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The Spitler Group LLC Human Capital Development BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC (513) 382-7675
The Spitler Group LLC Human Capital Development BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC (513) 382-7675
Contents The History of Assessments Reliability and Validity Types of Assessments What to Look for in an Assessment How As...
The History of Assessments
Hippocrates  (c 460 bc– 370 bce)
Hippocrates The Four Humours <ul><li>Humours- Predominant – Temperament - Characteristics   </li></ul><ul><li>Humor   Temp...
Carl Jung Introversion v  Extroversion <ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Intuiting </li></ul><u...
Dr. William Marston In 1928 published  Emotions of Normal People,   DiSC Theory . Marston’s two axes,  Passive or Active, ...
Stanley Smith Stevens Psychologist “ Scales of Measurement” More accurate measurements of behavior
Myers-Briggs Type Indicators Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed to make the insights of type ...
The Standards for Educational and  Psychological Testing   The Standards for Educational and  Psychological Testing  is a ...
Leading Clinical Psychological Research Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  California Psychological Inven...
TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: AN EMPLOYER’S GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administrat...
Department of Labor Assessment instruments should account for no more than one-third (1/3) of the decision making process.
<ul><li>Department of Labor Official Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools in a  purposeful manner .  </li></u...
<ul><li>What makes a good test? </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure.  </li></ul><ul><li>The test...
<ul><li>Reliability  </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to how dependable or consistent a test measures a characteristic...
<ul><li>Validity  </li></ul><ul><li>Validity refers to  what characteristic  the test measures and  how well  the test mea...
Here’s what the U.S. Department of Labor says about assessments : <ul><li>Employment tests can be used to gather accurate ...
Types of Assessments
Tests, inventories, and procedures  are assessment tools that may be used to measure an individual’s abilities, values, an...
Ipsative Assessments Ipsative assessments are behavioral based instruments based on Jung and Marston type work. Recognized...
Normative Assessments <ul><li>Normative assessments are based on measurements of the “normal” population – Bell Curve. </l...
Cognitive Assessments <ul><li>Cognitive Assessments are more complex </li></ul><ul><li>assessments that measure an individ...
Assessments for Hiring and Promotions
1)  Personality indicators Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Kersey-bates Temperament  Jung Type Indicators 2)  Personality Styl...
5 Groups of Assessments <ul><li>5)  Whole Person or Total Person Battery </li></ul><ul><li>(Multi-construct and Job Matche...
What to Look for in a Behavioral  Assessment
Behavioral Assessments <ul><li>The Department of Labor’s 13 Official Guidelines for  Testing and Assessments </li></ul><ul...
Companies Face Two Types of Problems… Behavioral Assessments focuses on people problems People Problems System Problems
Behavioral Assessments  Why are assessments so important now? <ul><li>Cost of hiring  </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover Costs </l...
Motivate Employees Identify Reliable People Minimize Workplace Theft Improve Productivity Hire The Right People Increase S...
When do people perform at a ‘Superior Level?” It’s not experience – or college degree – or other accepted factors… … it hi...
The closer to 100% information the better… Interview +  Background Check +  Personality & behavior + Mental Abilities + In...
They also stay longer – saving a fortune on recruitment costs! 8% 34% % left / fired after 14 months 5% 25% % left / fired...
The Lines Are Crossing: A Growing Shortage of Workers in the U.S. Expected Labor Force and Labor Force Demand Millions of ...
How do you know who you are hiring?
The missing third is... “ Checking the Past” & “Reviewing the Present” … in predicting ‘superior’ performance Company Fit ...
A ssessment Sample Step One Survey II Pre-employment 72 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
<ul><li>Personal Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Work Ethic </...
Assessment Sample Profiles XT Whole Person Assessment 270 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
<ul><li>Can  the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>How  will the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Will  the person ...
The JobMatch ™  Pattern <ul><li>Shaded areas indicate the JobMatch Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The JobMatch patterns show re...
A ProfileXT ™ Good Match
Final Thoughts
Here’s what  you see & hire/promote…
Here’s what  you see & hire/promote… Here’s what  you get!
The Spitler Group LLC BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC 513 382-7675
Contents The History of Assessments Department of Labor Reliability and Validity Types of Assessments What to Look for in ...
