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Ch 6religious awakening

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NIOS Std X, 10th Social science ch 6 religious awakening

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Ch 6religious awakening

  1. 1. Ch : 6 Religious and social awakening in India
  2. 2. Lack of education affect the people in the country • In India, education was limited to very few people. • Sanskrit was the main language and only few people could read it. • All the Vedas were written in this language, which was known only to the Brahmins. • So the people had to follow the teachings of the Brahmins.
  3. 3. The position of women during the 19th C • Life was very hard for women during the 19th C period in India. • Certain social practices like – female infanticide, – child marriage, – sati and – polygamy were practiced. Women had no right to property. They had no access to education. Reforms were needed to bring a change in the social and religious lives of the people.
  4. 4. Few reformers in India who led the awakening of the people • Raja Ram Mohan Roy, • Swami Dayanand Saraswati, • Ishwarchandra Vidyasagar, • Jyotiba Phule, • Sir Sayed Ahmed Khan and • Pandita Ramabhai. • According to them the society should be based on concepts of Liberty and Equality. • They studied the religious texts and started the socio and religious movements in India.
  5. 5. 1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy 3. Swami Dayanand Saraswati2. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 4. Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Swami Vivekananda 5. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan 6. Jyotirao Govindrao Phule. wife Savitribai Phule 7. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranande 8. Pandita Ramabhai 9. Annie Beasant Mohammed IqbalMirza Ghulam Ahmed Dadbhai Naoroji
  6. 6. The social practices in India during the 19th c During the 19th C there were many social practices in India which prevented the Indian society from progressing. A. The Caste System: India had a caste system which was originally based on occupation. Later the upper class became powerful and exploited the lower classes. This created inequality in the society. Caste system became a major problem in the development of a healthy society.
  7. 7. Religious practices during the 19th C in India B. Religion played a big role in the Indian society. The religious teachings were in Sanskrit, the lower class did not have access to the scriptures this led to many superstitions and wrong practices in the name of religion. Practices like Sati, female infanticide, child marriage, polygamy, untouchability, caste system etc. were practiced in the society. Reforms were needed to bring a change in the social and religious lives of the people.
  8. 8. the social practices in India during the 19th c c. The Education system: Education was given in traditional Paatshalaas, Madrassas, Mosques and Gurukuls. The subjects taught were Sanskrit, Grammar, Arithematics, religion and philosophy. Women were not allowed to go to school. Lack of proper education was the main cause for social and religious problems in India. Education were available only to the upper class. d. The position of women: Life was very hard for women during the 19th C period in India. Certain social practices like female infanticide, child marriage, sati and polygamy were practiced. Women had no right to property. They had no access to education. Reforms were needed to bring a change in the social and religious lives of the people.
  9. 9. Status of education in India in the 19th C • In the 19th C Education was given in Paatshalas, Madrasas, Mosques and Gurukuls. • Religious teachings along with subjects like Sanskrit, Grammar, Arithmetic’s and philosophy was taught. • Girls were not sent to school. • Lack of proper education was the main cause for social and religious problems in India. • Education were available only to the upper class. • All socio-religious reformers aimed at the spread of education. • This was the most effective tool to awaken and modernize our society.
  10. 10. 1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy Raja Ram Mohan Roy was born in a Brahmin family. He knew many languages and had read Quran, Bible and the Hindu holy books. He founded the Brahmo Samaj in 1828. He was deeply affected when his brother’s wife was forced to commit Sati. He wanted to remove this social practice. He was the first to challenge this practice. He was supported by the Viceroy of India Lord Bentinck and a law was passed in 1829 which made Sati illegal and punishable. He taught the importance of Vedas in reforming religion and society. He said that the ancient texts of Hindus preached Monothesis (worship of one God) and opposed Polythesis (belief in more than one God). He was also against idol worship and rituals. Raja Ram Mohan Roy helped open the Hindu college in Calcutta.
  11. 11. 2. Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar He was a great scholar and reformer. He dedicated his life to the cause of social reforms. The first Widow remarriage Act was introduced in 1856 because of his efforts He also protested against child marriage and polygamy. His main contribution was in the field of education. He believed that the conditions of women can improve only if they were educated. He helped in opening 35 schools for girls in Bengal. He was a champion of women’s education.
