Mahatma Gandhi and National Movements


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Mahatma Gandhi and National Movements

  1. 1. The National Movement and Mahatma Gandhi A Quick Glance By – Ashiq Muhammed.A K.V. Pattom(Shift-1)
  2. 2. CONTENTS • • • • • • • • • • About Gandhi -Influence on Gandhiji’s ideology His life in SA New Phase in India’s struggle Gandhi’s methods and directions Circumstances leading to Non-Cooperation Movement Non Cooperation Movement Events leading to the Civil Disobedience Movement Civil Disobedience Movement Round Table Conferences Renewal of Civil Disobedience Movement (1932-34)
  3. 3. About Gandhi • • • • • • • • Greatest national leader of India Became the undisputed leader of Congress Dominated political scene for 3 decades Born-2nd Oct 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat Father- Diwan at Porbandar. Gandhiji studied Law in England Worked in SA Returned to India in 1915 and set up an Ashram at Sabarmati • Inmates of Ashram observed thruth, non violence, control of food, non stealing, non possession, fearlessness and the use of Swadeshi goods
  4. 4. Life in SA • • • • • • Life in SA helped in India Travelling in a coach Suffered an insult an pain without resisting Techinque of Satyagraha or Passive Resistance Germ of Social Protest- Durban to Pretoria. The turning point in his life at SA
  5. 5. New Phase in India’s Struggle • 1919- He plunged into India’s struggle for freedom • Guided the affairs of INC with new techniques • Adopted methods of non-violence and non cooperation proved successful • Made the Govt see reason by starting CD movement • Got public support through CD movement to win freedom for India
  6. 6. Gandhiji’s Methods and Directions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Satyagraha Swadeshi Value Based Politics Mass Movement Concern for the poor and the oppressed Non Co operation Movement
  7. 7. 1. SATYAGRAHA • Against racialism in SA- Philosophy of action- Satyagraha • 2 major elements- truth & non violence Satyaagraha • Satya- Truth agraha- Force • Passive Resistance- weapon of the weak, Satyagraha is the weapon of the strong • Gandhi organised peasants to offer Satyagraha against charging excessive revenue to farmers in Khaira dist
  8. 8. 2. Swadeshi • Swadeshi was his watchword • Spirit in man which restricts him to- the use and service of his immediate surroundings to the exclusion of the more remote. • Directed towards the social and economic upliftment of society, especially of the villages. • Emphasis on manual labour and Charaka. • Britishers benefit from trade in India
  9. 9. 3. Value Based Politics • Introduced moral values into politics • Used =courage, patience and suffering to achieve higher goals in life. • Advocated legal and extra legal methods to achieve freedom • Resorted to fast and penance during the communal riots in Kolkata. • Was convinced in not using physical brute force. • Won international sympathy for his cause because of his peace-loving attitude.
  10. 10. 4. Mass Movement • Before Gandhiji National Movement was confined to cities, towns and the intellectuals. • He involved masses-women, workers, farmers. • Masses cooperated with him in the Non –Cooperation Movement and the Quit India Movement • Exploded the myth of the Moderates that India could be freed with the help of the foreign rulers. • He made use of the constitutional and extra constitutional mass action in the freedom struggle.