The History of Assessments
Hippocrates  (c 460 bc– 370 bce)
Hippocrates The Four Humours <ul><li>Humours- Predominant – Temperament - Characteristics   </li></ul><ul><li>Humor   Temp...
Carl Jung Introversion v  Extroversion <ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Intuiting </li></ul><u...
Dr. William Marston In 1928 published  Emotions of Normal People,   DiSC Theory . Marston’s two axes,  Passive or Active, ...
Stanley Smith Stevens Psychologist “ Scales of Measurement” More accurate measurements of behavior
Myers-Briggs Type Indicators Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed to make the insights of type ...
The Standards for Educational and  Psychological Testing   The Standards for Educational and  Psychological Testing  is a ...
Leading Clinical Psychological Research Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)  California Psychological Inven...
TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: AN EMPLOYER’S GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administrat...
Department of Labor “ The Rule” Assessment instruments should account for no more than one-third (1/3) of the decision mak...
<ul><li>Department of Labor Official Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools in a  purposeful manner .  </li></u...
<ul><li>What makes a good test? </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure.  </li></ul><ul><li>The test...
<ul><li>Reliability  </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to how dependably or consistently a test measures a characterist...
<ul><li>Validity  </li></ul><ul><li>Validity refers to  what characteristic  the test measures and  how well  the test mea...
Here’s what the U.S. Department of Labor says about assessments : <ul><li>Employment tests can be used to gather accurate ...
Types of Assessments
Tests, inventories, and procedures  are assessment tools that may be used to measure an individual’s abilities, values, an...
Ipsative Assessments Ipsative assessments are behavioral based instruments based on Jung and Marston type work. Recognized...
Normative Assessments <ul><li>Normative assessments are based on measurements of the “normal” population – Bell Curve. </l...
Cognitive Assessments <ul><li>Cognitive Assessments are more complex assessments that measure an individual’s ability to t...
Assessments for Hiring and Promotions
1)  Personality indicators Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Kersey-bates Temperament  Jung Type Indicators 2)  Personality Styl...
5 Groups of Assessments <ul><li>5)  Whole Person or Total Person Battery </li></ul><ul><li>(Multi-construct and Job Matche...
What to Look for in a Behavioral  Assessment
Behavioral Assessments <ul><li>The Department of Labor’s 13 Official Guidelines for  Testing and Assessments </li></ul><ul...
Companies Face Two Types of Problems… Assessments focuses on people problems. People Problems System Problems
Behavioral Assessment and Recruiting Why are assessments so important now? <ul><li>Cost of hiring  </li></ul><ul><li>Turno...
Motivate Employees Identify Reliable People Minimize Workplace Theft Improve Productivity Hire The Right People Increase S...
When do people perform at a ‘Superior Level?” It’s not experience – or college degree – or other accepted factors… … it hi...
The closer to 100% information the better… Interview +  Background Check +  Personality & behavior + Mental Abilities + In...
They also stay longer – saving a fortune on recruitment costs! 8% 34% % left / fired after 14 months 5% 25% % left / fired...
The Lines Are Crossing: A Growing Shortage of Workers in the U.S. Expected Labor Force and Labor Force Demand Millions of ...
How do you know who you are hiring?
The missing third is... “ Checking the Past” & “Reviewing the Present” … in predicting ‘superior’ performance Company Fit ...
A ssessment Sample Step One Survey II Pre-employment 72 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
<ul><li>Personal Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Work Ethic </...
Assessment Sample Profiles XT Whole Person Assessment 270 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
<ul><li>Can  the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>How  will the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Will  the person ...
The JobMatch ™  Pattern <ul><li>Shaded areas indicate the JobMatch Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The JobMatch patterns show re...
A ProfileXT ™ Good Match
Final Thoughts
Here’s what  you see & hire/promote…
Here’s what  you see & hire/promote… Here’s what  you get!
The Spitler Group LLC BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC 513 382-7675
Why does this matter? Unskilled / Semi-skilled ‘ Average’ workers output = 19% more than ‘Non-producers’  ‘ Superior’ work...
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Assessment History Ii

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A brief history and guide to the use of behavioral assessments for hiring.

