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Page 1
CHAPTER-1
Introduction
For the power generation with 2x110 MW, 3x210 MW & 2x195 MW of K.S.T.S. Authorities
are required to be operative to full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operation either on
L.T. system i.e. 415 V 3-phase power supply is made available to the system after providing
the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV& different
service transformer of capacity 1.0 MVA ,which are located near the load center as
transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV/415 V. The 6.6 KV power distributed through 6.6
KV interconnected Bus system for all the five units with a control through DC of 220 V.
Figure 1.1 Kstps Layout
The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (switchgear) which are located nearly
the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers ,which are breaker
controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGER are having the control system on 110/ 220
Page 2
V AC. The 6.6 KV power supply which are either MOCB (minimum oil circuit breaker) of
JOYATI MAKE or circuit Breakers.
In APRIL 1973, central electricity Authority prepared a project Report for power station
comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSCB subsequently in September.
1975 this was revised by Consultant Thermal Design organization ,Central Electricity
Authority for invention of 2x110 MW unit being manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1
st
stage . The planning commission cleared the project report in sept, 1976 for installation of two
units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs 143 Cores.
The KSTPS has seven units power station. In first stage there is unit of 2x110 MW, I second
stage 3 unit of 210 MW. In third & fourth stage, each having 210 MW & 195 units and five
stage & seven unit is respectively. The total power generated in KSTPS IS 1240MW.
K.S.P.S IS DESIGNED IN FOLLOWING UNITS
 I STAGE - 2X110 MW
 II STAGE - 2X220 MW
 III STAGE - 1X210 MW
 IV STAGE - 1X195 MW
 V STAGE - 1X195 MW
1.1 Location:-
The Kota Thermal power station is ideally on left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota
Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct
circulation of cooling system for power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ½ KMS. From the
power station.
1.2 Land:-
Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, for disposal of ash
tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash slury from is disposed off through ash
and slurry plants.
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1.3 Coal:-
Coal India limited owns and operates all major coal fields in India through its coal producing
subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coil Fields, Limited, Western coal Fields Limited/ coal India
limited is supply coal from its coal mines of producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to
Kota thermal power station through railway. The average distance of SECL, ECL, & BCCL are
800, 950 and 1350 Kms.
1.4 Water:-
The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal
River. The cost of transporting coal ad water is particularly high. Therefore, as far possible.
The plant must be located near to the pit rather than at load centre for load above 220 MW and
375 MW. The transportation of electrical energy is more economical as compared to the
transportation of coal.
1.5 Design features:-
The design consists of following steps.
 Estimation of cost.
 Selection of site.
 Capacity of Power Station.
 Selection of Boiler & Turbine.
 Selection of Condensing unit.
Selection of Electrical Generator
Page 4
CHAPTER-2
GENERAL LAYOUT & BASIC IDEA
A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle. Steam is produced in Boiler is
exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into boiler again.
The Kota thermal power station is divided into four main circuit :
 Fuel and ash circuit.
 Air and gas circuit.
 Feed water and steam circuit.
 Cooling water circuit.
2.1 Fuel & Ash circuit:-
The fuel used in KSTPS is coal, which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. The
quantity of ash reduced is approximately 35 - 40% of coal used.
2.2 Air and gas circuit:-
Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of boiler through the action of
forced draft fan and induced draft fan. The fuel gases are first pass around the boiler tube and
super heated tubes in the furnace, next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer.
2.3 Fuel water and steam circuit:-
The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (HP) heaters through
extracted steam from the lower pressure extraction of turbine. Then its goes to dearator where
extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation.
From deaerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of water. From the
BFP it passes through the high pressure heater. A small part of water and steam is lost while
passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well. This water is called
the makeup water. Thereafter, feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer.
.
Page 5
In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and high temperature
section of boiler.
Figure 2.1 Plant over view
The wet steam passes through superheated and it goes into HP turbine after expanding in HP
turbine. The law pressure steam called cold reheat steam (CRH) goes to IP turbine and then
exhausted through the condenser into hot well.
Page 6
CHAPTER-3
COAL HANDLING PLANT
3.1 Introduction:-
It can be the heart of thermal power plant because it is provided the fuel for combustion in
boiler. The coal is brought to the KSTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for
transportation of coal through rails. The main coal sources for KSTPS are SECL (South Eastern
Coalfields Limited), ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal
Limited). Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KSTPS.
Figure-3.1 Coal Handling Plant
. Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 50 tons of coal. The approximate
per day consumption at KSTPS is about 1400 metric tons. The coal firstly unloaded from
wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crusher and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be
transformed to boiler.
The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections:-
1. Wagon unloading system.
2. Crushing system.
3. Conveying system.
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3.2Wagon Unloading System:-
It unloads from wagon to hopper. The hopper, which is made of iron, is in the form of net so
that pieces of only equal to less than 200 mm. size pass through it. The bigger ones are broken
by the workers with the help of hammers. From the hoppers coal pieces fall in vibrator. It is an
mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends.
Figure 3.2 Wagon Tripler
The rollers roll with the help of rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor
with specification:-
Rated Output : 71 MW
Rated Voltage : 415 V.
Rated Current : 14.22 Amp.
Rated speed : 975 rpm.
No. of phases : 3
Frequency : 50 Hz
3.3 Crushing System:-
Crusher House:-
It consists of crusher which is used to crush the coal to 20 mm. size. There are mainly two type
of crushers working in KSTPS:-
Primary Crushers i.e. i) Rail crushers’ ii) Rotary breaker
Secondary Crushers i.e. Ring granulators
Page 8
Primary crushers:-
Primary crusher are provided in only CHP stage system, which breaking of coal in CHO stage
1 & stage 2 system is done at wagon Tripler hopper jail up to the size ( -250mm).
Roll Crushers:-
Type : 80’’ 5 a breakers.
Capacity : 1350 TPH Rates/ 1500 TPH Design.
Feed material : Rom coal.
Feed size : (-) 1200 mm. (approx.)
End Product size : (-) 500 mm.
Motor rating : 2 Nos. 125 KW, 100 rpm.
Crushers : 225.
Rotary Breaker:-
Type : 12’x21 Rotary Breaker.
Capacity : 800 TPH Rated/ 1000 TPH Design.
Feed Material : coal with rejects
Motor rating : 125 HP, 1500 rpm.
End product size : (-) 0-200 mm.
Feed size : (-) 0-500 mm.
Secondary Crusher:-
Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attraction, shearing and
compression. Most of the crusher employs a combination of three crushing methods. Ring
granulators crush by compressing accompanied impact and shearing.
Construction and operation:-
Secondary crushers are ring type granulators crushing at the rate of 550 TPH / 750 TPH for
input size of 250 mm. and output size. And output size of 20 mm. The crusher is coupled with
motor and gearbox by fluid coupling.
Main parts of granulators like break plates, cages, crushing rings and other internal parts are
made of tough manganese (Mn).The rotor consists of four rows of crushing rings each set
having 20 Nos of toothed rings and 18 Nos. of rings hammers. These rows are hung on a pair of
suspension shaft mounted on rotor discs.
Crushers of this type employ the centrifugal of switching rings stroking the coal to produce the
crushing action. The coal is admitted at the top and the rings stroke the coal downward. The
coal discharge through grating at bottom.
