Out line of Presentation
RESULT AND DISCUSSION
orchards are stands planted especially
for the production of abundant superior seeds.
•A seed orchard is defined as an area where
seeds are mass-produced to increase the
genetic quality as quickly and inexpensively
as possible (Zobel et al., 1958).
In 1949, first pine seed orchard was planted in
Sweden although this concept was applied
before 1940 to rubber trees
Seed orchards of P. radiata (Australia and New
Zealand), Teak (Thailand, Nigeria, India, Papua
New Guinea), Eucalyptus (Australia, S.
Africa, Morocco, Portugal), Amla, Harro, Barro
Type of Seed Orchard
Seedling Seed Orchard(SSO): Seed orchard raised from
seedlings produced from selected parents through natural or
Clonal Seed Orchard(CSO): Seed orchard raised from
selected clones propagated by grafting, cutting, air-layering
or tissue culture.
Breeding seedling orchard (BSO): Seedling orchard used
to preserve and test large no. of genotypes, not to produce
masssive quantities of seed for operational planting.
Reproductive age of trees
The age at which trees produce their first fruit
crop varies according to
species, varieties, environmental
conditions, management, etc. Some species
reproduce after few years while others await
several decades before they set flowers and fruits.
Some physiological and environmental
conditions that promote seed production
Optimal soil conditions (pH, fertility, structure,
Optimal climate (water, light, temperature,
Optimal conditions for pollination (pollination
agent, synchronized flowering, etc.)
Reduced root competition (for water and
Reduced crown competition (for light).
Size and longevity of seed orchard
The size of the seed orchard is determined by the seed demand
and the expected seed production from the orchard. Both
figures are subject to estimates. Planting targets may be altered
in the future and the seed production from individual trees is
often only subject to qualified guesses. A minimum of 15–25
clones or families to assure a sufficient genetic base and limit
selfing should be used.
Location of the seed orchard
1. Species specific requirements:
temperature, precipitation, photoperiod, w
Soil: texture, nutrients, pH, drainage
Altitude: meter above sea level.
Location of the seed orchard
2. Management requirements:
Close to administration
Close to nursery
Strong winds, typhoons, etc.
Illegal logging/fuelwood collection
Location of the seed orchard (Contd……)
4. Specific orchard requirements:
Isolation from pollen contamination
(distance and time)
5.Other side requirements:
Possible future land requirement
Site preparation and establishment of
Establishment of pollen dilution zones
Promotion of pollination
Demarcation of plots and rows
Demarcation of pits and pitting
The general requirement in the orchard
Maximize out crossing and mating of all
Simple and easy establishment and
Allowing any number of clones or
families to fit into the design.
Complete randomized design: All available
ramets of all clones or all families are
distributed randomly all over the site.
Randomized complete blocks: The area is
divided into equally sized blocks which
include one ramet of each clone or one
member of each family. The ramets or
families are located randomized within each
Randomized complete block design is the
most frequently used if the design initially
serves as a progeny test.
Controlled pollination in seed orchard
Controlled pollination can be conducted in
which case pollen is collected from the desired
male parent(s) and is applied to the flowers of
the female parent(s). Controlled pollination may
involve emasculation and isolation of the
flowers of the female parents. If the orchard is
designed entirely for hybridization, planting of
each clone in rows in preferred.
Silvicultural management of seed
Rouging: Once the result of the progeny test is
available, the undesired families or ramets are
cut and removed.
Thinning and pruning
Fertilization and watering
Flower induction:-Imposing stress 1. Full or partial
girdling2. Root pruning by sub soiling3.
Hormone application:1Spraying branchlets2. syringe
into the cambium.
Seed orchards are plantations of genetically
superior trees, isolated to reduce pollination from
genetically inferior outside sources, and intensively
Orchard seeds yield good forests and give
additional protection because they contain the
offspring of carefully selected superior parents.
Plantations from seed orchard crops can also
provide more protection against disease or insect
catastrophe, adapt well to varying site and soil
conditions, and enhance biological diversity.
The plants (either vegetative propagated or seedlings)
are vulnerable to competition from weeds, to fire,
diseases, browsing, termites, etc. during the first year of
establishment. The seed orchard establishment steps are
Clearing, Soil Preparation, Establishment of pollen
dilution zones, Promotion of pollination, Demarcation
of plots and rows, Demarcation of pits and pitting,
Planting, Beating up, Cover crops and orchard design.
Management options such as selective harvesting,
partial silvicultural thinning, genetic rouging, flower
induction etc activities are available for orchard
managers to promote better reproductive balance .
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