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Assessment History Ii

  1. 1. The Spitler Group LLC Human Capital Development BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC (513) 382-7675
  2. 2. The Spitler Group LLC Human Capital Development BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC (513) 382-7675
  3. 3. Contents The History of Assessments Reliability and Validity Types of Assessments What to Look for in an Assessment How Assessments can Improve Hiring
  4. 4. The History of Assessments
  5. 5. Hippocrates (c 460 bc– 370 bce)
  6. 6. Hippocrates The Four Humours <ul><li>Humours- Predominant – Temperament - Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Humor Temperament Season Characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sanguine Spring Optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Phlegm Phlegmatic Winter Stolid, apathetic and undemonstrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Bile Melancholic Fall Depressed in spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Bile Choleric Summer Anger, irritability, and a &quot;jaundiced&quot; view of life. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Carl Jung Introversion v Extroversion <ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Intuiting </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dr. William Marston In 1928 published Emotions of Normal People, DiSC Theory . Marston’s two axes, Passive or Active, Favorable or Antagonistic. Dominance Inducement Compliance Steadiness Interpretation of Marston’s Theory by Dr John Geier
  9. 9. Stanley Smith Stevens Psychologist “ Scales of Measurement” More accurate measurements of behavior
  10. 10. Myers-Briggs Type Indicators Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed to make the insights of type theory accessible to individuals and groups. Introvert (I) – Extrovert (E) Sensing (S) – Intuition (N) Thinking (T) – Feeling (F) Judging (J) – Perceiving (P) 16 personality Type Indicators
  11. 11. The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is a set of Testing standards developed jointly by: The American Educational Research Association (AERA) American Psychological Association (APA), and The National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME).
  12. 12. Leading Clinical Psychological Research Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) California Psychological Inventory (CPI) The validity of assessments are often compared to the results of the clinical studies
  13. 13. TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: AN EMPLOYER’S GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration 1999
  14. 14. Department of Labor Assessment instruments should account for no more than one-third (1/3) of the decision making process.
  15. 15. <ul><li>Department of Labor Official Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools in a purposeful manner . </li></ul><ul><li>Use the whole-person approach to assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only assessment instruments that are unbiased and fair to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only reliable assessment instruments and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only valid assessment procedures and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools that are appropriate for the target population. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment instruments for which understandable and comprehensive documentation is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that administration staff are properly trained . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that testing conditions are suitable for all test takers. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reasonable accommodation for people with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain assessment instrument security . </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain confidentiality of assessment results. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that scores are interpreted properly . </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>What makes a good test? </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>The test is job-relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which a test has these qualities is indicated by two technical properties: </li></ul><ul><li> reliability and validity </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to how dependable or consistent a test measures a characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>A test that yields similar scores for a person who repeats the test is said to measure a characteristic reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>General Guidelines for Interpreting Reliability Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability Coefficient Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>.90 and up excellent </li></ul><ul><li>.80 - .89 good </li></ul><ul><li>.70 - .79 adequate </li></ul><ul><li>below .70 may have limited applicability </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Validity refers to what characteristic the test measures and how well the test measures that characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>General Guidelines for Interpreting Validity Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Validity coefficient Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>value </li></ul><ul><li>above .35 very beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>.21 - .35 likely to be useful </li></ul><ul><li>.11 - .20 depends on circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>below .11 unlikely to be useful </li></ul>
  19. 19. Here’s what the U.S. Department of Labor says about assessments : <ul><li>Employment tests can be used to gather accurate information about job-related characteristics. This information helps assess the fit between people and jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be used to predict employee and applicant job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of professionally developed assessment tools enables organizations to make more effective employment-related decisions. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Types of Assessments