Page 9
CHAPTER-4
ASH HANDLING PLANT
Figure 4.1 Ash Handling Plant
This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:-
1. Fuel and Ash Plant.
2. Air and Gas Plant.
3. Air Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant.
4.1 Fuel and ash plant:
Coal is used as combustion material in KSTPS, in order to get an efficient utilization of coal
mills. The pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of boilers. Ash
produced as the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling plant.
Page 10
4.2 Air & Gas Plant:-
Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced
draft fan. In KSTPS there are two FD fan and three ID fans available for draft system per unit.
The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through pre-heater
Where the flue gases heat it. The pre heating of primary air causes improved and intensified
combustion of coal.
The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first passes round the boiler tubes then it
passes through the super heater and through economizer. In economizer the heat of flue gases
raises the temperature of feed water .finally the flue gases after passing through the electro-
static precipitator is exhausted through chimney.
4.3 Ash Disposal & Dust collection plant:-
Ash Handling plant consist of especially designed bottom and fly ash system for two path
boiler the system for both units is identical and following description is applied to both the
units the water compounded bottom ash hopper receives the bottom ash from furnace from
where it is stores and discharge through the clinker grinder. Two slurry pumps are provided
which is common to both units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke
through pipe line.
4.4 Utilization:-
There are various method of utilization of coal-ash along with established engineering
technologies some of them are mention below:-
1. Manufacturing building materials.
2. Making of concrete.
3. Manufacturing of pozzuolana cement.
4. Road construction.
Page 11
CHAPTER-5
ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR
Figure 5.1 Electro- Static Precipitator
5.1 Scope & Principle of Operation:-
For general mankind, today an Eco friendly industry is must. As far as air pollution is
concerned now a day’s various flue gases filter are there in service. The choice depends on the
size of suspended particle matter. These filters are E.S.P. Fabric filter higher efficiency cyclone
separations and sitelling room. Fop fly ash , where the particle size vary from 0.75 micron to
100 micron use gradually use ESP the dust lidder gas is passed through an intense electric field,
which causes ionization of the gases & they changed into ion while traveling towards opposite
charged electrode get deposited as particles and thus dust is electric deposited an creating the
field. It is continuous process.
5.2 Controller:-
Now a day micro-processor based intelligent controllers are used to regulator the power fed to
the HVR. The controls the firing / ignition angle of the thyristor connected in parallel mode.
Input out waves of the controller and HVR are also shown above, which clearly indicates that
average power fed to ESP field can be controlled by variation of the firing angle of thyristor.
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5.3 High Voltage Rectifier Transformer:-
HVR receiver the regulated supply from controller. It steps up to high voltage rectifier. The
D.C. supply is fed to E.S.P field through its negative bushing. The positive bushing so
connected to earth through small resistance which forms a current feedback circuit
5.4 E.S.P. Field:
The field consists of emitting and collecting electrodes structure which are totally isolated from
each other and hanging either the top roof of field. The emitting is also isolated from the roof
through the supporting insulator which are supporting with emitting electrode frame works and
also the supply to these electrodes is fed support insulator. The collecting electrodes are of the
shape of flat plate. By several similar plate which emitting electrode are of shape of spring.
Strong on the emitting frame work with the help of hooks in the both ends.
Page 13
CHAPTER-6
BOILER
Figure 6.1 Boiler
A boiler (or steam generator) is closed vessel in which water, under pressure is converted into
steam. It is one of the major components of thermal power plant. A boiler always designed to
absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion. This is transferred to the
boiler by all the three modes of heat transfer i.e. conduction, convection and radiation.
6.1 Boilers are classified as:-
Fire tube boiler:-
In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water.
These are economical for low pressure only.
Water tube boiler:-
In this type water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow the tubes.
These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and steam outlet.
 The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tubes boilers
 High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface.
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 Better heat transfer to the mass of water.
 Batter efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes.
 Batter overall control.
 Easy to removal of scale from inside the tube.
6.2 Furnace:-
Furnace is primary of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted
into thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion.
Major factors that assist for efficient are the temperature inside the furnace and turbine, which
causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. In modern boiler, water cooled furnaces are used.
6.3 Pulverized fuel system:-
The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced form
wind nozzle located in the four corners inside the boilers:-
The crushed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal
stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverize mill at
a definite rate.
6.4 Boiler Drum:-
The drum is a pressure vessel. Its function is to separate water and steam from tmixture (of
steam & water) generated in furnace walls. It provides water storage for preventing the
saturation of tubes. It also the need for purification of steam. The steam purification primarily
depends on the extent of moisture removal, since solids in the steam are carried by the moisture
associated with it. The drum made up of two halves of carbon steel plates having thickness of
133 mm.
6.5 Draft system:-
The combustion process in furnace take place only when it receives a steady flow of air and has
combustion continuously removed. Theoretically balanced draft means keeping furnace
pressure equal to atmospheric pressure, but in practice the furnace is kept slightly below
atmospheric pressure.
Draft fans:-
A fan can be defined as volumetric machine which like pumps moves quantities of air gas from
one place to another. In doing this it overcomes resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with
energy necessary for contained motion. The following fans are use in boiler house
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Primary air fan (P.A. fan):-
Pulverized coal is directly fed from coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace
through coal pipes with the help of heated sir coming from PA fan. Secondly, this fan also dries
the coal.
Forced draught fan (F.D. fan):-
The combustion process in the furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air.
The air supplied by FD fan. Thus FD fan takes air from atmosphere at ambient temperature &
so provides additional draught. Its speed varies from 600-1500 RPM.
Specification of Forced Draft Fan:
3phase, 6.6 KV, Rated. Current-74A
RPM-1500 Discharge-408 T/Hr
Figure 6.2 F.D. Fan
6.6 Induced draft fan (I.D. fan):-
The flue gases coming out of the boiler are passed to ESP & then dust free gases discharged up
by the chimney to the atmosphere through the ID fan
 Specification of ID fan:-
3phase, 6.6KV, 1750KW Rated, current-192.1A
RPM-745 Discharge-720 T/Hr
Page 16
Figure -6.3 I.D. Fan
6.7 Economizer:-
The flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. An economizer extracts a part of this
heat from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam
drum.
Figure 6.4 Economizer
The use of economizer results in saving fuel consumption and higher boiler efficiency but it
needs extra investment.
.
Page 17
6.8 Super heater:-
Superheated steam is that, which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same
pressure i.e. it, has been heated above the temperature corresponding to its pressure.
-
Figure 6.5 Super Heater
The steam is superheated the highest economical temperature not only to increase the
efficiency but also to have following advantages
 Reduction in requirement of steam quantity for a given output of energy owing to its
high internal energy reduces the turbine size.
 Superheated steam being dry, turbine blades remain dry so the mechanical resistance to
the flow of steam over them is small resulting in high efficiency.
 No corrosion and putting at the turbine blades occur owing the dryness of steam.
Page 18
CHAPTER-7
STEAM TURBINE
7.1 Introduction:-
The turbine is a machine in which shaft is rotated steadily by impact or reaction of current or
steam of working substance ( steam, air , water ,gases etc.) upon blades of wheel. It converts
the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into mechanical power by virtue of
dynamic action of working substance.
Figure 7.1 Steam Turbine
7.2 principal of operation of steam turbine:-
Working of steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of steam. The steam is
caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: due to this fall in pressure a certain amount of
heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the steam is set moving with a
greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam, enter the moving part of the turbine
and here suffer a change in direction of motion which part of the turbine and here suffer a
change in the direction changing may occur once or number of times in succession and may be
carried out with difference of detail. The passage of steam through moving part of the
commonly called the blade, may take place in such manner that pressure at outlet side of the
blade is equal to that at inlet inside. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse turbine.
