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  • panki power plant training.ppt

    2. 2. Presentation on PANKI POWER PLANT Summer Training [15thJune to 13thJuly 2012] ABHISHEK AWASTHI HIMANSHU KATIYAR
    4. 4. Power Consumption In India  The energy sector holds the key in accelerating the economic growth of India. The energy demands for developing country like India keep on continuously growing. Energy is a driving force behind rapid economic growth of the country. India ranks tenth in the world in total energy consumption. It is first requirement of energy to accelerate the development of the sector to meet its growth aspirations.  The pattern of energy production put coal and oil again on top. These account for 65% of the entire generation. Renewable energy ranks bottom of the total production just before the Nuclear energy. The distribution of energy resource like hydro power is skewed towards North-eastern states of the country as 70 % of the total hydro potential is located in the Northern and North-eastern region.
    5. 5. Figure of Power Consumption
    6. 6. In India there is a very long chain of thermal power project including the project in UP. Some of the power projects under Uttar Pradesh Rajya Vidyut Utpadan Nigam Ltd. (UPRVUNL) are as follows: S.No. Name of Power Project No. of Units Capacity(MW) 1 Harduganj A 3 90 2 Harduaganj B 4 210 3 Harduaganj C 3 230 4 Panki, Kanpur 2 210 5 Obra 8 550 6 Obra ext. 5 1000 7 Anpara 3 630 8 Anpara ext. 2 1000 9 Parichha 2 220
    7. 7. Panki Thermal Power Station(PTPS), Kanpur[U.P]  Panki Thermal Power Station is a Electricity Generation Station where Electricity Generated through the steam operation on Turbine & Steam is Generated by Coal Firing so it is a Typical Coal fired Electricity Generation Station.  It is Located about 16 Kms Away from Kanpur Railway Station ,was Started with two units(1st & 2nd) of 32 MW was established in 1968.  After Generating Power for about 28-29 years,2*32 MW units had completed their Rated Life So they were closed on 30th November 1995 & 18th April 1997 respectively.  So In 1976-77 ,Two Units (3rd & 4th of 2*110 MW each) Manufactured ,Installed Bharat Heavy Electronics Ltd. These units were established in 1976 & 1977 respectively.  Unit 3rd & 4th have been derated to 105 MW each by the Central Electricity Authority(C.E.A) on 11th January 1990. So Presently there are two units (3rd & 4th of 105 MW each) working at PTPS.
    8. 8. Resources & Technologies for Power Generation
    9. 9. Resources for power generation (A) Conventional Resources for power generation • Thermal • Hydro • Nuclear (B) Non conventional Resources for power generation •Wind Energy • Bio Energy • Solar Energy •Geo-Thermal energy • Ocean tidal power plants • Ocean wave power • Ocean thermal energy • Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
    10. 10. Thermal power generation (A)Steam engines (B)Diesel, Petrol & Gas Engines (C) Steam turbines (D)Gas turbines (E)Combined cycle power plants (F) Combined heat and power generation (CHP)
    12. 12. RADIAL CONCEPT Central Plant Complex Fuel Electricity Waste Water Chemical Energy Thermal Energy Kinetic Energy mechanical Energy Electrical Energy
    13. 13. Function diagram
    14. 14. Coal fired Steam Power Plant  There are basically SEVEN main units of a thermal power plant: 1. Coal Handling Plant. 2. Water Treatment Plant. 3. Boiler Maintenance Division. 4. Turbine Maintenance Division. 5. Generator. 6. Switch yard. 7. Environment protection Division.
    15. 15. Coal handling plant •The function of coal handling plant is automatic feeding of coal to the boiler furnace. • A thermal power plant burns enormous amounts of coal. •A 200MW plant may require around 2000 tons of coal daily
    16. 16. COAL FEEDING SYSTEM Coal is conveyed through rail wagon from out side of plant and through conveyor system collected in hopper and ground to a very fine powder by large metal spheres in the pulverised fuel mill. Conveyor Coal Hopper Pulverised Mill Wagon Tippler
    17. 17. 1.CONVEYOR BELT. 2. VIBRATING FEEDER The coal stored in a huge hub is collected on the belt through vibrations created by the vibrating feeder. 3. Magnetic separator these are used to separate the ferrous impurities from the coal. 4. Metal detector These are detect the presence of any ferrous and non-ferrous metal in the coal. 5. Reclaim hopper Reclamation is a process of taking coal from the dead storage for preparation or further feeding to reclaim hoppers. Auxiliaries Of Coal Handling Plant
    18. 18. Coal conveyor : This is a belt type of arrangement. With this coal is transported from coal storage place in power plant to the place near by boiler. Stoker : The coal which is brought near by boiler has to put in boiler furnace for combustion. This stoker is a mechanical device for feeding coal to a furnace. Pulverizer : The coal is put in the boiler after pulverization. For this pulverizer is used. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a power plant. A pulverizer is a device for grinding coal for combustion in a furnace in a power plant.
