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Unit 6
Namrata Saxena, Asst Professor, PCER, New Panvel.
a) Childhood and growing up in the context of D...
Diversity: The inclusionof individualsrepresentingmore thanone national origin,color,religion,
 Diversity means understanding that each individual is unique and by recognizing
these individual differences and similar...
Learner Diversity in classroom:
Having a diverse group of students simply means recognizing that all the people are unique...
Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory
inputs and maintain dominance in one...
6. Hearing Impairment
7. Oral Communication Problems
8. Orthopedic Impairments
Other Factors
1. Gender
2. Racial, ethnic o...
• (2) Ina more homogeneouspopulation,lesstime needstobe spentonbridgingethnicand
socio-cultural differencesbetweenstudents...
• Avoidcommunicatingbias,butdiscussracial orethnicrelationswithempathy(Stephan&
Finlay,1999) and openly,ratherthantryingto...
• Whenyouhave a groupwithstudentsfromdifferentculturesandcountries,youincrease
the numberof communicationfiltersandlanguag...
• Diversitycanstrengthenyourcompany'srelationshipswithspecificcustomergroupsby
makingcommunicationmore effective.Customers...
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diversity (b.ed notes) COURSE 1

diversity b.ed notes

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diversity (b.ed notes) COURSE 1

  1. 1. COURSE 1 MODULE 3 Unit 6 Namrata Saxena, Asst Professor, PCER, New Panvel. a) Childhood and growing up in the context of Diversity Introduction: “You find strength within the classroom, not based simply on the commonalties….Those are there, but the strength comes through the differences…the different stories you have to tell, the different things[you] can learn from one another and about one another and then celebrate….”—Jan Currence, Teacher, Maryland Diversity is a natural part of human communities. Responding to the increasing diversity among students is one of the biggest challenges for school leadership in the 21st century (Leithwood, Jantzi and Steinback, 1999.) School education in India has witnessed a steady growth over the years in enrolment of children from all sections of society, particularly from weaker and disadvantaged sections such as girls, SCs, STs, and linguistic, ethnic and religious minorities. Owing to the increased inflow of children from weaker and disadvantaged sections, classrooms and schools are becoming increasingly diverse. There has always been diversity in the classroom, but in today society it is important to embrace it and make positive use of it. Definition of Diversity Origin The word Diversity comes from Old French word ‘diversité’ which means ‘making dissimilar’ In the Merriam-Webster dictionary (2013) it defines diversity as: “the condition of having or being composed of differing elements; especially the inclusion of different types of people in a group or organization”.
  2. 2. DEFINITIONS Diversity: The inclusionof individualsrepresentingmore thanone national origin,color,religion, socioeconomicstratum,sexual orientation,etc. Oklahoma State University defines learner diversity as: "Diversity usually is related to the ethnic background of students. It is, however, a much broader concept. Anytime that a student is different from the rest of the students in a class, that student is diverse. Diversity can relate to gender, sexual orientation, economic status, ethnicity, country of national origin, etc." (Oklahoma State University, no date) Central Michigan University defines diversity as: -The ranges of differences among people in the community -An attitude that recognizes the value and contributions of all members of our community - A commitment to respect and to provide equitable treatment for members if our community (Central Michigan University) Meaning of Learner Diversity:  Classrooms are diverse in terms of the types of children and the ways in which they learn. Children learn in different ways because of experience, environment and socio-economic and cultural backgrounds.  In the classroom, "diversity" applies to learning styles, background, educational backgrounds, language, and support at home.  Diversity means valuing the differences between people and the ways in which those differences can contribute to a richer, more creative and more productive working environment.  The concept of diversity encompasses acceptance and respect.  It means understanding that each individual is unique, and recognizing our individual differences.  It is the exploration of these differences in a safe, positive, and nurturing environment.  It is about understanding each other and moving beyond simple tolerance to embracing and celebrating the rich dimensions of diversity contained within each individual.