Page 19
7.3 Technical Data of Turbine:-
The main technical data of 110 MW turbine is given below:-
Rated output 110 MW.
Economic output 95 MW.
Rated speed 3000 rpm
Direction of rotation viewing clockwise
The front bearing pedestal
Rated steam pressure before stop valve 130 atm
7.4 Description of steam turbines:-
1. Steam flow:-
210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP, IP & LP parts. The HP part is
single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. The individual turbine rotors
and generator rotor are rigidly coupled. The HP cylinder has a throttle control. Main stream is
admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves.
2. HP Turbine:-
The HP causing is a barrel type causing axial joint. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel
type causing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. The
inner causing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relived higher pressure
arising outside and this can kept small. The HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages.
3. IP Turbine:-
The IP turbine of double flow construction. The casing of IP split horizontally and is of double
shell construction. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing.
The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below
through two inlet nozzles. The center flows components the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet
temperature affecting brackets, bearing etc. The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per
flow.
4. LP Turbine:-
The casing of double flow type LP turbine of three shell design. The shells are axially split and
rigidly welded construction. The outer casing consists of front and rear walls, the longitudinal
support bearing and upper part. The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams
on the base plates of foundation. The double flow inner casing consists of outer shell and inner
shell. The inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement
Page 20
CHAPTER-8
TURBO GENERATOR
Figure 8.1 Turbo Generator
8.1 Theory:-
TURBO GENERATOR manufactured by B.H.E.L. and incorporated with most modern design
concepts and constructional features, which ensures reliability, with constructional &
operational economy. The generator stator is tight construction, supporting & enclosing the
stator windings, core and hydrogen coolers. Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within
frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor. The generator is driven by directly
coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r.p.m. the generator is designed for continuous
operations at rated output. Temperatures detectors and other devices installed or connected
within the machine; permit the windings, teeth core & hydrogen temperature, pressure & purity
in machine under conditions. The source of excitation of rotor windings is thyristor controlled
D.C. supply. The auxiliary equipment’s supplied with the machine suppress and enables the
control of hydrogen pressure and purity, shaft sealing lubricating oils. There is a provision for
cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls
the temperature of windings.
Page 21
8.2 Technical Data:-
(A) Generator (110 MW):-
Type : e.g. 2, 34,602
Continuous apparent power : 1, 37,500 KVA.
Active power : 7, 10,000 KW.
Power factor : 0.8 (lagging)
Rated voltage : 1000 + 5 % rated.
Current : 7,220 A
Critical speed : 3000 r.p.m. at
Frequency : 50 HZ
Page 22
CHAPTER-9
COOLING SYSTEM
Figure 9.1 Cooling System
9.1 General:-
In KSTPS hydrogen cooling system is employed for generator cooling. Hydrogen is used for
cooling medium primarily because of its superior cooling properties & low density. Thermal
conductivity of hydrogen 7.3 times of air. It also has higher transfer co-efficient. Its ability heat
through forced convection is about 75% batter than air. Density of hydrogen approx. 7/14 of air
at a given temperature and pressure. These reduce the wind age losses in high speed machine
like turbo-generator. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improves its capacity to
absorb & remote heat. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below:-
1) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion.
2) Corona discharge is not harmful to insulation. Since oxidation is not possible.
3) Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the
use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing.
Page 23
CHAPTER-10
WATER TREATMENT PLANT
Figure 10.1 Water Treatment plant
The principle problem in high pressure boiler is control corrosion and steam quality. Internal
corrosion costs power station corers of rupees in repair without strict control impurities in
steam also from deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. The impurities present in water are
follows:-
1. Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials.
2. Dissolved slats and minerals.
3. Dissolved gases.
4. Other minerals (oil, acid etc.)
5. a) Turbidity & sediment.
b) Silica.
c) Micro Biological.
d) Sodium & potassium salt.
e) Dissolved Sales Minerals.
6. a) O2 gas.
b) CO2 gas
Page 24
CHAPTER-11
TRANSFORMER
Figure 11.1 Transformer
Transformer is static device which is used to change to voltage level keeping the power and
frequency same. In this plant transformer is one of the most important equipment. In the whole
plant, there are about 83 transformer installed at various places to operate the auxiliaries.
Main transformer, which are necessary:
1. To step up generated voltage.
2. To supply power to the auxiliaries from the generator.
3. To start the plant by taking the supply from grid.
Are installed in a transformer yard. It is located in between the main plant and the
switchyard. The main transformers installed in the transformers installed in the
transformer yard are:
1. Generator Transformer (Gt-A):-
It steps up the voltage from 16.5 Kv. to 220 KV. It connects the plant with the
220 KV Switchyard.
2. Generator Transformer (Gt-B):-
it steps up the voltage from 16.5 KV to 400 KV. It connects the plant with the
KV switchyard.
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3. Station Transformer (St):-
It is step down transformer with 50 MVA capacities. It is used to step down 220
KV from the grid to 6.9 KV.
4. Unit auxiliary Transformer (Uat):-
It is a step down transformer with 20 MVA capacities. It step down the voltage
from 16.5 KV to 6.9 KV.
5. Station Service Transformer:-
It is a step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. It is used to step down from
6.6 KV to 0.4333 KV.
6. Unit Service Transformer (Ust):-
It is step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. It is used to step down from
6.6 KV to 0.4333KV
Page 26
CHAPTER-12
SWITCH YARD
Figure 12.1 Switch Yard
12.1 220 KV System:-
Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are inter-connected through a bus
coupler. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of
125 MVA 240/11 KV yard transformer. There are two step down transformer each feeding 6.6
KV system (Station Switchyard) viz. BS-IS & SB-IB. Each station transformer has two
windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 MVA, 270/7/7.2 KVA four feeder take
off from 220 switch yard, two to SAKTPYPURA GSS and other HEERAPURA, jaipur JSS.
Each of four feeder are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker
and breaker isolator. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders
whose breaker require maintenance of any one bus throws bypass isolators and all other line
feeder whose breaker is by passed is then transformed to bus coupler breaker. A brief
description of equipments of 220 KV systems is as follows
12.2 Circuit breakers:-
Each of generator transformers, station transformers, line feeder and bus coupler is provided
with minimum oil circuit breaker of BHEL make. It is rated for 245 KV, 2500 A and 13400
MVA circuit breaker is used to break the circuit either in load condition or no load condition.
All the isolators are provided in 220 KV switch yard and are motor operated. Triple pole
Page 27
double breaker type and power switch yard L&T makes these and are rates for 245 KV and
1250 A. the four isolators are provided with earth switch.
12.3 Current Transformer:-
All 220 KV current transformers are provided for measuring and protection. They are BHEL
make, single phase, oil filled nitrogen sealed outdoor type. All the E.T.S. are multi-cored with
each core having specification upon duty it is to perform. Feeder circuits have 5 cores.
1) Bus bar protection core I 1250/250/IA.
2) Distance protection core II 600-300/IA.
3) O/C and E/F protection core 600-300/IA.
4) For metering and measuring 600-300/IA.
Potential Transformer:-
Each of 220 KV buses is provided with three P.T.’S are core for each phase of BHEL make.
