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Business education and Catholic higher
education: Examining the effects of
undergraduate business programs on
Catholic mis...
Demographics of U.S. Business Schools
• Business undergraduate degrees is the largest field
of study in the United States
Demographics of U.S. Business Schools
• There are about 493 colleges and universities that offer
undergraduate business de...
Three Critical Issues in U.S. Catholic
Business Schools
• 1) Failure to be different from secular universities;
lack of di...
Literature Review
• Business education does not foster in
students an appropriate set of values
(Ghoshal, 2005; Pfeffer & ...
Literature Review
• “A Catholic business school, if it takes its mission
seriously, needs to engage its business students ...
Statistics
• In a survey of 63 Catholic institutions, 86% were
trying to integrate CST into business curricula
(Gambrell &...
Ex Corde Ecclesiae (1990)
(John Paul II)
• 1) A Christian inspiration not only of
individuals but of the university
commun...
Wolfgang Grassl (2012) “mission-drift”
of U.S. Catholic business schools
Vocation of the Business Leader (2012)
“When we consider a
business organization as a
community of persons, it
becomes cle...
Four types of Catholic business schools
• 1) Catholic immersion institutions – majority of
students, administrators, and f...
Research Question
• From the perspective of U.S. Catholic business
schools, what are the purposes and goals of
undergradua...
Catholic Social Teaching (CST)
• “Tradition of thought in which the Church seeks to advance
justice in the world by engagi...
United States Conference
of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) –
7 components of Catholic Social Teaching
• 1) Life and Dignity of t...
Catholic University of America - School of Business and Economics
University of Dayton – School of Business Administration...
Catholic University of America -
School of Business and Economics
• Founded in January 2013 to be a “distinctively Catholi...
University of Dayton –
School of Business Administration
• Founded in 1945
– Offers 8 undergraduate degree programs in
bus...
Rationale for U.S. Catholic business
schools (Chief Academic Officer)
• U.S. Catholic business schools should offer facult...
Comparing Both Institutions
Rationale
• Managers need to be ‘entirely possessed by
justice,’ so that their intentions are in accord with
the common go...
Discussion
Conclusion
• The ultimate purpose of business education at
Catholic higher education should not be
merely producing techni...
Questions? Comments?
roy.chan@bc.edu
*NOTE: This Powerpoint is available for download at: http://www.rychan.com
References
• Association to Advancement Collegiate Schools of Business, AACSB (2012). “Business School Data Trends and
201...
Business Education and Catholic Higher Education: Examining the Effects of Undergraduate Business Programs on Catholic Mis...
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Business Education and Catholic Higher Education: Examining the Effects of Undergraduate Business Programs on Catholic Mission and Identity

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Business Education and Catholic Higher Education: Examining the Effects of Undergraduate Business Programs on Catholic Mission and Identity

  1. 1. Business education and Catholic higher education: Examining the effects of undergraduate business programs on Catholic mission and identity at the Catholic University of America and University of Dayton Roy Y. Chan Ph.D. student Boston College Lynch School of Education roy.chan@bc.edu Monday, March 24, 2014
  2. 2. Demographics of U.S. Business Schools • Business undergraduate degrees is the largest field of study in the United States
  3. 3. Demographics of U.S. Business Schools • There are about 493 colleges and universities that offer undergraduate business degree programs in America (AACSB, 2012) • Nationally, there are about 1,617 institutions that offer undergraduate and graduate degrees in business(AACSB, 2012) • Only 15 of the top 100 undergraduate business programs are Catholic higher education institutions (Newsweek, 2012) • Only 3 Catholic business schools offer Ph.D. programs in America (Boston College; Saint Louis University; Saint Mary’s University, Halifax)
  4. 4. Three Critical Issues in U.S. Catholic Business Schools • 1) Failure to be different from secular universities; lack of distinctiveness in curriculum and identity – Institutional isomorphism • 2 Over emphasis on stakeholders-shareholder perspectives – “Compartmentalize” – often not interdisciplinary • Lack of connection between CST and management • Often ignore theology and philosophy subjects • 3) Catholic business schools offer business ethics courses (for accreditation) but rarely reflects on Catholic mission and identity.