  11. 11. 5 .Concern for the poor and the oppressed • Loved the poor and oppressed and won over their sympathy and support • Worked for the abolition of untouchability. • Set up the Village Industries Association. • Advocated the use of Khaadi in order to improve the lot of the villages. • 1917- the campaign against the system of ‘indenture’ • Fought for the rights of the indigo cultivators in Champaran in Bihar. Made the British planters refund the illegal collections, succeeded in abolishing illegal practices • On the day of independence he was busy with riot torn areas in East Bengal • His greatest movements: Non Cooperation and Civil Disobedience Movement
  12. 12. Circumstances leading to the Non Cooperation movement 1. 2. 3. 4. The Rowlatt Act of 1919 The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy The Khilafat Movement
  13. 13. 1. The Rowlatt Act 1919- ‘BLACK ACT’ • • 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. • RA named after the President of the committee. RA passed a set of new repressive measures to counter all political unrest, which manifested itself in many situations. Gandhiji-1917- Champaran Satyagraha in Bihar – to fight against indigo planters. Forced the govt to make investigations into farmers’ grievances and fins a solution. Ahemdabad Mill employees strikes in 1918-1919 against exploitation. With Sardar Patel led a successful Kisan campaign in Khaira (Gujarath) Indian soldiers were disillusioned with the political conditions in India There was an all round political unrest to counter which the government passed the Rowlatt Act
  14. 14. • 1. 2. • • • According to the RA: The Govt could use the extraordinary repressive powers, it had during the war. It could arrest any person without assigning any reason for the arrest, search any place without a warrant and imprison anyone without trial. An all-India hartal was observed on8th April 1919- to show people’s resentment to the inhuman repressive measures. Indian Press supported. Gandhi came to the forefront and took the lead of the freedom movement in his hands.
  15. 15. 2. The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy • m13th April 1919- people organised a peaceful general meeting in a small garden in Amritsar (enclosed plot of ground known as Jallianwala Bagh) • Against the proclamation issued by General Dyer on12th April which forbade public meetings and processions. • People were not informed of this proclamation. • GD ordered troops to fire without warning the people, closed the only exit. • Martial Law was proclaimed in Punjab. •
  16. 16. 3. The Khilafat Movement • Policy of non violent and non cooperation was used in India for the first time in Khilafat Movement • Ali Brithers- Mohammed Ali & Shaukat Ali • KM adopted NC programme to fight against the British. • Programme= boycott of Legislative Councils, foreign goods, govt Schools and colleges, govt functions and surrendering of titles and distinctions. • 1921- the KM appealed to all the Muslims not to join the police or armed forces, and not to pay taxes. • Vast possibility of Hindu Muslim unity, joint front against BI • Congress extended its support to KM. • Hartals, protests, scenes of Hindu Muslim unity were witnessed in different parts of the country. • Ali brothers were arrested and jailed in 1921 • End of KM= Mustafa Kamal Pasha dethroned the Turkish Sultan and declared Turkey a secular state.
  17. 17. Non Cooperation Movement • 1. 2. 3. 4. NCM involved the following: Surrendering of the titles and offices and resignation from nominated posts in the local bodies. Boycott of Government schools, colleges and law courts. Boycott of foreign goods and adoption of Swadeshi. Boycott of election and other Govt functions. A Poster brought out during the Non-Co-operation Movement
  18. 18. Repression by the Government • People began to have strikes everywhere • Govt declared the Congress an unlawful organization and arrested many of its members & volunteers. • People defied Govt orders and were jailed. • Spirit of Sacrifice and Freedom filled the hearts of the Indians • December 1921- Session of Congress at Ahmadabad- it was decided to continue the Non Cooperation Movement with greater vigour.
  19. 19. Chauri Chaura Incident • So far – the movement was non violent • A village near Gorakhpur- violent mob stormed and burnt a police station and killed 22 policemen. • Gandhiji was visibly moved and greatly disappointed • Realised- the country was not yet ripe for a non violent struggle and suddenly announced the suspension of the movement.’ • Believed that – Violence would breed violence. • Congress leaders were shocked at his decision. • Gandhiji was arrested and sentenced for 6 years imprisonment and the charge of sedition.
  20. 20. Outcome of the NC Movement • • • • • • • • • • • • • Brought Gandhiji into close touch with the masses. Masses became active participants in the movement Gandhiji’s personal identification with rural masses- total and complete Lived like a simple villager and became the symbol of the poor and the downtrodden The movement surpassed all caste and creed distinctions in society Brought Hindu Muslim unity By bringing about sentiments of nationalism, it tried to remove caste distinctions in matters relating to the national interest. Congress became a revolutionary organization because it adopted a new and changed programme. Provided a national base to the Congress making it a genuine revolutionary organization. Received the support of the common masses. Instilled confidence among Indians and made them bold. Indians realized by experience- passive resistance was more powerful than any weapons used by the British. They understood the importance of Unity.