    19. 19. Figure of Pull cord switch & Belt weightier
    20. 20. Reclaim Hopper
    21. 21. The Water Treatment plant is required at the water from canal can’t be directly Used in Boiler for Thermal Electricity Generator water is converted into steam at High Pressure & It is allowed to force Turbine Rotated and the electricity is Generated. Therefore water is the basic requirement to the thermal Power plant. Generally in the Thermal Power Plant Is Employed to Refine the Water. Necessity of Water Treatment:- Natural Water Contains Solid,Liquid & Gasseous Impurities and Therefore this water can’t Be used for Generation of Steam in the Boiler ,The different Effect introduced due to use Of Unrated Water in the boiler.So the water impurities should be removed before its used as a stream.The following procedure is used in WTP for minimizing the hardness & removing the impurities:- Flocculate Plant:- Here Alum is added is added to water to Precipitate Dust Particles In Water.Aluminium in Alum neutralizes Charge Dust Particle & this gives Result to a heavy Complex Compound Which is settled Water Treatment Plant (W.T.P)
    22. 22. Auxiliaries of W.T.P Sand Filter- These Stages of sand filter are putt across the flow so as to remove other Suspended Particle, If any. Activated Carbon filter- This Filter is employed for removal of Bacteria and organic material. Here anthracite(Coal) is uses for Filter Cation Exchanger- At this stage ions are observed by ion exchnanger method,HCl and negative resin are principle ingredient of this chemical filter Anion Exchanger:- Here Negative Ions are observed by Carefully Formulated by positive resin. Mixed Bed Exchanger:- Here Remaining a negative ion is removed that is extracted through resin.
    23. 23. The D.M(De mineralized) water is now ready which has some properties- Conductivity-0.03 to 0.5 (micro/cm2) PH-6.5 Silica-0.002ppm Hardness-NIL
    24. 24. Boiler
    25. 25. Boiler
    26. 26. Boiler:- Thermal energy Released by Combustion of Fuel is Transferred to water ,Which Vaporizes and gets converted water into steam.The boiler is a rectangular furnace about 50 ft (15 m) on aside and 130 ft (40 m) tall. Its walls are made of a web of high pressure steel tubes about 2.3 inches (60 mm) in diameter. Pulverized coal is air-blown into the furnace from fuel nozzles at the four corners and it rapidly burns, Forming a large fireball at the center. The thermal radiation of the fireball heats the water that circulates through the boiler tubes near the boiler perimeter. The water circulation rate in the boiler is three to four times the throughput and is typically driven by pumps. As the water in the boiler circulates it absorbs heat and changes into steam at 3700C and 3,200psi (22.1MPa). Here the steam is superheated to 1,000F (540 C) to prepare it for the turbine. The steam generating boiler has to produce steam at the high purity, pressure and temperature required for the steam turbine that drives the electrical generator. Boiler Maintenance Division (B.M.D)
    27. 27. T.M.D (TURBINE MAINTENANCE DEPARTMENT) In a typical larger power stations, the steam turbines are split into three separate stages, the first being the High Pressure (HP), the second the Intermediate Pressure (IP) and the third the Low Pressure (LP) stage, where high, intermediate and low describe the pressure of the steam. After the steam has passed through the HP stage, it is returned to the boiler to be re-heated to its original temperature although the pressure remains greatly reduced. The reheated steam then passes through the IP stage and finally to the LP stage of the turbine. A distinction is made between "impulse" and "reaction“ turbine designs based on the relative pressure drop across the stage. There are two measures for pressure drop, the pressure ratio and the percent reaction. Pressure ratio is the pressure at the stage exit divided by the pressure at the stage entrance. Reaction is the percentage is entropic enthalpy drop across the rotating blade or bucket compared to the total stage enthalpy drop. Some manufacturers utilize percent pressure drop across stage to define reaction.
