Background: Biography• Erik Homburger • Born June 15, 1902 in Erikson (1902-1994) Frankfurt am• Heavy influence on our Main, Germany by psychological Danish parents. understanding of the • Married in 1930, to Joan young. MowatSerson, who• Some identity crises of studied education, arts his own may have and crafts, and writing. sparked his interest in study
Introduction• While Freud’s theory had focused on the psychosexual aspects of development, Erikson’s addition of other influences helped to broaden and expand psychoanalytic theory. He also contributed to our understanding of personality as it is developed and shaped over the course of the lifespan.
• Erik Eriksons psychosocial theory attempts to explain changes that occur in social relationships and self-understanding. Erikson seeks to do this by describing the relationship between psychological, biological, and societal development and its connection with a persons relationship to their own society .
Contributions: Written Works• Childhood and Society (1950)• Young Man Luther. A Study in Psychoanalysis and History (1958)• Insight and Responsibility (1964) A collection of 6 essays• Identity: Youth and Crisis (1968)• Gandhis Truth: On the Origin of Militant Nonviolence (1969)• Adulthood (edited book, 1978)• Vital Involvement in Old Age (with J.M. Erikson and H. Kivnick, 1986)• The Life Cycle Completed (with J.M. Erikson, 1987)
Contributions: Theories (concept of self)• Main task of the adolescent is achieve a state of Identity• Identity is a state towards which one strives• When various aspects of self-concept are in agreement• In choosing an identity, we repudiate (give up) other choices
Contributions: Theories• In democratic society, where many choices exist, society plays a role in development.• In adolescence, we experiment with many choices, searching for those that suit us, without considering responsibility for any particular one.• Adolescent tolerance of the ambiguity of indecision, and avoiding making too quick a choice of identity leads to a better sense of self, and a stronger development.
PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENTAs a pioneer in the study of the life cycle, Mr. Erikson saw it consisting of these eight crucial stages.
CONTRIBUTION TO DIFFERENT DISCIPLINES• Eriksons influence, compounded by clinical studies of children, a teaching post at Harvard University, popular lectures and best-selling books on Mohandas K. Gandhi and Martin Luther, pervaded many layers of society, from education to medicine to law to biography to psychiatry to lowbrow culture.
• His popular recognition reached a peak in the 70s, particularly because of his identification with the development of "identity crisis," a term he coined. But his scholarly contributions have assured him of a place of eminence in many disciplines.
EGO & IDENTITY• Erikson suggesting that the ego and the sense of identity are shaped over the entire life span and that experiences later in life might help heal the hurts of early childhood. In counseling the counselors try to understand the patients earlier years so as to help them to transition from one stage to another successfully.
IMPACT: CHOICES• We can apply the theory in situations where an individual seems stuck between stages, or searching to move to earlier or later stages out of sequence.• If choices have not been fully made, a return to those stages may be predicted.
REFERENCES• Studer, J. R. (2006). Erik Eriksons Psychosocial Stages Applied to Supervision. Guidance & Counseling, 21(3), 168-173.• Erik Erikson. (2011). Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition, 1.• Weiland, S. (1993). Erik Erikson: Ages, stages, and stories. Generations, 17(2), 17.