  21. 21. Tests, inventories, and procedures are assessment tools that may be used to measure an individual’s abilities, values, and personality traits. They are components of the assessment process. ! observations ! resume evaluations ! application blanks/questionnaires ! interviews ! drug tests ! biodata inventories ! work samples/performance tests ! achievement tests ! general ability tests ! specific ability tests ! Cognitive abilities tests ! physical ability tests ! assessment centers ! personality inventories ! honesty/integrity inventories ! interest inventories ! work values inventories Assessment process Systematic approach to combining and evaluating all the information gained from testing and using it to make career or employment-related decisions. Types of Assessments
  22. 22. Ipsative Assessments Ipsative assessments are behavioral based instruments based on Jung and Marston type work. Recognized by the four quadrants of behavior. Excellent for training purposes but not recommended for hiring – Myers Briggs and DiSC. Generally require interpretation by a trained professional for hiring purposes. Low predictability Amiable Expressive Feeler Extrovert Analytical Driver Thinker Judge
  23. 23. Normative Assessments <ul><li>Normative assessments are based on measurements of the “normal” population – Bell Curve. </li></ul><ul><li>Normative assessments can be used for hiring and do not require certification or training. High Predictability </li></ul><ul><li>16% 68% 16% </li></ul>
  24. 24. Cognitive Assessments <ul><li>Cognitive Assessments are more complex </li></ul><ul><li>assessments that measure an individual’s ability </li></ul><ul><li>to think. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Assessments measure: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Verbal Skills – Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>2. Verbal Reasoning – Words used in Reasoning and Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>3. Numeric Ability – Numeric Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric Reasoning – Numbers in Reasoning and Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learning Index – Combination of all </li></ul>
  25. 25. Assessments for Hiring and Promotions
  26. 26. 1) Personality indicators Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Kersey-bates Temperament Jung Type Indicators 2) Personality Style The Marston 4 Quadrant Theory – DiSC Wilson Learning Challey Predictive Index The Brickman 3) Personality Traits MMPI 16 PF Hogan 4) Honesty/Integrity Reid/London House Profiles International: Step One Survey II 5 Groups of Assessments
  27. 27. 5 Groups of Assessments <ul><li>5) Whole Person or Total Person Battery </li></ul><ul><li>(Multi-construct and Job Matches) Measures abilities, interests and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderlic Personnel Test </li></ul><ul><li>Profiles International: PXT </li></ul><ul><li>The Caliper </li></ul><ul><li>Points to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all exceed the co-efficiency rating of .70 for </li></ul><ul><li>predictability? </li></ul><ul><li>Not all provide a Legal Opinion Letter? </li></ul><ul><li>Many require expensive and extensive training and </li></ul><ul><li>certification? </li></ul><ul><li>Most are written in “Psycho-babble” instead of simple </li></ul><ul><li>business language? </li></ul><ul><li>Not all assessments are the same and most are not recommended for hiring. </li></ul>
  28. 28. What to Look for in a Behavioral Assessment
  29. 29. Behavioral Assessments <ul><li>The Department of Labor’s 13 Official Guidelines for Testing and Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>A Technical Manual (Documented methods and </li></ul><ul><li>results) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity Analysis (Updated every </li></ul><ul><li>three years) </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments should predict future performance </li></ul><ul><li>An assessment should include a “Distortion Factor” </li></ul><ul><li>that measures the candidate’s level of candor </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology (Easy access and fast results) </li></ul><ul><li>Results should be quickly available </li></ul><ul><li>Results should be easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by a reputable company – In-house research </li></ul><ul><li>and development </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Opinion Letter Available upon Request </li></ul>
  30. 30. Companies Face Two Types of Problems… Behavioral Assessments focuses on people problems People Problems System Problems
  31. 31. Behavioral Assessments Why are assessments so important now? <ul><li>Cost of hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Level of Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased illicit drug use </li></ul><ul><li>The Labor Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Talent Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Raising the Bar of Employee Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Employees as a “Competitive Advantage” </li></ul>
  32. 32. Motivate Employees Identify Reliable People Minimize Workplace Theft Improve Productivity Hire The Right People Increase Sales Reduce Turnover Make Managers More Effective
  33. 33. When do people perform at a ‘Superior Level?” It’s not experience – or college degree – or other accepted factors… … it hinges on fit with the job.” Source: Herbert
  34. 34. The closer to 100% information the better… Interview + Background Check + Personality & behavior + Mental Abilities + Interests & Motivators + Job Matching
  35. 35. They also stay longer – saving a fortune on recruitment costs! 8% 34% % left / fired after 14 months 5% 25% % left / fired after 6 months Low Turnover Industry 28% 57% % left / fired after 14 months 24% 46% % left / fired after 6 months With Job Match With out Job Match High Turnover Industry
  36. 36. The Lines Are Crossing: A Growing Shortage of Workers in the U.S. Expected Labor Force and Labor Force Demand Millions of People
  37. 37. How do you know who you are hiring?