  21. 21. Events leading to the CD Movement 1. 2. 3. Simon Commission Recommendations of the Commission The Congress Session at Lahore
  22. 22. 1. Simon Commission 1927 • A Commission would be set up to assess the merits of the Govt of India Act of 1919 at the end of 10 years, in order to advise the Govt about the next step to be taken. • After its chairman Sir John Simon. • The Commission was - to tour the country- meet various political leaders- and tell govt about the next constitutional reforms. • All white and no Indian. • Self respect of the Indians was hurt. • All the political leaders decided to boycott.
  23. 23. Simon-Commission Protest
  24. 24. Recommendations of the Commission 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Complete autonomy in the provinces including the department of Law and order, but the governor should be given over- riding powers in certain matters like internal security. There should be a federal Govt at the centre, consisting of British India and the Princely States. British Troops and British Officers should stay on in Indian regiments for many years. Provincial Legislative Councils should be enlarged. The Governor- General should be free to select and appoint members of his cabinet. High Courts should be under the administrative control of the Govt of India.
  25. 25. Effects :• Commission submitted its Report on 27th May, 1930. • Indian leaders were unhappy because the Commission proposed a limited transfer of power in the provinces with many restrictions. • Commission granted a political revolution. • Turning point in India’s struggle for Freedom. • CD movement began as a protest against the Commission. • The Nehru Report and the Demand for Poorna Swaraj erealso the offshoots of the political excitement created by protests against this Commission.
  26. 26. 3. The Congress Session at Lahore • Annual Session of Congress as Lahore in December, 1929 under the Chairmanship of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, a resolution for complete independence, ‘Poorna Swaraj’ was passed. • First Independence Day was celebrated on 26th Jan 1930 in Kolkatta. • Indian National Flag was hoisted and independence pledge by Congressmen. • 26th Jan 1950 India became Republic and its Constitution was promulgated.
  27. 27. CD Movement • The CWC vested MG with full power to launch the CD Movement. • CDM was organized to disobey the Laws made by the British Govt. • Programme- non violent Sathyagraha, boycott of Schools and Colleges, courts and foreign goods, picketnig of shops, burning of foreign cloth, spinning, large scale fighting against untouchability, breaking the salt laws and ‘no-tax’ campaigns.
  28. 28. Newspaper report on the commencement of Dandi March 12, 1930
  29. 29. Gandhi and fellow satyagrahis on the march. A message from Gandhi
  30. 30. • • • • • • • • •     Dandi March Gandhiji started the CDM ON 12th March 1930 with his famous Dandi March. Dandi a village on the sea-cost of Gujarat. 78 followers walked for 200 miles. Non violent column marching to Dandi DM violated the Govt laws which forbade anyone to manufacture salt. 1st time in the History of India men & women were mobilized for the national struggle. Worked together against harassment of the British Govt. Movement spread rapidly. RESULT British administration was put out of gear in many places. Midnapur in Bengal went out of the control of the Govt Peasants in United Provinces refused to pay taxes to the Govt North West Frontier- the Pathans adopted the policy of NC under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Kahn.
  31. 31. Results of Dandi March • Leaders and people were arrested on 5th May 1930,Congress was declared illegal, Hartals all over the country, 60,000 were imprisoned, firing at 29 places, Sholapur at Maharashtra became almost independent. • British failed to suppress the movement. More the repression greater was the determination of the Congress volunteers. Passive resistance of the Congress volunteers against the lathi charges and firing aroused admiration of non Congressmen. • North West Frontier Province, a Muslim area joined the NM under the leadership of KAGK. • Band of Volunteers ‘Red Shirts’ paralysed the Govt, Gharwal Regiment posted at NWFP refused to fire on the RSV also called as Kudhai Khidmatgars • Disobedience of Govt order was a bad Omen for the Govt and began to think ofconciliation.