There are single phase, oil filled outdoor. N2 sealed elicitor magnetic type P.T. Has two
secondary winding on secondary side and selected for 220/53 KV, 10/53 KV
Page 28
CHAPTER-13
MAIN CONTROL ROOM
13.1Introduction:-
Figure 13.1 Main Control Room
In control room various controls are provided simultaneously various measurement are made
various relays are provided here. Instrumentation Limited Kota is measure supplier of
apparatus.
There is one unit control from which two adjacent unit of 110 MW each can be controlled. In
addition are local panels at the boilers, turbo sets and boiler feed pumps. The operation of unit
is basically controlled from unit control room.
The operation of various rents and chain are done locally as per requirement. The unit control
room has a set of parameters panel for indicating or recording parameters of boilers or turbo
sets.
The parameters recorded in control room included per pr. And temp. of line steam, reheat
steam ,feed water fuel oil flow, mill outlet temp. , mill differential, turbine speed, control valve
operation, turbine shaft, axial shaft, back pressure in condenser, metal temperature etc.
Page 29
The VCB also control panel for one generator and contains exciter synchronizing arrangement.
The unit control room also houses most of electronic regulator, relay , recorders and other
devices in near side of room.
The scheme of control and instruction is provided to control the parameters and safe operations
of equipment. Automatic control is provided for combustion for feed water regulation and
reheat temp. The combustion control is designed to inlet maintain the desired steam pressure
at turbine only variations thereof utilized to vary fuel input to the boiler w.r.t. steam pressure.
Ratio steam flow maintained automatically.
13.2 Fan Control Desk:-
1. Induced draft fan ( 3 Nos.) at full load and 2 Induced Draft Fan Run.
2. Forced Draft Fan (2 Nos.).
3. Primary Air Fan (3 Nos.) at full load.
13.3 Fuel Control Desk:-
1. Coal, Oil flow.
2. Oil pressure.
3. Temp. Of mill (inlet & outlet).
4. Flow of air.
13.4 Steam & Water Desk:-
1) Drum Level Control
2) Flow of steam & water.
3) Pressure of Steam & Water.
4) Temp. of steam and water.
13.5 Turbine Desk:-
1) Pressure Control.
2) Stator Rotor Temp.
3) For Stator cooling (a) H2 pressure. b) H2O pressure.
Page 30
CHAPTER-14
EFFICIENCY
14.1 Introduction:-
In KSTPS we convert potential or chemical energy of the fuel into heat by the process of
combustion. The heat is given to the water and it converts its form into steam. The pressure of
steam rotates the turbine which is now in the form of kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is
consumed by generator, producing electrical energy, which is sent to differential localities for
utilization.
Enthalpy is defined as the thermodynamic property of system, is equal to sum of, the sum of its
internal energy and the product of its pressure and volume. Its mathematical concept of
available energy in the steam.
Efficiency, in the case of electricity generation process, can be expressed as amount of heat
energy liberated in the boiler compared with the amount of electrical energy generated with it.
It is generally denoted by n.
14.2 Plant Efficiency:-
We will divide whole plant efficiency in four components:
1. Cycle efficiency.
2. Turbo –generator efficiency.
3. Boiler efficiency.
4. Auxiliary power efficiency.
Overall n=boiler n x turbine n x generator n
Cycle Efficiency:-
Cycle= Energy available for conversion in work / energy given in boiler as heat.
It can be controlled by:-
 Condenser vacuum.
 Steam conditions of CV & IV.
 Regenerative feed heating.
Generator Efficiency:-
The alternator is a very efficient m/c at about 98% efficiency. The losses can be categorized.
a) Copper and iron losses.
b) Wind age losses.
Page 31
Operationally the plant is governed by the grid requirements.
Boiler Efficiency:-
 Dry flue gas loss: Increase by excess air in boiler.
 Wet flue gas loss: Moisture in coal.
 Moisture in combustion loss: Hydrogen loss.
 Radiator & unaccounted loss.
Turbine Efficiency:-
It means the efficiency of steam turbine in converting the heat energy made available in the
cycle into actual mechanical work.
Page 32
CHAPTER-15
PROTECTION
1. Field protection.
2. Pole slipping.
3. Plane over load protection.
4. Inter-turn Fault.
5. Negative phase Sequence protection.
6. Reverse power protection.
7. Forward power protection.
8. Under frequency & over frequency protection.
9. Generator voltage protection.
15.1 General Protection:
It is most important electrical equipment of many generating station. Tripping of even a
generating unit may cause overloading of associated machines and even to system un-stability.
The basis function of protection applied to generator is reduced voltage to minimum by rapid
discrimination clearance of fault. Unlike other apparatus the opening of C.B. to isolate faulty
generator is not sufficient to prevent future damage.
Salient Feature of K.S.T.P.S.:-
1. LOCATION Sakatpura, Kota
2. CAPACITY
 I & II UNIT - 2x110 MW
 III UNIT - 210 MW
 IV UNIT - 210 MW
 V UNIT - 210 MW
 VI UNIT - 195 MW
 VII UNIT - 195 MW
Page 33
CONCLUSION
The first phase of practical training has proved to be quite fruitful. It provided an opportunity
for encounter with such huge machine like wagon tripper 110 MW & 210 MW turbines ad
generator.
The architecture of power plant the way various unit are linked and the way working of whole
plant is controlled to make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structure
description and working of various machines but the greater part of planning proper
management.
It also provide an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a
lot of labour e.g. wagon tripper (CHP). But there are few factors that require special mention.
Training is not carried out into its tree sprit. It is recommended that there should be some
project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. There
should be strict monitoring of performance of students and system of grading be improved on
the basis of work done.
However training has proved to be quite fruitful. It has allowed an opportunity to get an
exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals.
Page 34
REFERENCES
1. http://www.rvnul.com/kota thermal power station.php
2. B.R Gupta ‘Generation of electrical power’ India 2009
3. Notes given during training period.

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kota thermal power plant

  • 1. Page 1 CHAPTER-1 Introduction For the power generation with 2x110 MW, 3x210 MW & 2x195 MW of K.S.T.S. Authorities are required to be operative to full operation. The auxiliaries are basically operation either on L.T. system i.e. 415 V 3-phase power supply is made available to the system after providing the station transformer of 3x50 MVA capacity with voltage 220 KV/ 7.2/7.2 KV& different service transformer of capacity 1.0 MVA ,which are located near the load center as transformer having the voltage of 6.6 KV/415 V. The 6.6 KV power distributed through 6.6 KV interconnected Bus system for all the five units with a control through DC of 220 V. Figure 1.1 Kstps Layout The 415 V power supply is done through a L.T. SWGR (switchgear) which are located nearly the distribution transformer as well as the load centers. The all incomers ,which are breaker controlled , are having the control the L.T. SWGER are having the control system on 110/ 220
  • 2. Page 2 V AC. The 6.6 KV power supply which are either MOCB (minimum oil circuit breaker) of JOYATI MAKE or circuit Breakers. In APRIL 1973, central electricity Authority prepared a project Report for power station comprising of the two units of each of capacity 110 MW for RSCB subsequently in September. 1975 this was revised by Consultant Thermal Design organization ,Central Electricity Authority for invention of 2x110 MW unit being manufactured by BHEL, Hyderabad in 1 st stage . The planning commission cleared the project report in sept, 1976 for installation of two units each of 110 MW in first estimated cost of Rs 143 Cores. The KSTPS has seven units power station. In first stage there is unit of 2x110 MW, I second stage 3 unit of 210 MW. In third & fourth stage, each having 210 MW & 195 units and five stage & seven unit is respectively. The total power generated in KSTPS IS 1240MW. K.S.P.S IS DESIGNED IN FOLLOWING UNITS  I STAGE - 2X110 MW  II STAGE - 2X220 MW  III STAGE - 1X210 MW  IV STAGE - 1X195 MW  V STAGE - 1X195 MW 1.1 Location:- The Kota Thermal power station is ideally on left bank of Chambal River at Up Stream of Kota Barrage. The large expanse of water reached by the barrage provides an efficient direct circulation of cooling system for power station. The 220 KV GSS is within ½ KMS. From the power station. 1.2 Land:- Land measuring approx. 250 hectares was required for the project in 1976, for disposal of ash tank very near to power station is acquired which the ash slury from is disposed off through ash and slurry plants.