  38. 38. The missing third is... “ Checking the Past” & “Reviewing the Present” … in predicting ‘superior’ performance Company Fit Attitudes,Values, Demeanor, Appearance, Integrity Skill Fit Education, Training, Experience, Skills, Etc. Job Match Personality, Abilities, Interests
  39. 39. A ssessment Sample Step One Survey II Pre-employment 72 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
  40. 40. <ul><li>Personal Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Work Ethic </li></ul>What SOSII ™ Measures
  41. 41. Assessment Sample Profiles XT Whole Person Assessment 270 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
  42. 42. <ul><li>Can the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the person want to do the job? </li></ul>What ProfileXT ™ Measures
  43. 43. The JobMatch ™ Pattern <ul><li>Shaded areas indicate the JobMatch Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The JobMatch patterns show requirements for the jobs in your company </li></ul>
  44. 44. A ProfileXT ™ Good Match
  45. 45. Final Thoughts
  46. 46. Here’s what you see & hire/promote…
  47. 47. Here’s what you see & hire/promote… Here’s what you get!
  48. 48. The Spitler Group LLC BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC 513 382-7675
  49. 49. Contents The History of Assessments Department of Labor Reliability and Validity Types of Assessments What to Look for in an Assessment How Assessments can Improve Hiring
  50. 50. The History of Assessments
  51. 51. Hippocrates (c 460 bc– 370 bce)
  52. 52. Hippocrates The Four Humours <ul><li>Humours- Predominant – Temperament - Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Humor Temperament Season Characteristic </li></ul><ul><li>Blood Sanguine Spring Optimistic, enthusiastic, and excitable. </li></ul><ul><li>Phlegm Phlegmatic Winter Stolid, apathetic and undemonstrative. </li></ul><ul><li>Black Bile Melancholic Fall Depressed in spirits. </li></ul><ul><li>Yellow Bile Choleric Summer Anger, irritability, and a &quot;jaundiced&quot; view of life. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Carl Jung Introversion v Extroversion <ul><li>Sensing </li></ul><ul><li>Thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Intuiting </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling </li></ul>
  54. 54. Dr. William Marston In 1928 published Emotions of Normal People, DiSC Theory . Marston’s two axes, Passive or Active, Favorable or Antagonistic. Dominance Inducement Compliance Steadiness Interpretation of Marston’s Theory by Dr John Geier
  55. 55. Stanley Smith Stevens Psychologist “ Scales of Measurement” More accurate measurements of behavior
  56. 56. Myers-Briggs Type Indicators Isabel Briggs Myers and her mother, Katharine Briggs, developed to make the insights of type theory accessible to individuals and groups. Introvert (I) – Extrovert (E) Sensing (S) – Intuition (N) Thinking (T) – Feeling (F) Judging (J) – Perceiving (P) 16 personality Type Indicators
  57. 57. The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing The Standards for Educational and Psychological Testing is a set of Testing standards developed jointly by: The American Educational Research Association (AERA) American Psychological Association (APA), and The National Council on Measurement in Education (NCME).
  58. 58. Leading Clinical Psychological Research Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) California Psychological Inventory (CPI) The validity of assessments are often compared to the results of the clinical studies
  59. 59. TESTING AND ASSESSMENT: AN EMPLOYER’S GUIDE TO GOOD PRACTICES U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration 1999
  60. 60. Department of Labor “ The Rule” Assessment instruments should account for no more than one-third (1/3) of the decision making process.