    28. 28. Steam Properties At High Pressure (H.P) Turbine:- Entrance Pressure-5350C-5400C Entrance Temperature-130Kg/cm2 Exit Pressure - 26Kg/cm2 Exit Temperature-3400C At Intermediate Pressure(I.P) Turbine:- Entrance Pressure-24Kg/cm2 Entrance Temperature-5350C Exit Pressure-1.02 Kg/cm2 Exit Temperature-1400C
    29. 29. The turbine generator consists of a series of steam turbines interconnected to each other and a generator on a common shaft.  There is a high pressure at one end , follower by an intermediate pressure turbine. A low pressure turbines, and the generator.  As steam moves through the system, it losses pressure and thermal energy and expands in volume, requiring increasing diameter and longer blades at each succeeding to extract the remaining energy.
    30. 30. Steam Turbine
    31. 31. HP Turbine IP Turbine Generator LP Turbine Exhaust steam to condenser Exhaust steam to condenser Steam from IP to LP Turbine Reheated steam from boiler Main steam from boiler Steam to boiler for reheating HP- High pressure IP- Intermediate pressure LP- Low pressure Turbogenerator
    32. 32. Prime Movers: These depend on the fuel used. Coal fired plants use Steam Turbines. In case of coal fired plants steam produced in the boiler is passed through an axial flow turbine. The turbine is coupled to the generator and thus energy conversion is achieved. Increasing the unit capacity from 100MW to 250MW results in saving of about 15% in their capital cost per kW. Moreover units of this magnitude result in fuel saving of almost 8% per kWh. The cost of installation is also low for such units.
    33. 33. Generator Generator:- An electric Generator is a machine which converts Mechanical Energy (or Power) into Electrical Energy. This Energy Conversion is based on the principle of the production of dynamically induced e.m.f is Produced in it according to faraday’s law, “Whenever a conductor is moving in a magnetic Field then it cuts Magnetic Flux and there were an E.M.F(Electro magnetic Force) Produced ,which is Called Induced E.M.F.” e=N*dφ/dt
    34. 34. RANKINE CYCLE The Rankine cycle is sometimes referred to as a practical Carnot cycle because, when an efficient turbine is used, the TS diagram begins to resemble the Carnot cycle. The main difference is that heat addition (in the boiler) and rejection (in the condenser) are isobaric in the Rankine cycle and isothermal in the theoretical Carnot cycle.
    35. 35. Plant Flow Diagram(Modified Rankine Cycle) AB- Heating of feed water (i.e. sensible heat addition) BC- Evaporation of water in boiler (i.e. latent heat addition) CD- Superheating of steam (i.e. heat addition) DE- Isentropic expansion of steam in HP turbine EF- Reheating of steam in Reheaters FH- Isentropic expansion of steam in IP and LP turbine
    36. 36. condenser  Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to the condenser.  The purpose of condenser is to condense the outlet steam from steam turbine to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water.  This water is then pumped back to boiler.
    37. 37. Condenser : Steam after rotating steam turbine comes to condenser. Condenser refers here to the shell and tube heat exchanger (or surface condenser) installed at the outlet of every steam turbine in Thermal power stations of utility companies generally. These condensers are heat exchangers which convert steam from its gaseous to its liquid state, also known as phase transition. In so doing, the latent heat of steam is given out inside the condenser. Where water is in short supply an air cooled condenser is often used. An air cooled condenser is however significantly more expensive and cannot achieve as low a steam turbine backpressure (and therefore less efficient) as a surface condenser. The purpose is to condense the outlet (or exhaust) steam from steam turbine to obtain maximum efficiency and also to get the condensed steam in the form of pure water, otherwise known as condensate, back to steam generator or (boiler) as boiler feed water.
    38. 38. Cooling Towers :The condensate (water) formed in the condenser after condensation is initially at high temperature. This hot water is passed to cooling towers. It is a tower- or building-like device in which atmospheric air (the heat receiver) circulates in direct or indirect contact with warmer water (the heat source) and the water is thereby cooled. A cooling tower may serve as the heat sink in a conventional thermodynamic process, such as refrigeration or steam power generation, and when it is convenient or desirable to make final heat rejection to atmospheric air. Water, acting as the heat-transfer fluid, gives up heat to atmospheric air, and thus cooled, is recirculated through the system, affording economical operation of the process.
    40. 40. SWITCHYARD A switch yard is a part of an electrical generation, transmission, system. Switchyard transform voltage from high to low, or the reverse, or perform any of several other important functions.