  • 3. Page 3 1.3 Coal:- Coal India limited owns and operates all major coal fields in India through its coal producing subsidiary companies viz. Eastern Coil Fields, Limited, Western coal Fields Limited/ coal India limited is supply coal from its coal mines of producing subsidiaries BCCL, SECL & ECL to Kota thermal power station through railway. The average distance of SECL, ECL, & BCCL are 800, 950 and 1350 Kms. 1.4 Water:- The source of water for power station is reservoir formed by Kota Barrage on the Chambal River. The cost of transporting coal ad water is particularly high. Therefore, as far possible. The plant must be located near to the pit rather than at load centre for load above 220 MW and 375 MW. The transportation of electrical energy is more economical as compared to the transportation of coal. 1.5 Design features:- The design consists of following steps.  Estimation of cost.  Selection of site.  Capacity of Power Station.  Selection of Boiler & Turbine.  Selection of Condensing unit. Selection of Electrical Generator
  • 4. Page 4 CHAPTER-2 GENERAL LAYOUT & BASIC IDEA A control system of station basically works on Rankin Cycle. Steam is produced in Boiler is exported in prime mover and is condensed in condenser to be fed into boiler again. The Kota thermal power station is divided into four main circuit :  Fuel and ash circuit.  Air and gas circuit.  Feed water and steam circuit.  Cooling water circuit. 2.1 Fuel & Ash circuit:- The fuel used in KSTPS is coal, which on combustion in the boiler produced the ash. The quantity of ash reduced is approximately 35 - 40% of coal used. 2.2 Air and gas circuit:- Air from the atmosphere is supplied to the combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced draft fan and induced draft fan. The fuel gases are first pass around the boiler tube and super heated tubes in the furnace, next through dust collector (ESP) & then economizer. 2.3 Fuel water and steam circuit:- The condensate leaving the condenser is first heated in low pressure (HP) heaters through extracted steam from the lower pressure extraction of turbine. Then its goes to dearator where extra air and non-condensable gases are removed from the hot water to avoid pitting / oxidation. From deaerator it goes to boiler feed pump which increases the pressure of water. From the BFP it passes through the high pressure heater. A small part of water and steam is lost while passing through different components therefore water is added in hot well. This water is called the makeup water. Thereafter, feed water enters into the boiler drum through economizer. .
  • 5. Page 5 In boiler tubes water circulates because of density difference in lower and high temperature section of boiler. Figure 2.1 Plant over view The wet steam passes through superheated and it goes into HP turbine after expanding in HP turbine. The law pressure steam called cold reheat steam (CRH) goes to IP turbine and then exhausted through the condenser into hot well.
  • 6. Page 6 CHAPTER-3 COAL HANDLING PLANT 3.1 Introduction:- It can be the heart of thermal power plant because it is provided the fuel for combustion in boiler. The coal is brought to the KSTPS through rails there are fourteen tracks in all for transportation of coal through rails. The main coal sources for KSTPS are SECL (South Eastern Coalfields Limited), ECL (Eastern Coalfield Limited) and BCCL (Bharat Coking Coal Limited). Everyday 3 to 4 trains of coal are unloaded at KSTPS. Figure-3.1 Coal Handling Plant . Each train consists of 58 wagons and each wagon consists of 50 tons of coal. The approximate per day consumption at KSTPS is about 1400 metric tons. The coal firstly unloaded from wagon by wagon triplers then crushed by crusher and magnetic pulley and pulverized to be transformed to boiler. The coal handling plant can broadly be divided into three sections:- 1. Wagon unloading system. 2. Crushing system. 3. Conveying system.
  • 7. Page 7 3.2Wagon Unloading System:- It unloads from wagon to hopper. The hopper, which is made of iron, is in the form of net so that pieces of only equal to less than 200 mm. size pass through it. The bigger ones are broken by the workers with the help of hammers. From the hoppers coal pieces fall in vibrator. It is an mechanical system having two rollers each at its ends. Figure 3.2 Wagon Tripler The rollers roll with the help of rope moving on pulley operated by a slip ring induction motor with specification:- Rated Output : 71 MW Rated Voltage : 415 V. Rated Current : 14.22 Amp. Rated speed : 975 rpm. No. of phases : 3 Frequency : 50 Hz 3.3 Crushing System:- Crusher House:- It consists of crusher which is used to crush the coal to 20 mm. size. There are mainly two type of crushers working in KSTPS:- Primary Crushers i.e. i) Rail crushers’ ii) Rotary breaker Secondary Crushers i.e. Ring granulators
  • 8. Page 8 Primary crushers:- Primary crusher are provided in only CHP stage system, which breaking of coal in CHO stage 1 & stage 2 system is done at wagon Tripler hopper jail up to the size ( -250mm). Roll Crushers:- Type : 80’’ 5 a breakers. Capacity : 1350 TPH Rates/ 1500 TPH Design. Feed material : Rom coal. Feed size : (-) 1200 mm. (approx.) End Product size : (-) 500 mm. Motor rating : 2 Nos. 125 KW, 100 rpm. Crushers : 225. Rotary Breaker:- Type : 12’x21 Rotary Breaker. Capacity : 800 TPH Rated/ 1000 TPH Design. Feed Material : coal with rejects Motor rating : 125 HP, 1500 rpm. End product size : (-) 0-200 mm. Feed size : (-) 0-500 mm. Secondary Crusher:- Basically there are four ways to reduce material size: impact attraction, shearing and compression. Most of the crusher employs a combination of three crushing methods. Ring granulators crush by compressing accompanied impact and shearing. Construction and operation:- Secondary crushers are ring type granulators crushing at the rate of 550 TPH / 750 TPH for input size of 250 mm. and output size. And output size of 20 mm. The crusher is coupled with motor and gearbox by fluid coupling. Main parts of granulators like break plates, cages, crushing rings and other internal parts are made of tough manganese (Mn).The rotor consists of four rows of crushing rings each set having 20 Nos of toothed rings and 18 Nos. of rings hammers. These rows are hung on a pair of suspension shaft mounted on rotor discs. Crushers of this type employ the centrifugal of switching rings stroking the coal to produce the crushing action. The coal is admitted at the top and the rings stroke the coal downward. The coal discharge through grating at bottom.
  • 9. Page 9 CHAPTER-4 ASH HANDLING PLANT Figure 4.1 Ash Handling Plant This plant can be divided into 3 sub plants as follows:- 1. Fuel and Ash Plant. 2. Air and Gas Plant. 3. Air Disposal and & Dust Collection Plant. 4.1 Fuel and ash plant: Coal is used as combustion material in KSTPS, in order to get an efficient utilization of coal mills. The pulverization also increases the overall efficiency and flexibility of boilers. Ash produced as the result of combustion of coal is connected and removed by ash handling plant.
