Agro Based IndustriesAgro-based industries are those industries which dependon agricultural products as raw materials . ex: cotton textileindustries use cotton as raw material and then processthem to make dresses.
Sugar IndustriesBrazil is the largest producer of sugar cane.India is the second largest producer of sugar cane.Sucrose content of Indian sugar not high becausecanes are thin hence tend to dry as transported tosugar mills which are far.
Chief centre in Northern India• Northern sugar cane producing states are UttarPradesh, Bihar, Punjab and Haryana.• In 1960-61 60% of total sugar produced byUttar Pradesh and Bihar.Today , these two states produce only 30% of thetotal sugar production
GorakhpurLucknow SitapurBareillyKANPURAllahabadSaharanpurChief centres in Uttar Pradesh
Reasons for localisation of Sugar industry in Bihar and UttarPradesh• Largest quantity of sugar cane produced here• Coal for power obtained from Jharkhand• Railway facilities available and wide spread• Skilled labour can be secured because thesestates are densely populated.• Kanpur is the chief distributing and marketing centre for thesugar industry in northern India.
Other Centres in IndiaAndhra Pradesh : Vijayawada, Nizamabad,Pithapuram and HyderabadPunjab:Amritsar, PhagwaraTamil Nadu : Arcot, Madurai,TiruchchirapalliWest Bengal : Murshidabad, Nadia24 Parganas
Centres in MaharashtraManmadSholapurNasikAhmednagarKolhapurSatara SangliPuneMiraj
PRODUCTSJaggeryandBrown sugar( Khandsari)are produced by indigeneous methods.30% of the sucrose is used to make white sugar
By-products of the sugar industry1. Bagasse : Rejected cane after crushing is used for the manufacture ofpaper, cardboard and insulation board.It was earlier used as fuel in sugar mills.PaperCardboardInsulation boards
2. Molasses a dark coloured syrup is used forplastic,synthetic rubberalcohol, rumcattle feed.chemicals ,fertilizersIndustrial Power
3. Pressmud is used for shoe polish, carbon paper and for extraction of wax4. Sugar cane juice is a refreshing drink.
Problems Pertaining to North Indian Sugar Producing states.Prices :Government fixes the prices,Does not allow prices to come down as they restrict production.Cultivators dissatisfied – change to growing other cropsSmall cultivators hence yield is low.Fertilization not scientifically done.Industry seasonal in character –sugarcane available only at harvest time,crushing time short, hence overall cost of production is high.Cost of transport :Great distance between factories and fields increases cost of transport thusincreasing cost of production.Low sugar content : Poor quality of cane hence tends to dry if not crushed within 24 hours.Machinery used are outmoded and worn-out leading to low milling efficiency and wastageClimate : Subtropical climate of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar not suitable for growing sugar cane.Problem in distribution: Concentration of sugar industries in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar creates problem indistribution and ultimately leads to increase in the price of sugar for consumers.
Suitability of South for sugar production• Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu in the Deccan are more suitable than UttarPradesh and Bihar belt for sugar production.• Temperature : 200C- 300C . Sugarcane sown between January and April.• Rainfall : 100cm – 200cm, plenty of water during growing period provided by rainfall and irrigationsystem.• Soil : well drained and consists of Lava or black regur soil• No frost or water logging• Fertilizers are commonly used as sugarcane is soil exhausting.• Sugarcane grown under scientific conditions using modern machinery.• Wastage reduced , hence sugar content high.• Crushing season longer• Holdings are large• Mills near plantations hence no loss of sucrose• Sugar industry better organised in the south• Mills better managed in the co-operative sector• Factories near centres of large consumption – hence lowers cost of transportation and overall cost.• Sugar Lobby in Maharashtra responsible for large capital, so there is vested interest in getting maximumreturns.• Uttar Pradesh has the largest number of sugar mills second comes Maharahstra.• Largest producer is Maharashtra 40 % of the total production in India.
Research Centres in Lucknow and Coimbatore1.New variety of hybrid cane know as Coimbatore cane(produced at Coimbatore research centre) has been crossed withcrops like jowar to evolve better quality of cane.2.New varieties of cane being experimented which will ripen atdifferent times of the year, hence provide work to sugar factoriesthrough out the year. Thus reducing cost and increasingproduction. Growing and distribution of sugarcane is thusbecoming wide spread.3. Maximum use of by products will eventually reduce cost ofsugar.
Output of sugar IndustryNumber of sugar mills Total Production• 1950-51 138 1.1 million tonnes• 1998-99 493 15.5 million tonnesCHEERS………
The textile industry in India occupies a unique position in our economy contributing tonearly a third of the countrys export earnings.It is one of the oldest and most widespread industry in India.This industry varies in its scale of operation from handloom weavers in villages powerloom units of moderate sizes to large mills employing hundreds of workers.This industry includes manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and exporters of CottonTextiles, Handloom, and Woollen Textiles etc.The textile industry in India has the vast potential for creation of employmentopportunities.The number of textiles manufacturers, suppliers, wholesalers and textiles exporters inIndia has increased rapidly after independence.Today, handloom and cotton textiles exports in India is counted among the mostimportant sectors.Textiles
The first cotton textile mill on modern lines was started in Mumbai in 1851.Climate in Mumbai – humid, suitable for spinningPort - able to import machinery from United Kingdom and export yarn to China.Up to 1930 Mumbai was the leading centreLater the mills were started at Ahmedabad and competition increased.The problems of the cotton industry began with the partition of the country,to be fed with raw cotton ●81% of irrigated land -Lost To PakistanRetained in India●39% of cotton yield…..were mostly inwest Punjab was Lost to Pakistan● 30% of the marketLost To PakistanCotton Textiles● 97% of the cotton textile mill
Importance of Textile Industry• Premier Industry of India• More than 2 crore of people - 40% of thecountry’s labour force directly or indirectlydepend on this industry.• India is the 3rd largest cotton textilemanufacturing country of the world after USAand UK.• India is the 3rd largest exporter of cottontextiles after Japan and USA
Centres in order of their Importance• Maharashtra : Mumbai, Sholapur, Pune, Nagpur, Amravati, Akola, Jalgaon.• Gujarat : Ahmedabad, Vadodara, Surat, Jamnagar, Bharuch and Bhavnagar.• Madhya Pradesh : Gwalior, Indore, Bhopal.• Tamil Nadu : Chennai, Coimbatore, Madurai, Salem and Tirunelveli.• Uttar Pradesh : Kanpur, Mau Nath Bhanjan.• West Bengal : Kolkata and Murshidabad.• Rajasthan, Kerala, Karnataka, Punjab, Bihar, Assam and Delhi are other importantstates.
Mumbai – the Lancashire of India• Mumbai is the most important cotton manufacturing centre in India.• Soil - Mumbai’s hinterland – the black regur soil of the Deccan, produces theraw cotton required.• Harbour Facility - The long staple cotton from UAE and other countries can be easilyimported as Mumbai has excellent harbour facilities.• Climate- The humid climate of Mumbai favours the production of yarns of finer counts.• Water- Soft water for dyeing and bleaching is plentiful.• Power - Cheap power is available from Tata Hydroelectric systems at Bhivpuri, Khopoli, Bhireand Koyna.• Labour – Abundant supply of skilled and unskilled labour from all over the country is available.Mumbai – theLancashire of India
Manufacturing Process of Cotton1.Washing Fibres2.Carding and combing them to form rope-like massof fibres known as “sliver”3.It is then Spun to make cotton yarn.4. Weaving to produce Grey Cloth.5.Bleached6. Dyed7.Printed
Kolkata – an important cotton textile centre• Coal fields- Jharia and Raniganj are close by, hence Kolkata has sufficient powersupply.• Capital supply abundant• Inexpensive Labour.• Climate – Humid climate facilitates the spinning of the yarn of finer cotton.• Transport and communication – By road, rail and river.• Soft Water – Water supply from the Hoogly river ensures plenty supply of softwater for bleaching and dyeing.• The only disadvantage is the raw material has to be brought from the distantcotton growing areas of the Deccan.
Cotton textiles in the south• Tamil Nadu has the largest number of cotton mills.• Most manufactures yarn only to meet the needs of thehandloom weavers.• The Madurai-Coimbatore-Bangalore Region is situatedin the cotton growing tract of South India, thereforedominate by the cotton textile industry.• Proximity to a vast local market• Cheap skilled labour• Hydel Power• 40% of the new productive units have sprung up here.
• Cotton is facing stiff competition from synthetic fibres.• Large demand for textiles in the country as well as in foreign markets -UK, Indonesia, Sudan, Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Iran and Iraq has led to anincrease in production and widespread distribution of textile mills.• Today India holds the third place among the cotton textile producingcountries of the world.• Many mills have imported sophisticated modern machinery and are usingthe latest technology in the production of yarn as well as finished products.• It provides employment to a large number of people and also helps to earnforeign exchange.Extra’s…..
Extra’s cont’d…..• Gujarat and Maharashtra states, lead the country in cotton textile production.• Mumbai and Ahmedabad are the important centres.• Mumbai offers excellent financial and credit facilities.• Mumbai has the largest number of cotton textile mills. It is the main cottontextile centre in India.• Maharashtra produces mainly medium and short staple cotton, imports longstaple cotton.• Mumbai is called the Lancashire of India.• Gujarat specialises in weaving.• Ahmedabad is called Manchester of India.• Ahmedabad is the largest centre of cotton textile industry in Gujarat.GujaratMaharashtra
Some problems of the Textile Industry• Inadequate supply of good quality raw material.• Low productivity of workers – frequent strikes.• Outdated machinery, plants need to be replacedleading to inefficient and uneconomic units.• There are 30% sick mills in the country.• Stiff competition from synthetic fibres likerayon, Terylene, Dacron, nylon, polyesteretc., which are cheaper and durable.
Significance of the Textile Industry• Textile Industry largest in India in terms ofthe value of industrial output,number of persons employed andthe value of exports
TextilesTwo important factors that are responsible for decentralizationof cotton textile mills in India are :-•Availability of raw material.•High demand of cotton textile throughout India.The largest proportion of workers is found in the textile industry’because:•It is spread all over the country.•It is labour intensive.•Demand is found all over India.
4. Mention any three challenges faced by cotton industry in India.The challenges faced by cotton industry are:· Fluctuations in the production of raw material: Production of cotton is uncertain.It fluctuates depending on the climatic conditions. It makes the supply of rawmaterial irregular.· Poor Quality of Cotton: Fine quality of cotton is not produced in India. Formanufacturing fine and costly cloth, we have to import fine quality cotton fromother countries.· The textile industry in our country had suffered badly for want of adequate andunfailing supply of Power. The inadequacy of coal supplies had also affected theprogress of the industry.· Competition in global market: The Indian cotton textile industry has been facingincreasing competition in world markets, especially from countries likeJapan, Korea, the USA and Taiwan, both in cost and quality This is largely due tolow productivity and high cost and consequently high prices of Indian cottontextile.· Old and outdated machinery and need for modernization : Cotton textileindustry is one of the oldest industries of India. So it has a major problem of oldand outdated machinery which are inefficient and , hence, uneconomic.· Rivalry: Strikes, lock-outs and market rivalry have also made the industry sick.· The invention of synthetic as a substitute for cotton has resulted in the decline ofcotton industry.
5. Explain why cotton textile industry is largely concentrated in Maharashtra/Mumbai.Cotton textile industry is largely concentrated in Maharashtra for the following reasons-· AVAILABILITY OF RAW MATERIALS- Cotton is the basic input of cotton textile industry andMaharashtra is the leading producer of cotton.· TRANSPORT AND EXPORT FACILITY– Mumbai has excellent transportation network. It is also a portcity and so export facilities are available. Therefore through it, good quality cotton, machines and theraw material are easily imported and finished products can be easily exported.· LABOUR AND MARKET – Maharashtra has high density of population . So skilled and unskilledlabour is easily available. Due to high density of population, demand for the products is also high.· FAVOURABLE CLIMATE – this region has equitable climate which ensures the production of cotton.· SOURCE OF POWER: The Western Ghats provide suitable conditions for the generation of cheaphydro-electricity required for this industry. The power is available from Khapoli centres of the TATAHydro-electric power station.· FINANCE: There is no dearth of financial and banking institutions to make available finances for thegrowth of this industry.6. Which cotton textile centres of India are known as ‘Lancashire of India’ andManchester of India’?Mumbai and Ahmedabad are known as the Lancashire of India and Manchester of Indiarespectively. Kanpur in Uttar Pradesh is known as the ‘Manchester of Northern India.’
7. What makes Khadi and Handloom sector of the textile industry still very importanteven in this modern large-scale industrial era? Give two reasons.Khadi and handloom sector of textile is competing with modern industry with itsinnovative colours, styles, diversification, choice, rate and corporate ethics. The followingare the reasons of its importance:· It is a widespread industry which provides large employment and contributes aboutone-fifth of the total cloth production.· They can be started with low investment by using local raw material and local talentencouraging optimum use of national resources.
SILK IndustryIndia has been making exquisite silk fabrics in BENGAL and KASHMIR forcenturies.Sericulture – the rearing of silkworms is called sericulture.Labour-intensive industry and provides employment to people in the rural areas.India produces mulberry silk .and other non-mulberry varieties such asTusser, Eri, Muga produced in MadhyaPradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, Assam and Meghalaya.Bihar and Madhya Pradesh specialise in TusserAssam produces mainly Eri and Muga varieties of silk.
Prevalence of silk industry in Bangalore- Mysore region1. Climate : favourable climate 16.0°C -30.0°C for plantations on whichBombyx mori worms feed on.2. Water : Enough fresh water free from alkaline salts for the processing ofsilk fibre.3. Technology : New scientific technology in silk processing.4. Skilled labour : The art of silk making has been passed down from generationsand hence have captured a sizeable share of the market.5. Primary occupation: Sericulture provides employment to a large number of peoplein Karnataka and is the primary occupation in many districts in south Karnataka.Kashmir, Varanasi, Mysore, Bangalore and Kanjeevaram silks are internationallyfamous and exported.Goods are exported to USA, UK, Sri Lanka, Hong Kong and the Middle East.
Rayon Textiles.The Man made fibres of Rayon, terylene, Dacron and nylon are collectivelyknown as synthetic fibres.The raw materials for these are fromWood pulp RayonCoal NylonOil TeryleneNylon yarn is made at Rayonpuram KeralaKota RajasthanHyderabad Andhra Pradesh.Rayon weaving centres areMumbaiKalyanAhmedabadSuratVadodaraGwaliorHyderabadCoimbatoreKolkata andAmtrisar.
Facilities and Prospects1. Raw Material : India has bamboo, grass and cotton waste which are necessaryfor the production of pulp.2. Chemicals : Chemicals are available in sufficient quantity.3. Water supply : Ample river water supply is also available in many places, otherplaces have plenty soft water too.4. Labour : Skilled and unskilled labour is available.5. Research and training centres for the production of synthetic silks have been putup in most of these rayon production cities.6. Rayon is cheaper, durable and easy to maintain.
Woollen IndustryThe Woollen Industry is one of the oldest textile industries in India.It was an important industry during old times.The first woollen mill was setup in Kanpur in 1876.Today the main centres are Punjab, Amritsar and Ludhiana.Maharashtra, UP and Gujarat also manufacture woollen products.The woollen industry is not so well developed as the cotton industry in India.
Requirements.1. Animal Fibres : Raw materials consist of Wool from animal fibre. The animalfibre comes from sheep found in the states of Jammu andKashmir, U.P, Punjab.2. Chemicals :Chemicals for dyeing and colouring are manufactured in thelarge cities in these states.3. Fresh water :Fresh water is available from the numerous mountain streamsalong the foothills of the northern mountains.
Important Centres for woollen IndustryPunjab : Important centres in Punjab are Dhariwal, Amritsar and Ludhiana.Punjab accounts for 50% of the total production.It has the ad-vantage of a large market, cheap hydel power, prox-imity of rawwool and enterprising entrepreneur.Others : Agra,Mirzapur andKanpur in Uttar Pradesh
The woollen industry is not so well developed as the cotton industry in India.Reasons :1. Not much demand : India is a tropical country hence there is not muchdemand for the product. Woollen clothes are required only in northern Indiaduring the winter months, hence there is not much demand.2. Costly : Good quality woollen garments are very expensive as the rawmaterials are imported.3. Indigenous wool is of poor quality. India produces inferior quality woollenproducts mainly blanket, Kamblis and carpets. For superior quality wool, Indiahas to depend upon countries like UK , Australia where the woollen industry ishighly developed.4. Joint effort for improvement and development is difficult as the industry isdecentralised. Srinagar, Kanpur, Mumbai and Bangalore are far from oneanother.(Kashmir Is famous for carpet making as raw material from sheep iseasily available. Besides the Kashmir carpet makers are well experienced sincecraftsmanship has been handed down for generations.)5. The capitalists in India are attracted towards the cotton industry as it is moreprofitable . Cotton goods are much cheaper, and more comfortable to wear in atropical region.
Problems of woollen Industry1. Shortage of raw materials : Productivity of Indian sheep is low, andIndia does not produce sufficient quantities f fine wool.2. Lack of market : India has a very small market as it has atropical climate. The market is also seasonal in the north, as wintersare short. Our armed forces are the main buyers of woollen clothes.3. Lack of modern equipment: The machines used are old ,outdatedand obsolete. Thus India cannot cope with the changing designs ofthe international market.4. Low quality products : Quality of wool not of high qualityhence Indian goods cannot be considered in the internationalmarket.
Jute Industry• The second most important textile industry in India.• Mainly exists in West Bengal.• Kolkata is one of the most important centres of production.• Andhra Pradesh another important producing state.Most of the Jute mills are situated along the Hugli river. This 100km long and3km wide belt stretches from NAIHATI in the north to BUDGE BUDGE in thesouth.
Factors favouring West Bengal• Raw material is easily available, most grown in the ganga- Brahmaputradelta.• Coal for power is available from DVC and Raniganj.• Cheap Labour is available from the densely populated region in WestBengal and Bihar.• Cheap water transport is available.• Transport :Good network of roads ands railways• Abundant water is available for processing, washing and dyeing jute.• The port city of Kolkata helps in the import of machinery and export offinished jute products.• Capital is easily available as banking and insurance facilities are easilyavailable.• Kolkata also has the advantage of an early start as the British merchantshelped in setting up the industry here.
Other Centres in India having Jute MillsAndhra Pradesh :Guntur, Vishakhapatnam and Ongole .Uttar Pradesh : Kanpur and Gorakhpur.Bihar : Purnea, Katihar, Samastipur and Gaya.Orissa, Assam, Madhya Pradesh and Tripura also have Jute Mills.Centres of Production:West Bengal : Kolkata, Bally, Rishra, Sirampore, BudgeBudge, Naihati, Agarpara, Birlapur, Bansberia,Shtamnagar, Salkia, Uluberia, Titagarh.Bihar : Purnea, Katihar, Samastipur and Gaya.Uttar Pradesh : Kanpur and Gorakhpur.Andhra Pradesh :Guntur, Vishakhapatnam and Ongole .Orissa : Cuttack.Chhattisgarh : Raigarh.
Problems faced by the Jute Industry1. Shortage of Raw Materials: After Independence most of the Jute-growing areaswent to Bangladesh resulting in shortage of raw materials.2. International Competition : Jute Industry facing tough competition from syntheticpacking material, which are cheaper and long lasting.Competition from Philippines, Japan, Bangladesh, countries of North America andEurope. The market for Indian packing materials have shrunk.3. High Prices: Indian Jute is produced using obsolete machinery and in inefficient anduneconomic units, as a result the prices of Indian jute is high. Raw Jute supply isalso unreliable.4. Less Demand : Due to synthetic substitutes in the domestic as well as internationalmarket the overall demand for jute products is gradually decreasing .The End…