, role play, job tryout, hire temporary (6 mos. to a year) • TV contests? Prize is a contract • More “business-like” –• More “business-like” – – Google code jam (programming problems, develop software or game in say 2 hours ), Google also hires the finalists (identifies pool of talents) – HSBC Young Entrepreneur Challenge – The Apprentice • Assessment center – for managerial selection
  21. 21. Perfect employee Honesty and Drug Tests • Lie detector/Polygraph – banned in 1988. Now, paper-based • Drug test – Invasive– Invasive – Invasion of privacy issues
  22. 22. Perfect employee How Selection Methods Measure Up METHOD RELIABILITY VALIDITY GENERALIZABILITY UTILITY LEGALITY Interviews Low when unstructured and when assessing non observable traits Low if unstructured and non behavioral Low Low, especially because of expense Low because of subjectivity and potential interviewer bias also, lack of validity makes job relatedness low Reference Checks Low, especially when obtained from letters Low because of lack of rang of evaluations Low Low, although not expensive to obtain Those writing letters may be concerned with charges of libel Biographical Information High test-retest specially for verifiable information High criterion-related validity, low in content validity Usually job specific, but have been successfully developed for many job types High, inexpensive way to collect vast amounts of potentially relevant data May have adverse impact, thus often develop separate scoring keys based on sex or race Physical ability tests High Moderate criterion-related Low, pertain only to physically Moderate for some physical Often has adverse impact onPhysical ability tests High Moderate criterion-related validity, high content validity for some jobs Low, pertain only to physically demanding jobs Moderate for some physical jobs, may prevent expensive injuries and disability Often has adverse impact on women and people with disabilities; need to establish job- relatedness Cognitive ability tests High Moderate criterion-related validity, content validation inappropriate High, predictive for most jobs, although best for complex jobs High, low cost and wide application across diverse jobs in companies Often has adverse impact on race especially for African Americans, though decreasing over time Personality Inventories High Low to moderate criterion- related validity for most traits, content validation inappropriate Low, few traits predictive for many jobs, except for conscientiousness Low, although inexpensive for jobs where specific traits are relevant Low because of cultural and sex differences on most traits, and low job-relatedness in general Work-sample Tests High High criterion and content validity Usually job specific, but have been successfully developed for many job types High, despite the relatively high cost to develop High because of low adverse impact and high job- relatedness Honesty tests Insufficient independent evidence Insufficient independent evidence Insufficient independent evidence Insufficient independent evidence Insufficient history of litigation, but will undergo scrutiny Drug tests High High High Expensive but may yield high payoffs for health-related costs May be challenged on invasion- of-privacy grounds
  23. 23. Perfect employee Summary • Measure Stable Characteristics • Use a Mix of Selection Methods • Structured Interview Research indicates that one of the bestResearch indicates that one of the best combinations of selection methods includes work-sample tests with a highly structured interview and a measure of general cognitive ability. The validity coefficient expected from such a combined battery often exceeds .60
  24. 24. Perfect employee • Stumbled upon a book • By Nolan Bushnell – Inventor of Pong – Founder of Atari, Chuck E. Cheese’s – Pizza– Founder of Atari, Chuck E. Cheese’s – Pizza restaurant/arcade – Father of Electronic gaming
  25. 25. Perfect employee The Book • Book on Selection and Placement? – Book on Creativity! • How to Find, Keep, and Nurture Talent • Another book of lists? – 51 “Pongs” • Also contains where/how to look for “creatives”• Also contains where/how to look for “creatives” • Based on conversations with Steve Jobs (a former Atari Employee) that he wrote down – Steve looking at evolution of apple, looking at the rest of the team to spur creativity, not just himself (the leader) – Looking for his own – next Steve Jobs!
  26. 26. Perfect employee Pong • Pong – A piece of advice, only where it applies, flexible, unlike • Rules – applies to everything, restricts creativity • “Key to survival to this New World is Creativity”• “Key to survival to this New World is Creativity” • Creativity at all levels - must not reside in one person or a few people • Creativity Chain – different people contributing to a product/process • Real life examples, real companies
  27. 27. Perfect employee Some Interesting Pongs #1 – Make your workplace an advertisement of your company (Atari – lobby was a games arcade) #3 – Advertise (job openings) creatively Atari “Play Games, make Money”“Play Games, make Money” “Make Games that Make Money, Keep Some of It” Chuck E. Cheese’s “Work for a rat, Earn lots of Cheese” “Make Dough, Make Fun. Have Fun, Earn Dough” IKEA “Career Assembly Instructions” with their packaging
  28. 28. Perfect employee More Interesting Pongs #4 – Hire for Passion and Intensity You can train employees with the ways of the company, but you can’t train them to be passionatepassionate How do you find passion? …Like pornography, it’s hard to define, but you know it when you see it You see it in the eyes. Like Steve they look you in the eye. They talk about ideas not themselves. You cannot create passion if it is not there
  29. 29. Perfect employee More Interesting Pongs #5 – Ignore credentials (dropouts – Steves, Jobs & Wozniack, Bill Gates, David Geffen, Mark Zuckerberg, Coco Chanel) #21 – Celebrate. Keep creatives happy#21 – Celebrate. Keep creatives happy #27 – Champion the bad ideas. Learn to debate both sides of an issue #28 – Celebrate Failure to avoid fear of failure WD-40 stands for “Water Displacement – 40th Formula”
  30. 30. Perfect employee More Interesting Pongs #33 – Create a creative chain. Products/ideas evolve #43 – Make Something for the Rich. Do not be limited by a wide target market The Rich are able to makes ideas happen that eventually become cost effective Ex. Car, Bicycle, Telephone, Microwave Oven, etc. #45 – Throw the Dice, to make important decisions. Biased ranking of To-Do lists, putting off some indefinitely at the bottom
  31. 31. Perfect employee Last Pong ACT! “Everyone who has ever taken a shower has had a good idea, the thing that matters is whata good idea, the thing that matters is what you do with that idea once you get out of the shower.” – Nolan Bushnell
  32. 32. Perfect employee HUMRES Patrick L. Reyes MM2012

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