  3. 3.  Diversity means understanding that each individual is unique and by recognizing these individual differences and similarities, we add to the richness and texture of the educational experience.  Diversity is about respecting individual’s  Race  Culture  National Origin  Region  Gender  Sexual Orientation  Age  Marital Status  Religion  Ethnicity  Disability  Ability  Family Structure  Health  Values  Politics  and much more. IF YOU CAN REMEMBER THE TWO TYPES AS GIVEN BELOW THEN YOU MAY DIVIDE THE ABOVE POINTS IN THESE TWO TYPES. • Primary DimensionsofDiversity • Age • Race • Ethnicity • Heritage • Gender • Physical abilities/qualities • Sexual/affectionorientation • Mental abilities/characteristics • SecondaryDimensionsof Diversity • Education • Communicationstyle • Work background • Work style • Income • Marital status • Militaryexperience • Religiousbeliefs • Geographiclocation • Parental status
  4. 4. Learner Diversity in classroom: Having a diverse group of students simply means recognizing that all the people are unique in their own way. Their differences could consist of 1. SOCIO-ECONOMIC DIFFERENCES 2. CULTURAL DIFFERENCES 3. GENDER DIFFERENCES 4. SEXUAL PREFERENCE DIFFERENCE 5. DEVELOPMENTAL DIFFERENCES: mental growth, physical growth, motor skills and abilities & moral development 6. PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES – Temperament – the different ways a person has of thinking, behaving and reacting. This is shaped by other people and events in students’ lives. This combine into 3 types of temperament types: • Easy or flexible children • Difficult, active or feisty children • Slow to warm up or cautious children • 7. LEARNING AND THINKING STYLES DIFFERENCES -refer to the preferred way an individual processes information. Student Diversity Socioeconomic Background Cultural Backgroun d Gender Interests Sexual Preference Development Difference Personality Learning Style Learning Aptitude
  5. 5. Sensory Preferences- individuals tend to gravitate toward one or two types of sensory inputs and maintain dominance in one of the following types: Visual Learners: may think in pictures and learn best from visual aids like diagrams, illustrated textbooks, overhead transparencies, videos, flip charts and hand-outs. Auditory Learners: learn best through verbal lectures, discussions, talking things through and listening to what others have to say. Tactile/Kinesthetic Learners prefer “learning by doing”, benefit much from hands-on approach, actively exploring the physical world around them. Also there are Multiple Intelligences by Gardner:  Visual/ Spatial (Picture Smart)  Verbal/Linguistic (Word Smart)  Mathematical/Logical (Number/Logic Smart)  Bodily/Kinesthetic (Body Smart)  Musical/Rhythmic (Music Smart)  Intrapersonal (Self Smart)  Interpersonal (People Smart)  Naturalist (Nature Smart) 8. INTEREST DIFFERENCES: Learners perform differently according to their interests, motivations and cultural background. Try to meet the interest of learners. Support children working within academic or vocational areas that they enjoy. 9. LEARNING APTITUDE DIFFERENCES: Children with Exceptional Abilities or Special Needs • Gifted and Talented Learners and Underachievers • Handicapped or Challenged Children • AD/HD • Communication Disorders: Speech, Language and Hearing • Learning Disabilities 10. Exceptionalities These refer to learners who are different in some way from the normal or average. Most of these learners require a lot of understanding and patience as well as special education and related services if they are to reach their full potential and development. 1. Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities 2. Learning Disabilities 3. Intellectual Differences (Gifted and Talented) 4. Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 5. Visual Impairment