  • 10. Page 10 4.2 Air & Gas Plant:- Air from atmosphere is supplied to combustion chamber of boiler through the action of forced draft fan. In KSTPS there are two FD fan and three ID fans available for draft system per unit. The air before being supplied to the boiler passes through pre-heater Where the flue gases heat it. The pre heating of primary air causes improved and intensified combustion of coal. The flue gases formed due to combustion of coal first passes round the boiler tubes then it passes through the super heater and through economizer. In economizer the heat of flue gases raises the temperature of feed water .finally the flue gases after passing through the electro- static precipitator is exhausted through chimney. 4.3 Ash Disposal & Dust collection plant:- Ash Handling plant consist of especially designed bottom and fly ash system for two path boiler the system for both units is identical and following description is applied to both the units the water compounded bottom ash hopper receives the bottom ash from furnace from where it is stores and discharge through the clinker grinder. Two slurry pumps are provided which is common to both units & used to make slurry and further transportation to ash dyke through pipe line. 4.4 Utilization:- There are various method of utilization of coal-ash along with established engineering technologies some of them are mention below:- 1. Manufacturing building materials. 2. Making of concrete. 3. Manufacturing of pozzuolana cement. 4. Road construction.
  • 11. Page 11 CHAPTER-5 ELECTRO-STATIC PRECIPITATOR Figure 5.1 Electro- Static Precipitator 5.1 Scope & Principle of Operation:- For general mankind, today an Eco friendly industry is must. As far as air pollution is concerned now a day’s various flue gases filter are there in service. The choice depends on the size of suspended particle matter. These filters are E.S.P. Fabric filter higher efficiency cyclone separations and sitelling room. Fop fly ash , where the particle size vary from 0.75 micron to 100 micron use gradually use ESP the dust lidder gas is passed through an intense electric field, which causes ionization of the gases & they changed into ion while traveling towards opposite charged electrode get deposited as particles and thus dust is electric deposited an creating the field. It is continuous process. 5.2 Controller:- Now a day micro-processor based intelligent controllers are used to regulator the power fed to the HVR. The controls the firing / ignition angle of the thyristor connected in parallel mode. Input out waves of the controller and HVR are also shown above, which clearly indicates that average power fed to ESP field can be controlled by variation of the firing angle of thyristor.
  • 12. Page 12 5.3 High Voltage Rectifier Transformer:- HVR receiver the regulated supply from controller. It steps up to high voltage rectifier. The D.C. supply is fed to E.S.P field through its negative bushing. The positive bushing so connected to earth through small resistance which forms a current feedback circuit 5.4 E.S.P. Field: The field consists of emitting and collecting electrodes structure which are totally isolated from each other and hanging either the top roof of field. The emitting is also isolated from the roof through the supporting insulator which are supporting with emitting electrode frame works and also the supply to these electrodes is fed support insulator. The collecting electrodes are of the shape of flat plate. By several similar plate which emitting electrode are of shape of spring. Strong on the emitting frame work with the help of hooks in the both ends.
  • 13. Page 13 CHAPTER-6 BOILER Figure 6.1 Boiler A boiler (or steam generator) is closed vessel in which water, under pressure is converted into steam. It is one of the major components of thermal power plant. A boiler always designed to absorb maximum amount of heat released in process of combustion. This is transferred to the boiler by all the three modes of heat transfer i.e. conduction, convection and radiation. 6.1 Boilers are classified as:- Fire tube boiler:- In this type the products of combustion pass through the tubes which are surrounded by water. These are economical for low pressure only. Water tube boiler:- In this type water flows inside the tubes and hot gases flow the tubes. These tubes are interconnected to common water channels and steam outlet.  The water tube boilers have many advantages over the fire tubes boilers  High evaporation capacity due to availability of large heating surface.
  • 14. Page 14  Better heat transfer to the mass of water.  Batter efficiency of plant owing to rapid and uniform circulation of water in tubes.  Batter overall control.  Easy to removal of scale from inside the tube. 6.2 Furnace:- Furnace is primary of the boiler where the chemical energy available in the fuel is converted into thermal energy by combustion. Furnace is designed for efficient and complete combustion. Major factors that assist for efficient are the temperature inside the furnace and turbine, which causes rapid mixing of fuel and air. In modern boiler, water cooled furnaces are used. 6.3 Pulverized fuel system:- The boiler fuel firing system is tangentially firing system in which the fuel is introduced form wind nozzle located in the four corners inside the boilers:- The crushed coal from the coal crusher is transferred into the unit coalbunkers where the coal stored for feeding into pulverizing mill through rotary feeders feed the coal to pulverize mill at a definite rate. 6.4 Boiler Drum:- The drum is a pressure vessel. Its function is to separate water and steam from tmixture (of steam & water) generated in furnace walls. It provides water storage for preventing the saturation of tubes. It also the need for purification of steam. The steam purification primarily depends on the extent of moisture removal, since solids in the steam are carried by the moisture associated with it. The drum made up of two halves of carbon steel plates having thickness of 133 mm. 6.5 Draft system:- The combustion process in furnace take place only when it receives a steady flow of air and has combustion continuously removed. Theoretically balanced draft means keeping furnace pressure equal to atmospheric pressure, but in practice the furnace is kept slightly below atmospheric pressure. Draft fans:- A fan can be defined as volumetric machine which like pumps moves quantities of air gas from one place to another. In doing this it overcomes resistance to flow by supplying the fluid with energy necessary for contained motion. The following fans are use in boiler house
  • 15. Page 15 Primary air fan (P.A. fan):- Pulverized coal is directly fed from coal mills to the burners at the four corners of the furnace through coal pipes with the help of heated sir coming from PA fan. Secondly, this fan also dries the coal. Forced draught fan (F.D. fan):- The combustion process in the furnace can take place only when it receives a steady flow of air. The air supplied by FD fan. Thus FD fan takes air from atmosphere at ambient temperature & so provides additional draught. Its speed varies from 600-1500 RPM. Specification of Forced Draft Fan: 3phase, 6.6 KV, Rated. Current-74A RPM-1500 Discharge-408 T/Hr Figure 6.2 F.D. Fan 6.6 Induced draft fan (I.D. fan):- The flue gases coming out of the boiler are passed to ESP & then dust free gases discharged up by the chimney to the atmosphere through the ID fan  Specification of ID fan:- 3phase, 6.6KV, 1750KW Rated, current-192.1A RPM-745 Discharge-720 T/Hr
  • 16. Page 16 Figure -6.3 I.D. Fan 6.7 Economizer:- The flue gases coming out of the boiler carry lot of heat. An economizer extracts a part of this heat from the flue gases and uses it for heating the feed water before it enters into the steam drum. Figure 6.4 Economizer The use of economizer results in saving fuel consumption and higher boiler efficiency but it needs extra investment. .
  • 17. Page 17 6.8 Super heater:- Superheated steam is that, which contains more heat than the saturated steam at the same pressure i.e. it, has been heated above the temperature corresponding to its pressure. - Figure 6.5 Super Heater The steam is superheated the highest economical temperature not only to increase the efficiency but also to have following advantages  Reduction in requirement of steam quantity for a given output of energy owing to its high internal energy reduces the turbine size.  Superheated steam being dry, turbine blades remain dry so the mechanical resistance to the flow of steam over them is small resulting in high efficiency.  No corrosion and putting at the turbine blades occur owing the dryness of steam.