  61. 61. <ul><li>Department of Labor Official Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools in a purposeful manner . </li></ul><ul><li>Use the whole-person approach to assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only assessment instruments that are unbiased and fair to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only reliable assessment instruments and procedures. </li></ul><ul><li>Use only valid assessment procedures and instruments. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment tools that are appropriate for the target population. </li></ul><ul><li>Use assessment instruments for which understandable and comprehensive documentation is available. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that administration staff are properly trained . </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that testing conditions are suitable for all test takers. </li></ul><ul><li>Provide reasonable accommodation for people with disabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain assessment instrument security . </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain confidentiality of assessment results. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that scores are interpreted properly . </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>What makes a good test? </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure. </li></ul><ul><li>The test measures what it claims to measure consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>The test is job-relevant. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree to which a test has these qualities is indicated by two technical properties: </li></ul><ul><li> reliability and validity </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability refers to how dependably or consistently a test measures a characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>A test that yields similar scores for a person who repeats the test is said to measure a characteristic reliably. </li></ul><ul><li>General Guidelines for Interpreting Reliability Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability Coefficient Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Value </li></ul><ul><li>.90 and up excellent </li></ul><ul><li>.80 - .89 good </li></ul><ul><li>.70 - .79 adequate </li></ul><ul><li>below .70 may have limited applicability </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Validity </li></ul><ul><li>Validity refers to what characteristic the test measures and how well the test measures that characteristic. </li></ul><ul><li>General Guidelines for Interpreting Validity Coefficients </li></ul><ul><li>Validity coefficient Interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>value </li></ul><ul><li>above .35 very beneficial </li></ul><ul><li>.21 - .35 likely to be useful </li></ul><ul><li>.11 - .20 depends on circumstances </li></ul><ul><li>below .11 unlikely to be useful </li></ul>
  65. 65. Here’s what the U.S. Department of Labor says about assessments : <ul><li>Employment tests can be used to gather accurate information about job-related characteristics. This information helps assess the fit between people and jobs. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests can be used to predict employee and applicant job performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate use of professionally developed assessment tools enables organizations to make more effective employment-related decisions. </li></ul>
  66. 66. Types of Assessments
  67. 67. Tests, inventories, and procedures are assessment tools that may be used to measure an individual’s abilities, values, and personality traits. They are components of the assessment process. ! observations ! resume evaluations ! application blanks/questionnaires ! interviews ! drug tests ! biodata inventories ! work samples/performance tests ! achievement tests ! general ability tests ! specific ability tests ! ! medical tests ! physical ability tests ! assessment centers ! personality inventories ! honesty/integrity inventories ! interest inventories ! work values inventories Assessment process Systematic approach to combining and evaluating all the information gained from testing and using it to make career or employment-related decisions. Types of Assessments
  68. 68. Ipsative Assessments Ipsative assessments are behavioral based instruments based on Jung and Marston type work. Recognized by the four quadrants of behavior. Excellent for training purposes but not recommended for hiring – Myers Briggs and DiSC. Generally require interpretation by a trained professional for hiring purposes. Low predictability Amiable Expressive Feeler Extrovert Analytical Driver Thinker Judge
  69. 69. Normative Assessments <ul><li>Normative assessments are based on measurements of the “normal” population – Bell Curve. </li></ul><ul><li>Normative assessments can be used for hiring and do not require certification or training. High Predictability </li></ul><ul><li>16% 68% 16% </li></ul>
  70. 70. Cognitive Assessments <ul><li>Cognitive Assessments are more complex assessments that measure an individual’s ability to think. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Assessments measure: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Verbal Skills – Vocabulary </li></ul><ul><li>2. Verbal Reasoning – Words used in Reasoning and Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>3. Numeric Ability – Numeric Calculations </li></ul><ul><li>Numeric Reasoning – Numbers in Reasoning and Problem Solving </li></ul><ul><li>5. Learning Index – Combination of all </li></ul>
  71. 71. Assessments for Hiring and Promotions
  72. 72. 1) Personality indicators Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Kersey-bates Temperament Jung Type Indicators 2) Personality Style The Marston 4 Quadrant Theory – DiSC Wilson Learning Challey Predictive Index The Brickman 3) Personality Traits MMPI 16 PF Hogan 4) Honesty/Integrity Reid/London House Profiles International: Step One Survey II 5 Groups of Assessments