  6. 6. 6. Hearing Impairment 7. Oral Communication Problems 8. Orthopedic Impairments Other Factors 1. Gender 2. Racial, ethnic or cultural background 3. Socioeconomic status Impact ofDiversity • Positive:Heterogeneousgrouping,Inclusive classrooms,Beingmore open-minded,Positive outlooktowardsembracingthe differences • Negative:Homogenousgrouping • Positive:Heterogeneousgrouping,Inclusive classrooms,beingmore open-minded,Positive outlooktowardsembracingthe differencespositive effectof diversityonindividual educational performances: • (1) inmore diverse schools,goodstudentsmayhelpweakerfellow students,eitherbygiving actual helporby settinganexample; • (2) inmore diverse schools,weakerstudentshave agreaterchance of encounteringa challengingcurriculum,becausethe teachersteachsuchsubjectmattertothe better students; • (3) more capable studentsinmore diverse schoolsalsolearnbetterthemselves,because theyexplainthe subjectmattertoweakerstudents. • Negative:Homogenousgrouping • Diversityinthe workplace isgenerallyregardedasapositive forcompaniesthatmanage it effectively.However,aworkforce thathassignificantdifferencesinethnicity,race,religion, genderandotherindividual traitscanproduce negativeeffects,especiallyif notwell- managed.These negativeeffectsof diversityare understandable if the workculture does not supporttolerance andacceptance of differences. • (1) a more homogeneousstudentpopulationincreasesthe possibilitythatteachers specialize inteachingtheirspecificstudents,thusincreasingschool effectiveness;
  7. 7. • (2) Ina more homogeneouspopulation,lesstime needstobe spentonbridgingethnicand socio-cultural differencesbetweenstudents,leavingmore time forteachingandlearning, and hence school effectivenessishigher; • (3) inmore homogeneousschools,the mutual trustamongstudents,parents,andteachers isassumedto be higher,resultingingreaterinvolvementof students,parents,andteachers, and hence greatereffectivenessof suchschools. EDUCATIONAL IMPLICATIONS: • Proper knowledge of the individual’s potentialities, interests, aptitude and other personality traits: • Ability grouping • Adjusting the curriculum • Adjusting the methods of teaching • Adopting special programs or methods for individualizing instruction • Remaking the size of the classroom • Special coaching and guidance programs • Role of the teacher • Teachingina CulturallyDiverse SchoolFollowingare some recommendationsforpromoting social harmonyand equal opportunityamongstudentsinraciallyandethnicallydiverse classroomsandschools • • Use fairnessandbalance indealingwithstudents.Studentsshouldneverhave anyjustifi cationfor believingthat“peoplelikeme [whites,AfricanAmericans,Latinos,Vietnamese] don’tgeta fairchance”. • • Choose textsandinstructional materialsthatshow all ethnicgroupsinequallypositive and nonstereotypical roles. • Make sure underrepresentedgroupsare notmisrepresented. • Themesshouldbe nonbiased,andindividualsfromunder-representedgroupsshould appearin nonstereotypical high-statusroles. • Supplementtextbookswithauthenticmaterial fromdifferentculturestakenfrom newspapers,magazines,andothermediaof the culture. • • Reachout to children’sparentsandfamilieswithinformationandactivitiesappropriateto theirlanguage andculture .
  8. 8. • Avoidcommunicatingbias,butdiscussracial orethnicrelationswithempathy(Stephan& Finlay,1999) and openly,ratherthantryingto pretendthere are nodifferences(Polite & Saenger,2003). • • Avoidstereotypingandemphasizethe diversityof individuals,notgroups(Aboud& Fenwick,1999; Levy,1999). • • Let studentsknowthatracial or ethnicbias,includingslurs,taunts,andjokes,will not be toleratedinthe classroomorin the school. • Institute consequencestoenforce thisstandard(Wessler,2001). • • Helpall studentstovalue theirownandothers’cultural heritagesandcontributionsto historyandcivilization.Atthe same time,avoid trivializingorstereotypingculturesmerelyin termsof ethnicfoodsandholidays. • • Decorate classrooms,hallways,andthe library/mediacenterwithmurals,bulletinboards, posters,artifacts,andothermaterialsthatare representativeof the students inthe classor school or of the otherculturesbeingstudied. • • Avoidresegregation.Tracking,orbetween-classabilitygrouping,tendstosegregate high and lowachievers,andbecause of historical andeconomicfactors,studentsfromunder- represented groupstendtobe over-representedinthe ranksof low achievers. • • Be sure that assignmentsare notoffensive orfrustratingtostudentsof diverse cultural groups.For example,askingstudentstowrite abouttheirChristmasexperiencesis inappropriate fornon-Christianstudents. • • Provide structure forintergroupinteraction.Proximityalonedoesnotleadtosocial harmonyamongraciallyand ethnicallydifferentgroups(Schofield,1997).Studentsneed opportunitiestoknowone