  5. 5. Literature Review • Business education does not foster in students an appropriate set of values (Ghoshal, 2005; Pfeffer & Fong, 2004) • Business schools overemphasize business values and one single model of business (Khurana, 2007; Sandelands, 2010) • Business schools produce research that has little relevance to business practice (Starkey & Madan, 2001; Hoffman 2004, 2009; Bennis & O’Toole, 2005; Ackoff, Addison & Bibb 2007; Freeman & Newkirk 2011) • Many business schools claim of being mission-driven are often “aspirational” than grounded in reality (Porth, 2009; Uelmen, 2011). • A gap between academic competitiveness (research productivity, student selectivity) and Catholic commitment (majority of faculty are Catholics according to ECE)
  6. 6. Literature Review • “A Catholic business school, if it takes its mission seriously, needs to engage its business students in ideas of vocation, faith and reason, spirituality of work, principles of CST, the cardinal and theological virtues, and social responsibilities. It must engage students in the utilization of highly effective means toward morally good ends by fulfilling the criteria of Ex Corde Ecclesiae.” (Grassl, 2012) • http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/confere nces/Dayton/Daytonpapers.html
  7. 7. Statistics • In a survey of 63 Catholic institutions, 86% were trying to integrate CST into business curricula (Gambrell & Newcombe, 2008). • In the United States, 71% offered business ethics course, 41% CST, and 14% service learning (Bandsuch, 2008). • However, less than 50% of the faculty members at U.S. Catholic business schools are Catholic. • Only 6% of Catholic business schools measured student religious identity (Porth, 2009). • Only 27% of Catholic business schools referred to their Catholic identity in their mission statement, and less than 23% emphasized both ethics and religious identity in their missions (Kalina & Henderson, 2008).
  8. 8. Ex Corde Ecclesiae (1990) (John Paul II) • 1) A Christian inspiration not only of individuals but of the university community • 2) A continuing reflection in the light of the Catholic faith upon the growing treasury of human knowledge, to which it seeks to contribute by its own research • 3) Fidelity to the Christian message as it comes to us through the Church • 4) An institutional commitment to the service of the people of God and of the human family in their pilgrimage to the transcendent goal which gives meaning to life. Gaudium et spes (1965) (Pope Paul VI) • 1) Gaudium et spes calls scholars to be ‘pracademics’ – to bring practice of the Catholic church into teaching and research • 2) Gaudium et spes calls for civic engagement and advocacy by universities • 3) Gaudium et spes calls universities to produce graduates
  9. 9. Wolfgang Grassl (2012) “mission-drift” of U.S. Catholic business schools
  10. 10. Vocation of the Business Leader (2012) “When we consider a business organization as a community of persons, it becomes clear that the bonds which hold us in common are not merely legal contracts or mutual self-interests, but commitments to real goods shared with others, to serve the world.” (par. 58, p.18)
  11. 11. Four types of Catholic business schools • 1) Catholic immersion institutions – majority of students, administrators, and faculty are Catholic, and faith and academics are strongly integrated • 2) Catholic persuasion institutions – majority of the students or faculties are Catholics but not both; limited courses on theology or philosophy; faith and academics are somewhat integrated • 3) Catholic cohort institutions – small number of students and faculty members are Catholics; Catholic teaching is specialized into centers and programs, and faith and academics are not integrated • 4) Catholic diaspora institutions – Catholics rarely exist on-campus; few Catholic courses; faith and academic are not integrated (Piderit &Morey, 2006)
  12. 12. Research Question • From the perspective of U.S. Catholic business schools, what are the purposes and goals of undergraduate business degree programs in the 21st century? What is the relationship between business disciplines and the liberal arts disciplines? – a) How can Catholic business schools be both Catholic and effective in teaching and research toward a common purpose? – b) In what ways do Catholic business schools integrate the principles of Ex Corde Ecclesiae, Gaudium et spes, and USCCB into their curriculum? – c) In what ways do Catholic social teaching (CST) inform business schools to develop a strong and virtuous culture as a Catholic institution?
  13. 13. Catholic Social Teaching (CST) • “Tradition of thought in which the Church seeks to advance justice in the world by engaging social, cultural, political, and economy” (ACCU, 2012). • Based on gospel ideals as well as on human nature, society, and the purpose of business. • To deepen the dialogue between the disciplines in which each makes its own “distinct contribution in the search for solutions.” (Ex Corde Ecclesiae, 32) • To encourage students to reflect on the spiritual and moral purposes of careers and their service to the common good. • To teach students in business programs that the success is not to just maximize profit/earning; rather, it is to help the poor and enhance the global knowledge economy.