  32. 32. RTC • Change in Govt in England- Labour Party led by Ramsay Mac Donald. • Lord Irwin the Viceroy announced that a RTC of British statesmen and Representatives of British India and Indian States would be held in London in November. 1930. • To find an acceptable solution to the Indian Leaders for a political settlement. • The Congress reacted unfavorably. • Congress wanted summoning of a Constituent Assembly to draft a Constitution for India. • British Govt refused and went ahead with its plan of RTC. • Congress decided to Boycott and decided to launch another CDM. •
  33. 33. Bidding farewell to his countrymen from the promenade deck of S.S. Rajputana to attend the Round Table Conference in London. August 29, 1930
  34. 34. Gandhi Irwin Pact • Realisation of British Govt. • Thought –they could not underestimate the genuine feelings of nationalism. • British were eager to compromise. • Sir Tej Bahdur Sapru and D. Jaykar became the mediators. • Leaders were released from jail in Jan 1931. • Understanding between Gandhiji and Irwin- Concluded a pact known as GIP.  Gandhiji side-CDM was called off, Gandhiji agreed to attend II RTC in London, agreed to stop boycotting British goods,  Govt side- Viceroy agreed to withdraw ordinances promulgated against CDM, release people from jail, return the seized property, allowed the peaceful picketing of liquor and opium shops and allow people living within some distance of the seas shore to collect or manufacture salt, free from any tax or duty.
  35. 35. II RTC- 1931 • • • • • Sole representative form Congress- Mahatma Gandhi. Narrow objects of Muslims Sikhs Christians and princes and planters. Gandhiji pressed for immediate and full responsible Govt. No agreement communal representation. Disgusted Gandhiji left England in December 1931. Gandhi at the Round Table Conference in London
  36. 36. Renewal of CDM- 1932-34 • Gandhi returned – 28th Dec 1931. • Renewed the CDM as per the decision of the CWC which met on 1 st Jan 1932. • Repressive measures by the Govt Congress leaders ere arrested. • Picketing of British shops and liquor shops, organised Salt Satyagrahas and violated forest laws, refused to pay rents and revenues, Congress held illegal sessions as it was banned, Land, houses and property were confiscated, national leaders were jailed while the communalists were given a wide scope to inflame communalism.
  37. 37. GANDHI JI & INDIVISUAL SATYAGRAHA IN 1940-41 According to this programme men& women of India were to protest dragging in to the war & the govt. attack on the right of speech .
  38. 38. GANDHIJI & CRIPPS MISSION-1942 • Sir Stafford Cripps came to India to try to forge a compromise with Gandhiji & with other Indian political leaders. Talks broke down & provisions turned down , however, after the congress insisted that if it was to help the British defend India from the Axis powers ,then the Viceroy had first to appoint an Indian as the defence member in his executive council .
  39. 39. Quit India Movement 1942-47 • • • • • After the failure of the Cripps mission Gandhiji decided to launch his third major movement against the British rule . This was Quit India movement – a genuinely a mass – movement on non- violent lines & with the tune “Do or Die”. (1) Younger activists organised demonstration . (2) Nation- wide strike in factories, schools & colleges . (3) Gandhiji gave the slogan Quit India to the INC & people all over the country for mass freedom struggle . (4) Soon after the revolution was passed the Congress was banned & all the important Congress leaders were arrested .
  40. 40. Significance of the Quit India movement • • • • (1) Mass- movement (2)Discontent in wide -scale (3) Complete Independence (4) Inherent spirit for freedom • (5) Timeline for freedom
  41. 41. Review - • • • • Q . 1 How was Non- Cooperation a form of protest ? Q. 2 Why was the Charkha choosen as a symbol of nationalism ? Q .3 How did some leaders react against the Quit- India movement ? Q .4 Was Quit India movement genuinely a mass- movement ?