  • 18. Page 18 CHAPTER-7 STEAM TURBINE 7.1 Introduction:- The turbine is a machine in which shaft is rotated steadily by impact or reaction of current or steam of working substance ( steam, air , water ,gases etc.) upon blades of wheel. It converts the potential or kinetic energy of the working substance into mechanical power by virtue of dynamic action of working substance. Figure 7.1 Steam Turbine 7.2 principal of operation of steam turbine:- Working of steam turbine depends wholly upon the dynamic action of steam. The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage of nozzle: due to this fall in pressure a certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy and the steam is set moving with a greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam, enter the moving part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion which part of the turbine and here suffer a change in the direction changing may occur once or number of times in succession and may be carried out with difference of detail. The passage of steam through moving part of the commonly called the blade, may take place in such manner that pressure at outlet side of the blade is equal to that at inlet inside. Such a turbine is broadly termed as impulse turbine.
  • 19. Page 19 7.3 Technical Data of Turbine:- The main technical data of 110 MW turbine is given below:- Rated output 110 MW. Economic output 95 MW. Rated speed 3000 rpm Direction of rotation viewing clockwise The front bearing pedestal Rated steam pressure before stop valve 130 atm 7.4 Description of steam turbines:- 1. Steam flow:- 210 MW steam turbine is a tandem compound machine with HP, IP & LP parts. The HP part is single flow cylinder and HP & LP parts are double flow cylinders. The individual turbine rotors and generator rotor are rigidly coupled. The HP cylinder has a throttle control. Main stream is admitted before blending by two combined main stop and control valves. 2. HP Turbine:- The HP causing is a barrel type causing axial joint. Because of its rotation symmetry the barrel type causing remain constant in shape and leak proof during quick change in temperature. The inner causing too is cylinder in shape as horizontal joint flange are relived higher pressure arising outside and this can kept small. The HP turbine consists of 25 reaction stages. 3. IP Turbine:- The IP turbine of double flow construction. The casing of IP split horizontally and is of double shell construction. The double flow inner casing is supported kinematically in the outer casing. The steam from HP turbine after reheating enters the inner casing from above and below through two inlet nozzles. The center flows components the axial thrust and prevent steam inlet temperature affecting brackets, bearing etc. The IP turbine consists of 20 reaction stages per flow. 4. LP Turbine:- The casing of double flow type LP turbine of three shell design. The shells are axially split and rigidly welded construction. The outer casing consists of front and rear walls, the longitudinal support bearing and upper part. The outer casing is supported by the ends of longitudinal beams on the base plates of foundation. The double flow inner casing consists of outer shell and inner shell. The inner shell is attached to outer shell with provision of free thermal movement
  • 20. Page 20 CHAPTER-8 TURBO GENERATOR Figure 8.1 Turbo Generator 8.1 Theory:- TURBO GENERATOR manufactured by B.H.E.L. and incorporated with most modern design concepts and constructional features, which ensures reliability, with constructional & operational economy. The generator stator is tight construction, supporting & enclosing the stator windings, core and hydrogen coolers. Cooling medium hydrogen is contained within frame & circulated by fans mounted at either ends of rotor. The generator is driven by directly coupled steam turbine at a speed of 3000 r.p.m. the generator is designed for continuous operations at rated output. Temperatures detectors and other devices installed or connected within the machine; permit the windings, teeth core & hydrogen temperature, pressure & purity in machine under conditions. The source of excitation of rotor windings is thyristor controlled D.C. supply. The auxiliary equipment’s supplied with the machine suppress and enables the control of hydrogen pressure and purity, shaft sealing lubricating oils. There is a provision for cooling water in order to maintain a constant temperature of coolant (hydrogen) which controls the temperature of windings.
  • 21. Page 21 8.2 Technical Data:- (A) Generator (110 MW):- Type : e.g. 2, 34,602 Continuous apparent power : 1, 37,500 KVA. Active power : 7, 10,000 KW. Power factor : 0.8 (lagging) Rated voltage : 1000 + 5 % rated. Current : 7,220 A Critical speed : 3000 r.p.m. at Frequency : 50 HZ
  • 22. Page 22 CHAPTER-9 COOLING SYSTEM Figure 9.1 Cooling System 9.1 General:- In KSTPS hydrogen cooling system is employed for generator cooling. Hydrogen is used for cooling medium primarily because of its superior cooling properties & low density. Thermal conductivity of hydrogen 7.3 times of air. It also has higher transfer co-efficient. Its ability heat through forced convection is about 75% batter than air. Density of hydrogen approx. 7/14 of air at a given temperature and pressure. These reduce the wind age losses in high speed machine like turbo-generator. Increasing the hydrogen pressure the machine improves its capacity to absorb & remote heat. Relative cooling properties of air and hydrogen are given below:- 1) Elimination of fire risk because hydrogen will not support combustion. 2) Corona discharge is not harmful to insulation. Since oxidation is not possible. 3) Smooth operation of machine in view of vertical elimination of wind age noise & the use of heavy gas light enclosure and dirty probe casing.
  • 23. Page 23 CHAPTER-10 WATER TREATMENT PLANT Figure 10.1 Water Treatment plant The principle problem in high pressure boiler is control corrosion and steam quality. Internal corrosion costs power station corers of rupees in repair without strict control impurities in steam also from deposit over turbine blades and nozzles. The impurities present in water are follows:- 1. Un-dissolved and suspended solid materials. 2. Dissolved slats and minerals. 3. Dissolved gases. 4. Other minerals (oil, acid etc.) 5. a) Turbidity & sediment. b) Silica. c) Micro Biological. d) Sodium & potassium salt. e) Dissolved Sales Minerals. 6. a) O2 gas. b) CO2 gas
  • 24. Page 24 CHAPTER-11 TRANSFORMER Figure 11.1 Transformer Transformer is static device which is used to change to voltage level keeping the power and frequency same. In this plant transformer is one of the most important equipment. In the whole plant, there are about 83 transformer installed at various places to operate the auxiliaries. Main transformer, which are necessary: 1. To step up generated voltage. 2. To supply power to the auxiliaries from the generator. 3. To start the plant by taking the supply from grid. Are installed in a transformer yard. It is located in between the main plant and the switchyard. The main transformers installed in the transformers installed in the transformer yard are: 1. Generator Transformer (Gt-A):- It steps up the voltage from 16.5 Kv. to 220 KV. It connects the plant with the 220 KV Switchyard. 2. Generator Transformer (Gt-B):- it steps up the voltage from 16.5 KV to 400 KV. It connects the plant with the KV switchyard.