  14. 14. United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (USCCB) – 7 components of Catholic Social Teaching • 1) Life and Dignity of the Human Person • 2) Call to Family, Community, and Participation • 3) Rights and Responsibilities • 4) Option for the Poor and Vulnerable • 5) The Dignity of Work and the Rights of Workers • 6) Solidarity • 7) Care for God’s Creation
  15. 15. Catholic University of America - School of Business and Economics University of Dayton – School of Business Administration * Source: This data was generated by Roy Y. Chan on March 21, 2014 from the National Center for Education Statistics – Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS)
  16. 16. Catholic University of America - School of Business and Economics • Founded in January 2013 to be a “distinctively Catholic and virtues-based business school” – Offers 7 undergraduate degree programs in business; No MBA programs • Dean Andrew Abela (Catholic) • Model based on Catholic social doctrine and the natural law – To integrate morality into commercial life • Three central characteristics of the business school: – 1) Morality and service integrate into every course for both professional and moral excellence – 2) Research focused to the common good of society – 3) Strong foundation of liberal arts education for students to practice what they are learning • Curriculum will be designed on a “person-centered” economy
  17. 17. University of Dayton – School of Business Administration • Founded in 1945 – Offers 8 undergraduate degree programs in business; MBA program • Dean Paul Bobrowski (non-Catholic) • Does not have a model based on Catholic social doctrine and the natural law • A lack of distinctive characteristics (model is very similar to secular business schools)
  18. 18. Rationale for U.S. Catholic business schools (Chief Academic Officer) • U.S. Catholic business schools should offer faculty development opportunities that encourage faculty members in business schools to address mission related questions and to create rigorous ethical course grounded in the ideals of CST • U.S. Catholic business schools should introduce stewardship over capital through lens of CST • U.S. Catholic business schools should recruit faculty members who understand the mission and values of the Catholic business school (Catholics or non- Catholics)
  19. 19. Comparing Both Institutions
  20. 20. Rationale • Managers need to be ‘entirely possessed by justice,’ so that their intentions are in accord with the common good (Alford and Naughton, 2012) • Catholic colleges and universities should be more emphatic in helping students pursue their vocations as scholars, not to be enslaved to the idea that every student is just there to become a professional (Faggioli, 2012) • By focusing on the purpose of business and not only on its tools, Catholic business school can then contribute to liberal education (Grassl 2009).
  21. 21. Discussion
  22. 22. Conclusion • The ultimate purpose of business education at Catholic higher education should not be merely producing technically competent individual; rather it should allow students to understand that the purpose of business is ultimately the production of goods and services that promote human wellbeing and a commitment to the dignity of persons.
  23. 23. Questions? Comments? roy.chan@bc.edu *NOTE: This Powerpoint is available for download at: http://www.rychan.com
  24. 24. References • Association to Advancement Collegiate Schools of Business, AACSB (2012). “Business School Data Trends and 2012 List of Accredited Schools.” AACB International: Tampa, FL. • Bandsuch, M. SJ (2008). The Who, What, Where, When and How of Teaching ‘Catholic’ Business Education at a Catholic University. Retrieved from: http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/conferences/becu/Finalpapers/Bandsuchfinalpaper.pdf • Ghoshal, S. (2005). Bad Management Theories are Destroying Good Management Practices. Academy of Management Learning and Education 4(1): 75-91. • Gambrall, D. & M.A. Newcomb (2008). “A Tenured Faith and an Adjunct Faculty: Successes and Challenges in Instructor Formation at Catholic Colleges that Offer Business Programs in an Accelerated Format.” Retrieved fromhttp://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/conferences/becu/Finalpapers/GambrallNewcombefina.pdf • Johnson, L., Naughton, M., Bojan, Jr., & Stanley, W. (2013). “Rethinking How Business Purpose is Taught in Catholic Business Education.” Washington & Lee Legal Studies Paper No. 2013-19. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2348470 • Kalina, M.M. & Henderson, M. (2008). “A Model for Integration of Catholic Social Teaching: Sharing Across Disciplines.” Retrieved from: http://www.stthomas.edu/cathstudies/cst/conferences/becu/Finalpapers/HendersonKalinafinal.pdf • Porth, S.J. (2009). “Connecting the Dots: Business Education at Jesuit Universities.” 12th Annual Conference, Colleagues in Jesuit Business Education, Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO, 16-19 July 2009. • Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace (2012). Vocation of the Business Leader: A Reflection. Vatican City, Italy. • Sullivan, W. (2013). Rethinking Business Education as a Profession: Implications for Catholic Universities. Journal Of Catholic Higher Education, 32(1), 7-23. Retrieved from: http://jche.journals.villanova.edu/article/view/1611 • United States Conference of Catholic Bishops (2012). “Examination of Conscience in Light of Catholic Social Teaching.” accessed January 9, 2012, http://www.usccb.org/about/justice-peace-and-human- development/upload/examination-of-conscience-CST.pdf • University of Dayton. Office of the Dean, School of Business Administration, "DOC 2014-03 Proposal to Merge Leadership and International Business Majors into the new International Business Management Major ("IBM")" (2014). Senate Documents. Paper 215 http://ecommons.udayton.edu/senate_docs/215

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