  12. 12. 3. Swami Dayanand Saraswati He took the task of reforming Hindu religion in North India. He founded the Arya Samaj in 1875. He believed that the Vedas was the foundation of all knowledge. His most important book was ‘Satyarth Prakash”. The Arya Samj worked to improve conditions of women. It fought against untouchability. It fought against the hereditary caste system. The Arya Samaj had a major role in the national movement. It made people build a spirit of self-respect and self-reliance. Some of the followers of Swami Dayanand Saraswati started a network of schools and colleges called D.A.V (Dayanand – Anglo- Vedic) to impart education combining Western and Vedic teachings.
  13. 13. 4. Ramakrishna Paramhansa and Swami Vivekananda Ramakrishna believed in the unity of religions. He believed that different religions were different ways to reach the same God. Swami Vivekanand was his disciple. Swami Vivekanand was the first religious leader who felt that the Indian people needed secular as well as spiritual knowledge. He established the Ramakrishna mission. He believed in the unity of all religions. He laid stress on the removal of religious superstitions and old customs. He taught the people to respect women and worked for the upliftment and education of women.
  14. 14. 5. Sir Syed Ahmed Khan Sir Syed Ahmed Khan believed that the religious and social life of Muslims can be improved by introducing them to modern western scientific thinking. He wanted to remove the social and educational backwardness of Muslims. He worked hard to raise the status of the Muslim women. He was against the purdah system, polygamy, easy divorce and lack of education among girls. He also brought social reforms for the upliftment of Muslim society. He established an English school in Ghazipur (Uttar Pradesh) in 1864. He started the Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh in 1875 which later became the Aligarh University. The movement for reforms started by him was called the Aligarh Movement which took an important step towards social and political awakening among the Muslims.
  15. 15. 6. Jyotirao Govindrao Phule. Jyotibha Govindrao Phule was from Maharashtra and he worked to get equal rights for peasants and the lower caste. He and his wife Savitribai Phule worked to educate women and the lower classes. They opened a school for girls in Poona in 1848. He made efforts to promoting widow remarriage. In 1873 they formed the Satya Shodak Samaj with the main aim to liberate and protect the lower casts. He was popularly called Jyotiba.
  16. 16. 7. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranande • Justice Mahadev Ranade established the Poona Sarvajanik Sabha and the Prarthana Samaj in 1867 in Bombay to bring about religious reforms to remove caste restrictions abolish child marriage, save widows from shaving their head, stop heavy costs of marriages, encourage education of women and promote widow remarriage. • He believed in worshipping one God. He introduced vernacular languages in the university. He was also a founding member of the Indian National Congress.
  17. 17. 8. Pandita Ramabhai In Maharashtra, Pandita Ramabai was known for social reform and fighting for the rights of women. She started the Arya Mahila Samaj in 1881 In 1890, she established the Mukti Mission in Poona, a refuge for young widows who had been abused and removed by their families. She started the Sharda Sadan which provided housing, education, training and medical services to widows, orphans and visually challenged. The Pandita Mukti Mission is still active today.
  18. 18. 9. Annie Beasant Annie Beasant was a member of the Theosophical Society and came to India in 1893. This movement was led by westerners who helped Indians recover their self-respect and self-confidence and have a sense of pride in their culture and heritage. Annie Beasant became the president of the theosophical society in 1907. She opened a school for boys, the Central Hindu College at Banaras based on Theosophical principles. The college became a part of the new university, the Banaras University from 1917.
  19. 19. 10. Muslim Reform Movement Few movements were launched which aimed to spread modern education and removing social practices among the Muslims. The Mohammedan Literacy Society of Calcutta was founded by Abdul Latif in 1863. It was one of the earliest organisations that promoted education among the upper and middle class Muslims. It played an important role in Hindu-Muslim unity. Shariatullah of Bengal, leader of the Faraizi movement in Bengal, took the cause of the peasants. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed founded the Ahmediya Movement in 1899. This movement helped open many schools and colleges in the country. It talked about universal and humanitarian character of Islam. They encouraged Hindu-Muslim unity. Mohammed Iqbal was one of the great poets of India. He wrote the song “Saare Jahaan se Achcha Hindustan hamaraa…”.