anotherasindividualsandtoworktogethertowardcommon goals(Cooper& Slavin,2004; Kagan, 2001). For example,studentswhoparticipate in integratedsportsandextracurricularactivitiesare more likely thanotherstudentstohave friendswhoare ethnicallyorraciallydifferentfromthemselves(Braddock,Dawkins,& Wilson,1995; Slavin,1995b). • • Use cooperative learning,whichhasbeenshowntoimprove relationsacrossracial and ethniclines(Cooper&Slavin,2004; National ResearchCouncil,2000).The positive effectsof cooperative learningexperiencesoftenoutlastthe teamsorgroupsthemselvesandmay extendtorelationshipsoutside of school.Cooperative learningcontributestoboth achievementandsocial harmony(Johnson&Johnson,1998; Slavin,Hurley,&Chamberlain, 2003) andcan increase the participationof childrenfromunder-representedgroups(Cohen, 2004). • NeverpubliclyembarrasschildrenbycorrectingtheirEnglish.Instead,praise theircorrect answerandrestate it correctly.To encourage studentstouse theirEnglish,establisha classwide normof neverteasingorlaughingatEnglisherrors • CommunicationBarriers
  9. 9. • Whenyouhave a groupwithstudentsfromdifferentculturesandcountries,youincrease the numberof communicationfiltersandlanguage barriersthatimpactinternal andexternal communicationprocesses.WorkingGroupsthatare more heterogeneoususuallyfind communicationeasierbecause membersdonothave towork as hard to overcome language and culture issues.Some largerorganizationshire interpretersanddiversitytrainerstohelp employeesworkthroughcommunicationchallengesof diversity. • Cultural Resistance • In "Diversityinthe Workplace:Benefits,ChallengesandSolutions,"inThe Multicultural Advantage,JoshGreenberg,presidentof employee-surveyfirmAlphaMeasure inBoulder, Colorado,pointsoutthatresistance tochange is commoninworkplaces.Whencompanies become more diverse,itchangesthe relationshipsandnature of the workplace.These changescan cause stressamong employeesandcontribute tonegativeworking relationshipsandpoorworkplace morale,if notwell-plannedandmanaged.Training employeesaboutdiversityisimportantif itwill effecttheir workrolesandprocesses. • Diverse Experience • Co-workerswithdiverse cultural backgroundsbringunique experiencesandperceptionsto the table ingroups andwork teams.Poolingthe diverse knowledgeandskillsof culturally distinctworkerstogethercanbenefitcompaniesbystrengtheningteams'productivityand responsivenesstochangingconditions. • Each employee inadiverse workplace possessesunique strengthsandweaknessesderived fromtheirculture inadditiontotheirindividuality.Whenmanagedproperly,diversityinthe workplace canleverage the strengthsandcomplementthe weaknessesof eachworkerto make the impact of the workforce greaterthanthe sum of its parts. • LearningAndGrowth • Anotheradvantage of workplace diversityisthe opportunity foremployees'personal growth.Beingexposedtonewideas,culturesandperspectivescanhelpindividualstoreach out intellectuallyandgainaclearerview of theirsurroundingsandtheirplace inthe world. Spendingtime withculturallydiverseco-workerscanslowlybreakdownthe subconscious barriersof ethnocentrismandxenophobia,encouragingemployeestobe more well-rounded membersof society. • CommunicationIssues • Diversityimpactsworkplacecommunicationinpositiveandnegative ways.Betweenco- workers,diversitycanplace impedimentsinthe wayof effectivecommunication,whichcan directlydampenproductivityandthe cohesivenessof small groups.Spendingtime with diverse employeescanbreakdowncommunicationbarriersoverthe long-term, butfirst impressionsandco-workers'orientationperiodscanbe difficulttocontrol whencultures clash.
  10. 10. • Diversitycanstrengthenyourcompany'srelationshipswithspecificcustomergroupsby makingcommunicationmore effective.Customerservice representativescanbe pairedup withcustomersfromtheirspecificdemographic,makingthe customerfeel comfortable with the representative,andthuswiththe company.A numberof companiesinthe southwest UnitedStates,forexample,prefertohire bi-lingualcustomerservice repstodeal with Spanish-speakingcustomersintheirnative language. • Diversityinthe workplace encompassesarange of elements.Differencesinnational origin, primarylanguage,religion,social statusandage can benefitorharm organizations. Managing diversityeffectivelyisthe keytoleveragingthe advantagesandminimizingthe disadvantagesof diversityinthe workplace. OVERALL: