A Compass, Not A Hindrance

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  • background, bio, stronger in private than public
  • Will NOT be a direct discussion of Dominican setting—my research was NOT done in that setting…will use my research, though, as a point of departure for what I hope is an engaging discussion about the applicability of this research in the Dominican setting.
  • How did I get here—was interested in change in Catholic higher education, intentionally chose curricular reform because I don’t have any experience in it.
  • DemographicsPressure for “affordability” and degree completionChanges in what is sought in the marketplaceIncreasing for-profit (Wal-Mart partnership)
  • How relevant:*Differentiation often a driver—Assisi*Certainly viewed as a descriptor of behavior
  • Academic writ large Discipline Catholic Professional bureaucracy
  • ConflictReinforcementIndifferenceWrite down your prediction!!!
  • Greatest conflict was NOT between Catholic and academic values, but rather within academic values:importance of general education vs. advanced study in the majorability to fulfill curricular outcomes without taking courses in each particular disciplineA process viewed as sufficiently participative/consultative in the institutional contextMore often, alignment was the case. For example, at Ignatius the phrase Jesuit liberal arts was used together—not viewed or treated as separate, but as part of a whole.
  • Similar to Williams’ three levels…
  • Highlights the importance of hiring, orientation, et al
  • Who gave this advice to leaders about their most essential job?
  • Maybe the business world does have something to offer usMaybe we’re ahead in the game by having a core set of beliefs we’ve inherited responsibility for.
  • This is consistent with change literature in business--
  • Zemsky mission/marketHow to be different? (WAICU re: quality)DON’T BE LIKE EVERY ONE ELSEUse example of our promise themes—attempting to live and communicate in language very similar to the studium
  • The WORST time to start to do these things is during change efforts themselves—the real work of change begins long before change itself.Examples: Ignatius interview questions in advance, 1 year orientation Assisi honoring employees who exemplify values
  • Examples: Ignatius using core values as a starting point, Assisi explicitly mapping outcomes to core values, both including those core values among the outcomes to be achievedInsist upon application of mission and values, and be flexible about how they are applied in the current context.
  • Assisi quotes: In response to VPAA proposal In response to failed curriculum—which was similar to that which passedIgnatius quote: getting buy-in from the start at conceptual level…
  • Assisi quotes: In response to VPAA proposal In response to failed curriculum—which was similar to that which passedIgnatius quote: getting buy-in from the start at conceptual level…
  • Bishop: Provost looked at a stalled process and concluded that it wouldn’t move forward without a push…so he persisted despite objections.Ignatius: last change had occurred behind closed doors and never really took…this dean thought he could go faster by going slowlyAssisi: multiple failures
  • A Compass, Not A Hindrance