  • 25. Page 25 3. Station Transformer (St):- It is step down transformer with 50 MVA capacities. It is used to step down 220 KV from the grid to 6.9 KV. 4. Unit auxiliary Transformer (Uat):- It is a step down transformer with 20 MVA capacities. It step down the voltage from 16.5 KV to 6.9 KV. 5. Station Service Transformer:- It is a step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. It is used to step down from 6.6 KV to 0.4333 KV. 6. Unit Service Transformer (Ust):- It is step down transformer with 2 MVA capacity. It is used to step down from 6.6 KV to 0.4333KV
  • 26. Page 26 CHAPTER-12 SWITCH YARD Figure 12.1 Switch Yard 12.1 220 KV System:- Two 220 KV bus bars have been provided in switch yard and are inter-connected through a bus coupler. Each of the two 110 MW generator is connected to this system through a step up of 125 MVA 240/11 KV yard transformer. There are two step down transformer each feeding 6.6 KV system (Station Switchyard) viz. BS-IS & SB-IB. Each station transformer has two windings one secondary side and is rated for 50/25/25 MVA, 270/7/7.2 KVA four feeder take off from 220 switch yard, two to SAKTPYPURA GSS and other HEERAPURA, jaipur JSS. Each of four feeder are provided with bypass isolators which is connected across line breaker and breaker isolator. By closing bus coupler between 220 KV buses and putting line feeders whose breaker require maintenance of any one bus throws bypass isolators and all other line feeder whose breaker is by passed is then transformed to bus coupler breaker. A brief description of equipments of 220 KV systems is as follows 12.2 Circuit breakers:- Each of generator transformers, station transformers, line feeder and bus coupler is provided with minimum oil circuit breaker of BHEL make. It is rated for 245 KV, 2500 A and 13400 MVA circuit breaker is used to break the circuit either in load condition or no load condition. All the isolators are provided in 220 KV switch yard and are motor operated. Triple pole
  • 27. Page 27 double breaker type and power switch yard L&T makes these and are rates for 245 KV and 1250 A. the four isolators are provided with earth switch. 12.3 Current Transformer:- All 220 KV current transformers are provided for measuring and protection. They are BHEL make, single phase, oil filled nitrogen sealed outdoor type. All the E.T.S. are multi-cored with each core having specification upon duty it is to perform. Feeder circuits have 5 cores. 1) Bus bar protection core I 1250/250/IA. 2) Distance protection core II 600-300/IA. 3) O/C and E/F protection core 600-300/IA. 4) For metering and measuring 600-300/IA. Potential Transformer:- Each of 220 KV buses is provided with three P.T.’S are core for each phase of BHEL make. There are single phase, oil filled outdoor. N2 sealed elicitor magnetic type P.T. Has two secondary winding on secondary side and selected for 220/53 KV, 10/53 KV
  • 28. Page 28 CHAPTER-13 MAIN CONTROL ROOM 13.1Introduction:- Figure 13.1 Main Control Room In control room various controls are provided simultaneously various measurement are made various relays are provided here. Instrumentation Limited Kota is measure supplier of apparatus. There is one unit control from which two adjacent unit of 110 MW each can be controlled. In addition are local panels at the boilers, turbo sets and boiler feed pumps. The operation of unit is basically controlled from unit control room. The operation of various rents and chain are done locally as per requirement. The unit control room has a set of parameters panel for indicating or recording parameters of boilers or turbo sets. The parameters recorded in control room included per pr. And temp. of line steam, reheat steam ,feed water fuel oil flow, mill outlet temp. , mill differential, turbine speed, control valve operation, turbine shaft, axial shaft, back pressure in condenser, metal temperature etc.
  • 29. Page 29 The VCB also control panel for one generator and contains exciter synchronizing arrangement. The unit control room also houses most of electronic regulator, relay , recorders and other devices in near side of room. The scheme of control and instruction is provided to control the parameters and safe operations of equipment. Automatic control is provided for combustion for feed water regulation and reheat temp. The combustion control is designed to inlet maintain the desired steam pressure at turbine only variations thereof utilized to vary fuel input to the boiler w.r.t. steam pressure. Ratio steam flow maintained automatically. 13.2 Fan Control Desk:- 1. Induced draft fan ( 3 Nos.) at full load and 2 Induced Draft Fan Run. 2. Forced Draft Fan (2 Nos.). 3. Primary Air Fan (3 Nos.) at full load. 13.3 Fuel Control Desk:- 1. Coal, Oil flow. 2. Oil pressure. 3. Temp. Of mill (inlet & outlet). 4. Flow of air. 13.4 Steam & Water Desk:- 1) Drum Level Control 2) Flow of steam & water. 3) Pressure of Steam & Water. 4) Temp. of steam and water. 13.5 Turbine Desk:- 1) Pressure Control. 2) Stator Rotor Temp. 3) For Stator cooling (a) H2 pressure. b) H2O pressure.
  • 30. Page 30 CHAPTER-14 EFFICIENCY 14.1 Introduction:- In KSTPS we convert potential or chemical energy of the fuel into heat by the process of combustion. The heat is given to the water and it converts its form into steam. The pressure of steam rotates the turbine which is now in the form of kinetic energy. The kinetic energy is consumed by generator, producing electrical energy, which is sent to differential localities for utilization. Enthalpy is defined as the thermodynamic property of system, is equal to sum of, the sum of its internal energy and the product of its pressure and volume. Its mathematical concept of available energy in the steam. Efficiency, in the case of electricity generation process, can be expressed as amount of heat energy liberated in the boiler compared with the amount of electrical energy generated with it. It is generally denoted by n. 14.2 Plant Efficiency:- We will divide whole plant efficiency in four components: 1. Cycle efficiency. 2. Turbo –generator efficiency. 3. Boiler efficiency. 4. Auxiliary power efficiency. Overall n=boiler n x turbine n x generator n Cycle Efficiency:- Cycle= Energy available for conversion in work / energy given in boiler as heat. It can be controlled by:-  Condenser vacuum.  Steam conditions of CV & IV.  Regenerative feed heating. Generator Efficiency:- The alternator is a very efficient m/c at about 98% efficiency. The losses can be categorized. a) Copper and iron losses. b) Wind age losses.
  • 31. Page 31 Operationally the plant is governed by the grid requirements. Boiler Efficiency:-  Dry flue gas loss: Increase by excess air in boiler.  Wet flue gas loss: Moisture in coal.  Moisture in combustion loss: Hydrogen loss.  Radiator & unaccounted loss. Turbine Efficiency:- It means the efficiency of steam turbine in converting the heat energy made available in the cycle into actual mechanical work.
  • 32. Page 32 CHAPTER-15 PROTECTION 1. Field protection. 2. Pole slipping. 3. Plane over load protection. 4. Inter-turn Fault. 5. Negative phase Sequence protection. 6. Reverse power protection. 7. Forward power protection. 8. Under frequency & over frequency protection. 9. Generator voltage protection. 15.1 General Protection: It is most important electrical equipment of many generating station. Tripping of even a generating unit may cause overloading of associated machines and even to system un-stability. The basis function of protection applied to generator is reduced voltage to minimum by rapid discrimination clearance of fault. Unlike other apparatus the opening of C.B. to isolate faulty generator is not sufficient to prevent future damage. Salient Feature of K.S.T.P.S.:- 1. LOCATION Sakatpura, Kota 2. CAPACITY  I & II UNIT - 2x110 MW  III UNIT - 210 MW  IV UNIT - 210 MW  V UNIT - 210 MW  VI UNIT - 195 MW  VII UNIT - 195 MW
  • 33. Page 33 CONCLUSION The first phase of practical training has proved to be quite fruitful. It provided an opportunity for encounter with such huge machine like wagon tripper 110 MW & 210 MW turbines ad generator. The architecture of power plant the way various unit are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled to make the student realize that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of various machines but the greater part of planning proper management. It also provide an opportunities to lean low technology used at proper place and time can cave a lot of labour e.g. wagon tripper (CHP). But there are few factors that require special mention. Training is not carried out into its tree sprit. It is recommended that there should be some project specially meant for students where presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of work done. However training has proved to be quite fruitful. It has allowed an opportunity to get an exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamentals.
  • 34. Page 34 REFERENCES 1. http://www.rvnul.com/kota thermal power station.php 2. B.R Gupta ‘Generation of electrical power’ India 2009 3. Notes given during training period.