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Forest classification

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Forest classification

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Forest classification

  1. 1. Introduction to forestsIntroduction to forests Vivek SrivastavaVivek Srivastava
  2. 2. Forest • Forest is defined as a plant community predominantly of trees and woody vegetation, usually with closed canopy. • Legally it is defined as an area proclaimed to be forest under forest law. • Also it is defined as area set aside for the production of timber and other forest produce, or maintained under woody vegetation for certain indirect benefits.
  3. 3. • Principal species • Accessory species • Auxiliary species
  4. 4. Forest classification- On basis of age • Even aged • Uneven aged
  5. 5. Forest classification- On basis of growing stock • Normal forest • Abnormal forest
  6. 6. Forest classification- On basis of regeneration • High forest • Coppice forest
  7. 7. Forest classification- On basis of species composition • Pure • Mixed
  8. 8. Forest types of India- Champion and Seth classification- 1935 • Five major groups • 16 groups • Further sub groups
  9. 9. 1. TROPICAL WET EVERGREEN 2. TROPICAL SEMI EVERGREEN 3. TROPICAL MOIST DECIDUOUS 4. LITTORAL AND SWAMP 5. TROPICAL DRY DECIDUOUS 6. TROPICAL THORN 7. TROPICAL DRY EVERGREEN 8. SUB TROPICAL BROAD LEAVED 9. SUB TROPICAL PINE 10.SUB TROPICAL DRY EVERGREEN 11.MOUNTAIN WET TENMPERATE 12.HIMALAYAN MOIST TEMPERATE 13.HIMALYAN DRY TEMPERATE 14.SUB ALPINE 15.MOIST ALPINE 16.DRY ALPINE
  10. 10. Point of economy : Forest lands can be utilized as grazing grounds for livestock. Great demand for timber which resulted into development of commercial forestry. Many products like charcoal wood, pulp and matchwood, canes, rose wood, sandal wood, lac, resins, honey, herb, fruits, dyes, tans, kendu are obtained from forest which highly commercial value both conservation and development of forest resource is as important as agriculture and industry.
  11. 11. FOREST TYPES AND THEIR DISTRIBUTION IN INDIA
  12. 12. Forest Types : Terrain, climate, soil and water conditions greatly influence the character and type of vegetation. The Himalayan region, possesses a variety of vegetation with a distinctive character of alpine type at higher altitudes and this region is clearly distinguished from the rest of the country. Climatic factors mainly temperature and rainfall determine which plant community can flourish in a specific habitat. Soils and drainage considerably introduce modifications, and thus we have edaphic types such as the tidal forests.
  13. 13. Tropical moist deciduous
  14. 14. Tropical dry deciduous forests
  15. 15. Thorn forests.
  16. 16. Tidal forests.
  17. 17. The Himalayan Temperate and Alpine forests
  18. 18. Tropical wet evergreen • Maharashtra, TN, Kerala, Karnataka, Andaman's, NE India, WB , Assam and Orissa • Dipterocarpus, Mesua, Hopea, Artocarpus, Mangifera, Syzygium
  19. 19. Tropical semi evergreen forest • Western Ghats, Karnataka, Kerala, Andamans, WB, Assam, Coastal parts of Orissa • Kylia, Terminalia, Hopea, Dipterocarpus
  20. 20. Tropical Moist deciduous • Andamans, Gujrat, Karnataka, TN, Maharastra, M.P, Kerala • Teak, Grewia, Lagestromia, Terminalia, Adina, Sal
  21. 21. Littoral and Swamp forest • Coastal regions, Estuaries of rivers • Casuarina, Manikara, Calophyllum, Pongamia, Rhizophora, Avicinnia, Xylocarpus
  22. 22. Tropical dry deciduous • MP, Gujrat, Maharastra, A.P, Karnatka, T.N, HP, UP, Bihar, Orissa , Rajasthan • Teak, Terminalia, Anogeissus latifolia, Diospyros, Acacia catechu.
  23. 23. Tropical thorn forest • Dry peninsular India, M.P. Semi and arid areas of Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujrat, Up and MP • Acacia catechu, Acacia nilotica, Albizzia, Prosopis
  24. 24. Tropical dry evergreen forest • Coastal belt from Tirunelveli to nellore • Azadiracta indica, Canthium, Syzygium
  25. 25. Subtropical Broadleaved hill forest • South India hills, Eastern Himalayas and Khasi hills • Wightiana, Canthium, Syzygium, Mangifera
  26. 26. Sub tropical pine forest • Central Himalayas, Manipur hills • Chir, Deodar, Kail, Quercus, Rhododendron
  27. 27. Sub tropical dry evergreen forest • Himalayas • Acacia modesta, Olea cuspidata,
  28. 28. Montane wet temperate forest • Hills of TN and Kerala • Larger stroemia, Syzygium, Rhododendron, Michelia
  29. 29. Himalayan moist temperate • Himalayas • Quercus incana, Q.dilatata, Chir pine
  30. 30. Himalayan dry temperate • Kashmir, HP, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh • Pinus sp. Blue pine, Deodar
  31. 31. Sub alpine forest • Himalayas • Abies densa, Abies spectabilis, Junipers, Spruce
  32. 32. Moist Alpine • Above 3400m Altitude • Rhododendron, Birch
  33. 33. Dry Alpine • Xerophytic conditions • Junipers, Wallichiana,
  34. 34. Importance of natural vegetation and forests : Forest constitute one of the most important basic natural resources of the country. Ecological view : Forests help in occurrence of rainfall, promote soil conservation in catchment areas, regulate runoff, improve moisture holding capacity of the soils and maintain ecological balance.
  35. 35. Distribution of Forest Lands : According to 2000-01 statistics, the forest land occupied about 675538 Sq.K.m. which accounts for 20.55% per cent of the total geographical area of the country. The largest area forest land 77265 Sq.K.m. is seen in Madhya Pradesh while the lowest 1745 Sq.K.m is in Haryana. Highest concentration of forest land is registered I Arunachal Pradesh state with 62.1 per cent of its geographical area while the lowest concentration is in Haryana state with 3.8 per cent. The Andaman and Nicobar islands are also found with high concentration of forest cover.
  36. 36. Development of Forests : Problems: The continuous chaotic growth of population and greed of the present man’s short sighted and unplanned commercial and subsistence gathering activities like indiscriminate lumbering, charcoal burning, firewood collection, over grazing and jhumming type of cultivation and annual forest fires have been causing considerable damage to forest wealth system in our country. Forests in India have been degenerated and degraded into barren and unproductive lands. To alleviate this serious concern, the development of different kinds of forests on war- foot lines is an important means at this end.

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