  20. 20. 12. The Akali Reform Movement The formation of the two Singh Sabhas at Amritsar and Lahore in the 1870’s was the beginning of religious reforms movement among the Sikhs. The Khalsa College in Amritsar in 1892 helped promote Gurumukhi, Sikh learning and Punjab literature. In 1820 the Akali movement was started in Punjab, and started the cleansing of the management of the Gurudwars. The Government passed the new Gurudwara Act in 1925 because of a powerful satyagarh against the mahants
  21. 21. 13. Reform Movement among the Parsis Narouji Furdonji, Dadbhai Naoroji, S.S Bengalee and others began the religious reforms among the Parsis in Mumbai in the middle of the 19th C. In 1851 they founded the Rahnumai Mazdaqyasan Sabha or Religious Reform Association. They played an important role in the spread of education especially among the girls. Parsis became one of the most progressive sections of Indian society.
  22. 22. 14. The impact of the reform movements on Indian society. • Impact on education: – The introduction of modern education guided the Indians towards a scientific and rational road. • Impact on women: • Women’s status in society improved. Importance was given to women’s education. Practices like Sati, infanticide were declared illegal. Widow remarriage was allowed due to a law passed in 1856. Child marriage was banned. Due to these reforms many women joined the freedom
  23. 23. • Impact on society: – The Indian society also underwent many changes. The Caste system and practices like untouchability was criticized. These movements looked for society unity and worked towards liberty, equality and fraternity. – The religious reform movements made the Indians have self-respect, self-confidence and pride in their country. This was responsible for the united struggle for freedom against the British.
  24. 24. • Impact during National Movement: – In the 20th C the Indian National Movement continued the reform movements in India. Novels, dramas, short stories, poems, the press, cinema were used to spread the views of national freedom and unity. • Limitations of the reform movement: • It affected a very small percentage of people, mostly the educated class. It could not reach the masses – the peasants and the urban poor continues to live in the same conditions.
  25. 25. • List two social practices against which the reform movements began. • Sati, Caste system, Child Marriage, Widow remarriage, untoucability, female infanticide. • Name two practices which are still prevalent/existing in our society. • Superstitions, dowry, illiteracy, child marriage, female infanticide. • a. He ______________________ did not represent the synthesis of the thought of East and West. • b. He did not emphasis the infallibility (meanings related to knowing truth with certainty.) of the vedas.________________. • c. The Movement started to free the sacred places from the control and domination of corrupt Mahants. _________________. • Who wrote the song “Saare Jahaan se Achcha Hindustan hamaraa…”.
  26. 26. Name Society/Institution Year Raja Ram Mohan Roy The Brahmo Samaj 1828 2.Swami Dayanand Saraswati Arya Samj 1875 3.Swami Vivekananda Ramakrishna mission 4.Jyotirao Govindrao Phule. Satya Shodak Samaj 1873 5.Justice Mahadev Govind Ranande Sarvajanik Sabha 1867 Prarthana Samaj 1867 6.Pandita Ramabai Arya Mahila Samaj 1881 Pandita Mukti Mission Sharda Sadan 7. Sir Syed Ahmned Khan Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental 1875 College at Aligarh 8.Followers of Swami Dayanand D.A.V Schools 9.Annie Beasant the Central Hindu College 1907 at Banaras 10. Abdul Latif The Mohammedan Literacy 1863 Society of Calcutta 11.Mirza Ghulam Ahmed The Ahmediya Movement 1899.
  27. 27. Name Society/Institution Year • 1. Raja Ram Mohan Roy The Brahmo Samaj 1828 • 2. Swami Dayanand Saraswati Arya Samj 1875 • 3. Swami Vivekananda Ramakrishna mission • 4. Jyotirao Govindrao Phule. Satya Shodak Samaj 1873 • 5. Justice Mahadev Govind Ranande Sarvajanik Sabha 1867 • Prarthana Samaj 1867 • Pandita Ramabai Arya Mahila Samaj 1881 • • Pandita Mukti Mission • Sharda Sadan • 7. Sir Syed Ahmned Khan Mohammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh 1875 • • 8. Followers of Swami Dayanand D.A.V Schools • 9. Annie Beasant the Central Hindu College at Banaras 1907 • 10. Abdul Latif The Mohammedan Literacy Society of Calcutta 1863 • 11. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed The Ahmediya Movement 1899 • Name Act Year • Raja Ram Mohan Roy Sati illegal 1829 • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar First Widow remarriage Act 1856 • Author Book • Swami Dayanand Saraswati ‘Satyarth Prakash”.

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