Coldwar2 pp


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Coldwar2 pp

  1. 1. Origins of the Cold War
  2. 2. WWII and Cold War <ul><li>Yalta Conference (Feb 1945) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US needs Russian help in Japan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe’s fate left unclear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Truman and the Bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potsdam Conf. (July 1945) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. A-bomb Hiroshima &Nagasaki <ul><li>Reasons to Drop atomic Bomb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese fight to the death US estimates more than 1 million casualties to capture mainland </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese did not respond to peace offers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hiroshima August 6, 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>City of 350, 000 70-80,000 die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Japanese do not respond </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nagasaki August 9, 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>70,000 are killed </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese surrender September 2, 1945 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Allies Become Enemies <ul><li>United Nations June 1945 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General Assembly a larger group representative of the world built for peace keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Security Council able to investigate problems and take actions 5 Permanent members China, US, USSR, Britain, and France </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soviets tired of invasions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWII losses about 25 million </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Seek secure border </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Demand buffer zone </li></ul></ul>Battle of Stalingrad
  5. 5. Cold War Heats Up <ul><li>Stalin wants to create a buffer zone or a wall of protection to avoid future invasions from Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Germany was split into two sections one controlled by USSR and the other controlled by US, Britain, and France. Berlin the former capital though in the Soviet Zone was divided between Soviets and GB, US, and France </li></ul><ul><li>Iron Curtain taken from a Churchill speech came to represent Europe’s division between mostly democratic western Europe and Communist Eastern Europe </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Iron Curtain
  7. 7. Cold War Heats Up <ul><li>Truman Doctrine (1947) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>US supports countries that reject communism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment policy goal to stop the spread of Soviet influence and communism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Marshall Plan (1947) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides food money, equipment and materials to rebuild western Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undermines conditions for communism </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Cold Divides the World <ul><li>NATO 1949 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Atlantic Treaty Organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>10 countries pledge an attack on one is an attack on all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Warsaw Pact 1955 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soviet Union, East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Albania </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Berlin Wall is built becomes a symbol of the split </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Berlin Airlift                                                                      
  10. 10. Berlin Airlift
  11. 11. Berlin Airlift <ul><li>Stalin gambled that the GB, France, and US would not risk war to fight for Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>1948 Stalin cut off all land and rail access to Berlin city faced starvation </li></ul><ul><li>Allies responded by flying over 2.3 million tons of food and supplies into Berlin </li></ul><ul><li>After 11 months Stalin reopened the City 1949 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Berlin Airlift
  13. 13. Korean War
  14. 14. Korean War <ul><li>On June 25, 1950 North Korea invades the South </li></ul><ul><ul><li>UN sends troops from 15 nations under Douglas Macarthur </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UN Police Action forces North Koreans back north past 38 th to Yalu river and the border with China </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oct 1950 China sends 300,000 troops storming into N. Korea they drive UN forces back south of the 38 th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Macarthur wanted to Nuke the Chinese is fired for his views </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stalemate in 1952 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By 1952 the UN forces had fought back to the 38 th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In 1953 North and South Korea signed a cease fire and established the DMZ at the 38 th parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea remained divided, creations of theDMZ, over 4 million people lost their lives </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Map of Vietnam France had started colonizing The area in 1836. By 1907 controlled either Directly or indirectly all of The regions on this map
  16. 16. Vietnam War <ul><li>French Indochina </li></ul><ul><ul><li>France had controlled most Southwest Asia since since the 1900’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ho Chi Minh was a nationalist he fought against the Japanese. After the war he expected to gain independence. He turned to communism for help in his struggle for independence after the war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>France is defeated in Vietnam. Domino theory US becomes involved fearing that if they allowed Vietnam to fall to communism the entire regain would become communist </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Korea remained divided, DMZ, over 4 million people lost their lives </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. The Atom Bomb and Nuclear Arms Race
  18. 18. The New Look <ul><li>Eisenhower and Massive Retaliation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of high tech and aversion to ground troops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>CIA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Covert operations and the Third World </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Initial Reactions <ul><li>Anxiety, Fear, and Elation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sense of doom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic sales </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Atomic bomb ring </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Cold War and the Bomb <ul><li>Civil Defense Greenbrier Bunker </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Russians detonate first atomic bomb in 1949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ How to Survive an Atomic Bomb” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bomb shelters </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Cold War Science Fiction Film Ambivalence and Anxiety over the Bomb
  22. 23. 1950s Invasion Films
  23. 24. China falls to Communism <ul><li>Mao Zedong communist leader recruits from the peasant population. Promises land reform or giving land back to the farmers. Backed by the USSR </li></ul><ul><li>Jian Jieshi capitalist backed by the US his army was ineffective because of terrible corruption. US provided over 2 billion in aid, most squandered by corrupt generals </li></ul><ul><li>Moa wins and begins his communist reforms in China to include the Great Leap Forward which created communes for farms very unsuccessful abandoned after terrible famines </li></ul>
  24. 25. Cold War Science Fiction Film Ambivalence and Anxiety over the Bomb