Outline of the presentation
• Findings and discussion
What is a wetland?
Wetlands are highly productive
ecosystems that provide the world
with nearly two-thirds of its fish
They take many forms including
marshes, estuaries, mudflats, mires,
ponds, fens, pocosins, swamps, deltas,
coral reefs, billabongs, lagoons,
• Although the total extent of Nepal’s
wetlands is unknown, 163 wetlands of the
terai districts and 78 key hill and
mountain wetlands have been recorded.
• Additionally, over 2200 glacial lakes
exist in high mountain areas.
• An estimate suggests that wetlands cover
750,000ha or 5 percent of the country’s
"Ramsar Convention defines wetlands as
total surface area,
“wetlands are areas of marsh, fen,
peatland or water, whether natural
or artificial, permanent or
temporary, with water that is static
or flowing, fresh, brackish or salt,
According to the National Wetland Policy, 2003 of Nepal
Wetlands denote perennial water
bodies that originate from
underground sources of water or rains.
It means swampy areas with flowing or
stagnant fresh or salt water that are
natural or man-made, or permanent or
temporary. Wetlands also mean
marshy lands, riverine floodplains,
lakes, ponds, water storage areas and
Wetlands share three common
Hydric soils; soils that have developed
under extended periods of saturation.
Hydrophytic vegetation; plants that are
adapted for life in saturated soil
Presence of water; inundated or saturated
by surface or groundwater for a specific
frequency and duration.
Why wetland should be conserved…?
• Wetlands Provide Important Fish,
Wildlife, and Plant Habitats
• Wetlands Improve Water Quality By:
• Wetlands Enhance Hydrologic Cycle
• Provide Natural Flood Control
• Economic Benefits
Methods of Study:
• Literature review
• Internet use
• Book s
plantation on a site where forest
vegetation has long or always been
• In india 1950 around 40.48 million
hectare area was under forest cover. in
1980 (67.47 million hectare) and in 2006 (
69 million hectare.)
• Nepal YMCA initiated afforestation
program on the year 1999. Every year
5000-10000 plants are planted on the
banks of Bagmati River; Munuhara River,
Balkumari and Bagmati River in khokana
village (srikali, chowr), ghajun-
Afforestation in the wetlands: it includes
afforestation on different kinds of
areas, according to wetlands definition,
some of them are follow:- lands.
i. Afforestation on Ravine
ii. Afforestation on costal lands.
iii. Afforestation on canal banks.
iv. Afforestation on shallow black
Objectives of Afforestation:
• To increase the production of timber.
• To increase biodiversity.
• To increase the production of fuel
and small timber.
• Improvement of wetland-ecosystem
• To promote Ecosystem based
• Moderation of micro-climate.
• Soil conservation.
• Protection of catchment of rivers.
• Increasing natural beauty of
Factors of locality:
Coastal wetlands are found in the areas
between land and open sea that are not
influenced by rivers such as. shorelines,
beaches, mangroves and coral reefs.
Shallow lakes and ponds
These wetlands are areas of permanent or
semi-permanent water with little flow.
They include vernal ponds, spring pools,
salt lakes and volcanic crater lakes. They
are small, shallow, intermittently
flooded depressions in grasslands or
• Bogs are waterlogged peatlands in old
lake basins or depressions in the
• Almost all water in bogs comes from
• As bogs are unsuitable for agriculture,
forestry or development they offer an
undisturbed habitat for a wide range of
species, including moose, black bear, lynx,
snowshoe hare and mink.
Marshes and Swamps
Also known as palustrine wetlands,
marshes, swamps and fens account for
almost half of all wetlands throughout
Marshes are one of the broadest categories
of wetlands and in general harbour the
greatest biological diversity. Marshes form
in depressions in the landscape, as fringes
around lakes, and along slow-flowing
streams and rivers. Marshes are dominated
by floating-leafed plants like water lillies
The area where rivers meet the sea and
water changes from fresh to salt can offer
an extremely rich mix of biodiversity.
These wetlands include deltas, tidal
mudflats and salt marshes. Mudflats and
seagrass beds in particular provide a rich
diet for many species of insects, birds, fish,
turtles and other species.
• Site preparation work should be site
• In the water logged places mounds 60cm
× 60cm at the top and 1.8m × 1.8m at the
base and with height usually 1.2m or more
depending on depth of water logged are
• at improving soil structure and
permeability by breaking the hard pan
through deep ploughing,
• In the ravine valleys, where 2.5m-10m
wide continuous trenches are made.
Species selectionmost suitable planting species are
Afforestation methods: include planting
seedlings or cuttings,
Findings and Discussion :
• Except national wetland policy 2003 &
existing acts and regulations do not
and mention wetlands management.
• National wetland policy do not have
any clear provisions about
Afforestation in wetland .
Findings and Discussion :
• Argentina has led to the deterioration of
the Ibera Wetlands, the world’s second
largest wetlands, and a decline in the
quality of life in surrounding communities.
By STEVEN R. WATROS, CRIMSON STAFF WRITER October 16, 2013
• in terms of its ubiquity and intensity of
impact, was reduced water inputs to the
wetland from the catchment caused by
afforestation and other land-use
activities in the catchment.
• Afforestation is generally seen as a
positive thing, but in wetland area it
seems to be negative impact.
• it should be conserved through wise use.
• In wetland regions, most suitable
planting species are flood or water
logging tolerance spp.