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Seed orchard establishment and management shambhu tiwari


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Seed orchard establishment and management shambhu tiwari

  1. 1. Namaste and Welcome By: Shambhu Prasad Tiwari M.Sc.Forestry 1st year Roll no:43
  4. 4. Introduction •Seed orchards are stands planted especially for the production of abundant superior seeds. •A seed orchard is defined as an area where seeds are mass-produced to increase the genetic quality as quickly and inexpensively as possible (Zobel et al., 1958).
  5. 5. Global context In 1949, first pine seed orchard was planted in Sweden although this concept was applied before 1940 to rubber trees  Seed orchards of P. radiata (Australia and New Zealand), Teak (Thailand, Nigeria, India, Papua New Guinea), Eucalyptus (Australia, S. Africa, Morocco, Portugal), Amla, Harro, Barro etc (Nepal) 
  6. 6. Type of Seed Orchard Seedling Seed Orchard(SSO): Seed orchard raised from seedlings produced from selected parents through natural or controlled pollination. Clonal Seed Orchard(CSO): Seed orchard raised from selected clones propagated by grafting, cutting, air-layering or tissue culture. Breeding seedling orchard (BSO): Seedling orchard used to preserve and test large no. of genotypes, not to produce masssive quantities of seed for operational planting.
  7. 7. Reproductive age of trees  The age at which trees produce their first fruit crop varies according to species, varieties, environmental conditions, management, etc. Some species reproduce after few years while others await several decades before they set flowers and fruits.
  8. 8. Some physiological and environmental conditions that promote seed production Optimal soil conditions (pH, fertility, structure, drainage, etc.)  Optimal climate (water, light, temperature, etc.)  Optimal conditions for pollination (pollination agent, synchronized flowering, etc.)  Reduced root competition (for water and nutrients).  Reduced crown competition (for light). 
  9. 9. Size and longevity of seed orchard The size of the seed orchard is determined by the seed demand and the expected seed production from the orchard. Both figures are subject to estimates. Planting targets may be altered in the future and the seed production from individual trees is often only subject to qualified guesses. A minimum of 15–25 clones or families to assure a sufficient genetic base and limit selfing should be used.
  10. 10. Location of the seed orchard 1. Species specific requirements:  Climate: temperature, precipitation, photoperiod, w ind exposure.  Soil: texture, nutrients, pH, drainage  Topography: flat/hilly/mountainous, exposure.  Altitude: meter above sea level. 
  11. 11. Location of the seed orchard (Contd……) 2. Management requirements: Accessibility Labour availability Close to administration Close to nursery Gentle topography 3. Protection: Strong winds, typhoons, etc. Fire Illegal logging/fuelwood collection Destroying animals
  12. 12. Location of the seed orchard (Contd……) 4. Specific orchard requirements:  Isolation from pollen contamination (distance and time) 5.Other side requirements:  Land tenure  Possible future land requirement
  13. 13. Site preparation and establishment of orchards Clearing  Soil Preparation  Establishment of pollen dilution zones  Promotion of pollination  Demarcation of plots and rows  Demarcation of pits and pitting  Planting  Beating up  Cover crops 
  14. 14. Orchard design The general requirement in the orchard design is:  Minimize selfing  Maximize out crossing and mating of all genotypes.  Simple and easy establishment and management.  Allowing any number of clones or families to fit into the design. 
  15. 15. Orchard design(contd……)    Complete randomized design: All available ramets of all clones or all families are distributed randomly all over the site. Randomized complete blocks: The area is divided into equally sized blocks which include one ramet of each clone or one member of each family. The ramets or families are located randomized within each block. Randomized complete block design is the most frequently used if the design initially serves as a progeny test.
  16. 16. Controlled pollination in seed orchard  Controlled pollination can be conducted in which case pollen is collected from the desired male parent(s) and is applied to the flowers of the female parent(s). Controlled pollination may involve emasculation and isolation of the flowers of the female parents. If the orchard is designed entirely for hybridization, planting of each clone in rows in preferred.
  17. 17. Silvicultural management of seed orchards Weeding  Rouging: Once the result of the progeny test is  available, the undesired families or ramets are cut and removed. Thinning and pruning  Fertilization and watering  Flower induction:-Imposing stress 1. Full or partial girdling2. Root pruning by sub soiling3. Strangulation Hormone application:1Spraying branchlets2. syringe into the cambium. 
  18. 18. Conclusion   Seed orchards are plantations of genetically superior trees, isolated to reduce pollination from genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively managed. Orchard seeds yield good forests and give additional protection because they contain the offspring of carefully selected superior parents. Plantations from seed orchard crops can also provide more protection against disease or insect catastrophe, adapt well to varying site and soil conditions, and enhance biological diversity.
  19. 19. Conclusion (Contd…….) The plants (either vegetative propagated or seedlings) are vulnerable to competition from weeds, to fire, diseases, browsing, termites, etc. during the first year of establishment. The seed orchard establishment steps are Clearing, Soil Preparation, Establishment of pollen dilution zones, Promotion of pollination, Demarcation of plots and rows, Demarcation of pits and pitting, Planting, Beating up, Cover crops and orchard design.  Management options such as selective harvesting, partial silvicultural thinning, genetic rouging, flower induction etc activities are available for orchard managers to promote better reproductive balance . 
  20. 20. Thank you for your attention Any Queries Comments and Suggestions ??? Are welcomed