burns ppt.


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burns ppt.

  1. 1. WHAT IS A BURN? A burn is a type of injury to the flesh or skin which can be caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction or radiation:  There are three types of burns: • First-degree burns damage only the outer layer of skin • Second-degree burns damage the outer layer and the layer underneath • Third-degree burns damage or destroy the deepest layer of skin and tissues underneath
  2. 2. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS  Burns can cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock and even death.  They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Antibiotic creams can prevent or treat infections.  After a third-degree burn, you need skin or synthetic grafts to cover exposed tissue and encourage new skin to grow. First- and second-degree burns usually heal without grafts
  3. 3. ETIOLOGY  Thermal burns: may result from any external heat source (flame, liquid, solid objects or gases)  Radiation burns: most commonly result from prolonged exposure to solar ultraviolet radiations (sunburn) or from exposure to sources of x-ray or other non solar radiation  Chemical burns: may result from strong acids, strong alkalis, phenols, cresols, mustard gas, or phosphorous.
  4. 4. ETIOLOGY  Electrical burns: result from the electrical generation of heat; they may cause extensive deep tissue damage despite minimal apparent cutaneous injury.
  5. 5. RISK FACTORS:  Modifiable Risk Factors • Careless smoking: Cigarettes are the leading cause of house fires. • Absent or nonfunctioning smoke detectors: The presence of a functioning smoke detector decreases risk of death by fire by 60 percent. • • • • • • • Use of wood stoves Exposed heating sources or electrical cords Unsafe storage of flammable or caustic materials Water heaters set above 120°F Microwave heated foods and containers Substandard or older housing Substance abuse: Use of alcohol and illegal drugs increases risk.
  6. 6. Non modifiable risk factors: • Age: Children under 4 who are poorly supervised are at particular risk. • Gender: Males are more than twice as likely to suffer burn injuries.
  8. 8. HEALING: HOME TREATMENT D CARE 1. Most minor burns will heal on their own, and home treatment is usually all that is needed to relive your symptoms and promote healing. But if you suspect you may have a more severe injury, use first aid measures while you arrange for an evacuation by your doctor 3. 4. First, stop the burning to prevent a more severe burns. Heat burns (thermal burns): Smother any flames by covering them with a blanket or water. If your clothing catches fire, do not run: stop, drop, and roll on the ground to smother the flames. Cold temperature burns: Try first aid measures to warm the areas. Small areas of your body (ears, face, nose, fingers, toes) that are really cold or frozen can be warmed by blowing warm air on them, tucking them inside your clothing or putting them in warm water. 5.
  9. 9. Liquid chemical hot plastic and electrical burns… 1. 2. 3. 4. Liquid scald burns (thermal burns): Run cool tap water over the burn for 10 to 20 minutes. Do not use ice. Electrical burns: After the person has been separated from the electrical source, check for breathing and a heartbeat. If the person is not breathing or does not have a heartbeat, call 911. Chemical burns: Natural foods such as chili peppers, which contain a substance irritating to the skin, can caused burning sensation. Tar or hot plastic burns: Immediately run cold water over the hot tar or hot plastic to cool the tar or plastic.
  10. 10. Evacuation:  Prepare for an evaluation by a doctor  If you are going to see your doctor soon:  Cover the burn with a clean, dry cloth to reduce the risk of infection.  Do not put any salve or medicine on the burned area, so your doctor can properly assess your burn.  Do not put ice or butter on the burned area, because these measures do not help and can damage the skin tissue