    41. 41. SWITCH YARD As we know that electrical energy can’t be stored like cells, so what we generate should be consumed instantaneously. But as the load is not constants therefore we generate electricity according to need i.e. the generation depends upon load. The yard is the places from where the electricity is send outside. It has both outdoor and indoor equipments. OUTDOOR EQUIPMENTS • BUS BAR. • LIGHTENING ARRESTER • BREAKER • CAPACITATIVE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMER • EARTHING ROD • CURRENT TRANSFORMER. • POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER INDOOR EQUIPMENTS • RELAYS. • CONTROL PANELS • CIRCUIT BREAKERS
    42. 42. EARTHING ROD Normally un-galvanized mild steel flats are used for earthling. Separate earthing electrodes are provided to earth the lightening arrestor whereas the other equipments are earthed by connecting their earth leads to the rid/ser of the ground mar. CURRENT TRANSFORMER It is essentially a step up transformer which step down the current to a known ratio. It is a type of instrument transformer designed to provide a current in its secondary winding proportional to the alternating current flowing in its primary. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER It is essentially a step down transformer and it step downs the voltage to a known ratio. RELAYS Relay is a sensing device that makes your circuit ON or OFF. They detect the abnormal conditions in the electrical circuits by continuously measuring the electrical quantities, which are different under normal and faulty conditions, like current, voltage frequency. Having detected the fault the relay operates to complete the trip circuit, which results in the opening of the circuit breakers and disconnect the faulty circuit. There are different types of relays: Current relay Potential relay Electromagnetic relay Numerical relay etc. AIR BREAK EARTHING SWITCH The work of this equipment comes into picture when we want to shut down the supply for maintenance purpose. This help to neutralize the system from induced voltage from extra high voltage. This induced power is up to 2KV in case of 400 KV lines.
    43. 43. Overall Process
    44. 44. Ash handling plant The percentage of ash in coal varies from 5% in good quality coal to about 40% in poor quality coal Power plants generally use poor quality of coal , thus amount of ash produced by it is pretty large A modern 2000MW plant produces about 5000 tons of ash daily The stations use some conveyor arrangement to carry ash to dump sites directly or for carrying and loading it to trucks and wagons which transport it to the site of disposal
    45. 45. Electrostatic precipitator : It is a device which removes dust or other finely divided particles from flue gases by charging the particles inductively with an electric field, then attracting them to highly charged collector plates. Also known as precipitator. The process depends on two steps. In the first step the suspension passes through an electric discharge (corona discharge) area where ionization of the gas occurs. The ions produced collide with the suspended particles and confer on them an electric charge. The charged particles drift toward an electrode of opposite. sign and are deposited on the electrode where their electric charge is neutralized. The phenomenon would be more correctly designated as electrode position from the gas phase
    46. 46. Efficiency & Adverse Impacts of Coal Fired Power Generation
    47. 47. Generation from coal power plants Power Plant Coal Energy 100 Parts Electrical Energy 35 Parts APC 03 Parts 32 Parts To Consumers Step up transformer Step down transformer Electrical Energy 20-25 Parts End User 1/4 To 1/5
    48. 48. Power Plant Coal Energy 100 Parts Electrical Energy 35 Parts APC 03 Parts 32 Parts To Consumers Step up transformer Step down transformer Electrical Energy 20-25 Parts End User 1 Unit 1.75 Unit1.4 kg Coal 2 kg CO2 Generation from coal power plants
    49. 49. Pros of Coal Power • Cheap Cheaper per unit energy than oil or natural gas Will continue to be an important global resource • Abundance Coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel Sufficient reserves for the next 250 years • ECONOMICAL
    50. 50. Cons of Coal Power o Coal-Fired Power Plants are the largest contributor of hazardous air pollutants. o Sulfur dioxide (SO2) o Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) o Carbon Dioxide (CO2) o Mercury
    51. 51. FUTURE PLANTS:- Supercritical & Ultra Supercritical Technology of Power Generation • Supercritical thermal power plants have greater power output and higher efficiency levels.These plants also have the best pollution control technology.Supercritical thermal power plants function at a very high temperature of 580 degree centigrade and pressure of 23 MPa. This results in a heat efficiency of 45% as compared to the 38 - 40% generated by sub - critical coal fire plants. Supercritical thermal power plants have many • advantages like: • Improved efficiency in plant functioning, Reduced fuel costs,Less environmental pollution due to less CO2 emission. • Low NO x, SO x and emission of other particles Can be integrated with CO2 capture technology.
    52. 52. Thank You
    53. 53. by (N.I.T Jalandhar)