  73. 73. 5 Groups of Assessments <ul><li>5) Whole Person or Total Person Battery </li></ul><ul><li>(Multi-construct and Job Matches) Measures abilities, interests and behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Wonderlic Personnel Test </li></ul><ul><li>Profiles International: PXT </li></ul><ul><li>The Caliper </li></ul><ul><li>Points to consider: </li></ul><ul><li>Not all exceed the co-efficiency rating of .70 for </li></ul><ul><li>predictability? </li></ul><ul><li>Not all provide a Legal Opinion Letter? </li></ul><ul><li>Many require expensive and extensive training and </li></ul><ul><li>certification? </li></ul><ul><li>Most are written in “Psycho-babble” instead of simple </li></ul><ul><li>business language? </li></ul><ul><li>Are they cost effective? </li></ul>
  74. 74. What to Look for in a Behavioral Assessment
  75. 75. Behavioral Assessments <ul><li>The Department of Labor’s 13 Official Guidelines for Testing and Assessments </li></ul><ul><li>A Technical Manual (Documented methods and </li></ul><ul><li>results) </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability and Validity Analysis (Current within last </li></ul><ul><li>three years) </li></ul><ul><li>Assessments should predict future performance </li></ul><ul><li>An assessment should include a “Distortion Factor” </li></ul><ul><li>that measures the candidate’s level of candor </li></ul><ul><li>Internet technology (Easy access and fast results) </li></ul><ul><li>Results should be quickly available </li></ul><ul><li>Results should be easy to read </li></ul><ul><li>Produced by a reputable company – In-house research </li></ul><ul><li>and development </li></ul><ul><li>Legal Opinion Letter Available upon Request </li></ul>
  76. 76. Companies Face Two Types of Problems… Assessments focuses on people problems. People Problems System Problems
  77. 77. Behavioral Assessment and Recruiting Why are assessments so important now? <ul><li>Cost of hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Turnover Costs </li></ul><ul><li>Level of Productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increased illicit drug use </li></ul><ul><li>The Labor Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Talent Acquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Improve Hiring </li></ul><ul><li>Raising the Bar of Employee Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Employees as a “Competitive Advantage” </li></ul>
  78. 78. Motivate Employees Identify Reliable People Minimize Workplace Theft Improve Productivity Hire The Right People Increase Sales Reduce Turnover Make Managers More Effective
  79. 79. When do people perform at a ‘Superior Level?” It’s not experience – or college degree – or other accepted factors… … it hinges on fit with the job.” Source: Herbert
  80. 80. The closer to 100% information the better… Interview + Background Check + Personality & behavior + Mental Abilities + Interests & Motivators + Job Matching
  81. 81. They also stay longer – saving a fortune on recruitment costs! 8% 34% % left / fired after 14 months 5% 25% % left / fired after 6 months Low Turnover Industry 28% 57% % left / fired after 14 months 24% 46% % left / fired after 6 months With Job Match With out Job Match High Turnover Industry
  82. 82. The Lines Are Crossing: A Growing Shortage of Workers in the U.S. Expected Labor Force and Labor Force Demand Millions of People
  83. 83. How do you know who you are hiring?
  84. 84. The missing third is... “ Checking the Past” & “Reviewing the Present” … in predicting ‘superior’ performance Company Fit Attitudes,Values, Demeanor, Appearance, Integrity Skill Fit Education, Training, Experience, Skills, Etc. Job Match Personality, Abilities, Interests
  85. 85. A ssessment Sample Step One Survey II Pre-employment 72 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
  86. 86. <ul><li>Personal Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Substance Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability </li></ul><ul><li>Work Ethic </li></ul>What SOSII ™ Measures
  87. 87. Assessment Sample Profiles XT Whole Person Assessment 270 Questions Profiles International, Inc.
  88. 88. <ul><li>Can the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>How will the person do the job? </li></ul><ul><li>Will the person want to do the job? </li></ul>What ProfileXT ™ Measures
  89. 89. The JobMatch ™ Pattern <ul><li>Shaded areas indicate the JobMatch Pattern </li></ul><ul><li>The JobMatch patterns show requirements for the jobs in your company </li></ul>
  90. 90. A ProfileXT ™ Good Match
  91. 91. Final Thoughts
  92. 92. Here’s what you see & hire/promote…
  93. 93. Here’s what you see & hire/promote… Here’s what you get!
  94. 94. The Spitler Group LLC BEHAVIORAL ASSESSMENTS Bing G. Spitler Spitler Group LLC 513 382-7675
  95. 95. Why does this matter? Unskilled / Semi-skilled ‘ Average’ workers output = 19% more than ‘Non-producers’ ‘ Superior’ workers output = 19% more than ‘ Average’ ‘ Superior’ Why does this matter? orders output = 38% more than Non-producers’ Skilled ‘ Average’ workers output = 32% more than ‘Non-producers’ ‘ Superior’ workers output = 32% more than ‘ Average’ ‘ Superior’ workers output = 64% more than Non-producers’ Management / Professional ‘ Average’ workers output = 48% more than ‘Non-producers’ ‘ Superior’ workers output = 48% more than ‘ Average’ ‘ Superior’ workers output = 96% more than ‘Non-producers Source: “The validity and utility of selection methods in personnel psychology: Practical and theoretical implications of 85 years of research findings” Psychological Bulletin, Sept 1998, Vol. 124, No. 2, pp 262-274.

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