    1. 1. A COMPASS, NOT A HINDRANCE: THE DOMINICAN CHARISM AND INSTITUTIONAL CHANGE<br />Scott Flanagan<br />Edgewood College<br />
    2. 2.
    3. 3. Why are you here?<br />
    4. 4. Outline<br />Purpose<br />Methods<br />Background<br />Key findings<br />Lessons for leaders<br />Questions<br />Discussion about applicability in the Dominican context<br />
    5. 5. Purpose of the study<br />What is the role of values in general education revision at CCUs?<br />What values are central to general education revision at CCUs?<br />What are the sources of those values?<br />What role do sponsoring organizations play in curricular change processes?<br />What points of conflict and synergy exist between academic and Catholic cultures in such a change endeavor?<br />
    6. 6. Purpose of the study<br />2. How do leaders achieve general education revision in the context of these values?<br />How do differences in values within a campus shape change processes and the roles of leaders at different CCUs?<br />By what process do leaders create a constellation of values that reflect academic and Catholic values?<br />Through what process do leaders lead general education curricular revision at CCUs?<br />
    7. 7. Methods<br />Three site case study<br />Different sponsoring organizations<br />Similar selectivity, size of undergraduate population<br />Document review, campus tours, interviews (individual and group)<br />Reviewed documents to generate themes<br />Themes informed findings<br />Findings led to recommendations<br />
    8. 8. Background<br />
    9. 9. Why do institutions need to change?<br />
    10. 10. “Institutional culture shapes thereason change emerges, the way the process occurs, and the change outcomes.”<br />Adrianna J. Kezar, Understanding and Facilitating Organizational Change in the 21st Century: Recent Research and Conceptualizations (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 2001), p. 115<br />
    11. 11. What is culture?<br />“A pattern of shared basic assumptions that the group learned as it solved its problems of external adaptation and internal integration, that has worked well enough to be considered valid and, therefore, to be taught to new members as the correct way to perceive, think, and feel in relation to these problems.” <br />Edgar H. Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), p. 12.<br />
    12. 12. Elements of culture (Schein)<br />
    13. 13. 4 Models of Academic Culture<br />Collegial: Emphasis on consensus , shared power, and equality<br />Bureaucratic: Emphasis on structure, setting and conforming to systems and processes<br />Political: Emphasis on power (getting and using) as a way to get things done<br />Anarchical:Appears chaotic but instead has an order that is implicit and shared<br />Robert Birnbaum, How Academic Leadership Works: Understanding Success and Failure in the College Presidency (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992)<br />
    14. 14. Taxonomy of Catholic colleges & universities<br />Basis:<br />Proportion of students who are Catholic<br />Proportion of faculty & administrators who are Catholic<br />Extent to which there are courses in Catholic theology<br />Presence/lack of Catholic culture in co-curriculum<br />Melanie M. Morey and John J. Piderit, Catholic Higher Education: A Culture in Crisis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)<br />
    15. 15. Taxonomy of Catholic colleges & universities<br />Proposed Categories<br />Immersion<br />Persuasion<br />Diaspora<br />Cohort<br />Melanie M. Morey and John J. Piderit, Catholic Higher Education: A Culture in Crisis (New York: Oxford University Press, 2006)<br />
    16. 16. What are values?<br />“Socially oriented, unique constructs that describe characteristics of organizations, guide action and behavior, and serve to differentiate organizations.”  <br />Sandra L. Williams, "Strategic Planning and Organizational Values: Links to Alignment," Human Resource Development International 5, no. 2 (2002), p. 220.<br />
    17. 17. What are some sources of values in Catholic higher education?<br />
    18. 18. What are the possible relationships between different value sources?<br />What do you think the predominant relationship was between different value sets in this study?<br />Where would you expect the greatest level of conflict?<br />
    19. 19. Why study general education?<br />All undergraduates experience it<br />Accounts for 25-50% of credits<br />Cultural intersection<br />A visible and significant expression of institutional values<br />Often changed in response to external factors<br />A difficult change process for leaders because of the interplay of so many variables<br />
    20. 20. The Cases<br />Assisi<br />Bishop<br />Ignatius<br />
    21. 21. Interesting findings<br />
    22. 22. Taxonomy—good idea, not practical to apply<br />
    23. 23. What are the possible relationships between different value sources?<br />What do you think the predominant relationship was between different value sets in this study?<br />Where would you expect the greatest level of conflict?<br />
    24. 24. What role did sponsors’ values play?<br />
    25. 25. Ensure fidelity to mission<br />Essential to carrying on the charism as fewer vowed religious are able to participate<br />Essential to upholding responsibility as a Catholic institution<br />
    26. 26. “Figure out your value system. Decide what you stand for.”<br />
    27. 27. Thomas J. Peters and Robert H. Waterman, In Search of Excellence: Lessons from America's Best-Run Companies (New York: Harper & Row, 1982).<br />
    28. 28. Facilitate change<br />Point of departure<br />Point of reference<br />External change often serves as a catalyst, but must be driven by shared values in order to be sustained<br />
    29. 29. Zemsky and Massy: “market smart and mission centered”<br />Not either/or, but both/and<br />“It can be distinctive for (Assisi University) to have a general education package of courses and opportunities for students…in our Franciscan-Catholic tradition.” <br />Differentiate in the crowded marketplace<br />
    30. 30. What did leaders do? What can we learn?<br />
    31. 31. What can leaders do?<br />Cultivate shared values in advance of significant change<br />Hiring<br />Orientation<br />Presence<br />Ongoing exposure<br />
    32. 32. What can leaders do?<br />Use the values of the sponsoring institution explicitly to provide a shared sense of purpose<br />Begin with core values as a point of departure<br />Conduct exercises during change which refer back to those values<br />Map resulting proposals back to those values<br />Include values in outcomes (of curriculum, for example)<br />
    33. 33. What can leaders do?<br />Structure an inclusive process<br /> “The vice president for academics does not own the curriculum, the faculty owns the curriculum.”<br />“(Faculty) were reluctant…to pass something that would have such a profound effect, not feeling like they had invested in it.”<br />“Faculty bought in to having an initial voice and being heard…It was a brilliant way to (get) faculty to buy-in to a process, to look for change.”<br />
    34. 34. What can leaders do?<br />Structure an inclusive process<br />“Faculty bought in to having an initial voice and being heard…It was a brilliant way to (get) faculty to buy-in to a process, to look for change.”<br />“The process seemed very Jesuit to me…It was designed to be deliberative.”<br />
    35. 35. What can leaders do?<br />Learn from institutional history<br />Reflect on previous successes and failures<br />Use existing processes, structure, etc. as artifacts and therefore sources to learn about culture and values<br />
    36. 36. What’s the point?<br />External forces make change necessary, but sustainable and effective change emerges from core values and culture.<br />There is more consistency than conflict among Catholic and academic values.<br />Core values both reflect and shape action.<br />
    37. 37. What’s the point?<br />Core values can be a necessary point of differentiation—mission centered IS market smart<br />Shared values can serve as a compass—a point of departure and a point of reference—during times of change<br />
    38. 38. What’s the point?<br />Leaders can most effectively lead change that meets the emerging changes of the external environment in a manner consistent with core values by:<br />Cultivating shared values<br />Using sponsors’ values explicitly<br />Structuring a process that models community<br />Learning from institutional history (reflection)<br />
    39. 39. Questions<br />
    40. 40. Discussion<br />During what other types of changes or processes might these lessons be applicable?<br />What are the most applicable values from the Dominican tradition?<br />How might they be utilized to inform our decision-making processes?<br />How might they be relevant in the content of our essential decisions?<br />

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