Cseb (chhattisgarh state electricity board) korba east vocational training presentation i~i


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Cseb (chhattisgarh state electricity board) korba east vocational training presentation i~i

  2. 2. CONTENT 1. INTRODUCTION 2. Parts of fuel & air circuit 3. Resources of power plant 4. Coal handling plant, Classification Of coal 5. Process 6. AIR 7. Equipments used for power generation 8. TURBINE 9. switchyard 10. Generator and alternator 11. Auxilaries of turbine- 12. Pumps 13. Interlocking of the turbine- 14. CONDENSER 15. Heaters 16. Dearators 17. Boiler And Auxilaries- 18. Economisers 19. Transformer
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION :-  The CSEB power plant was established in 1966 with the help of VSSR.  This is the very first power plant of Chattisgarh.  CSEB(EAST) is a coal based power plant which has 6 units.  1. 4 units of 50 mw  2. 2 units of 120 mw  The 4 units of 50 mw turbine are based on Russian technology.  The 2 units of 120 mw turbine are manufactured by BHEL.  Total installed capacity is 440 mw.
  4. 4. PARTS OF FUEL & AIR CIRCUIT-  Fuel & Ash circuit - coal is delievered from the supply point to the storage site by the road rail or water force from the coal handling plant. The coal having been good enough to be burnt into boilers is taken by bucket convayers. The coal is stored into bunkers, from where it falls into hoopers by the help of Gravity and the required quantity of coal spread in crate is collected in a nine and is again refined by a cinder-refining fan. The amount of ash resulting after the complete combustion of fuel collects at the back of boilor & is moved to the ash storage.  Air And Fuel gas circuit:- Air is Drawn from the Atmosphere by the Draught Fan or induced draught fan through the air preheats, in which the air is heated by the heat of gases passimg through the chimney & then admitted by furnace. The fuel gas after passing through the boiler tubes or superheater tubes is drawn by Induced draught fan through the dust collector or the precipitator economiser and air pri-heater and finally exhausted to the atmosphere through the chimney.
  5. 5. - Feed water and Steam chimney:- The steam coming out of the turbine is condensed and the condensate extraction pump is forced to the low pressure feed water heaters where temprature rises by the heat of steam. The FEED water is now pumped through the dearator to the high pressure feed water heaters where it gets heated. The function of dearator is to reduse dissolve oxygen content in the condensate. The feed water than pumped into boilor through economiser In which furthur heated by the heat of fuel-gas passing it on the way to chimney. In Boilor water is converted into high pressure steam, which is wet.Wet steam is passed through superheaters where it is dried and furthur superheated than supplied to the steam turbine through the main volve. After giving its energy to the turbine it is exhausted to the condenser where its latent heat is extracted and steam is converted into feed.
  6. 6. -  Cooling water circuits :- Cooling water is supplied from a natural source such as rivers and lakes is circuited through the condenser for condensing the steam and finally dischared to a place near the source supply the circuitation of the cooling water to the condenser in maintaing a low pressure in the condenser.  Neccesery requirements for power generation in plant:-  1. Water  2. Coal  3. Air
  7. 7. RESOURCES OF POWER PLANT  Water- In a powerplant, the following types of water can be used for power generation,  1. Raw water  2. Drinking water  3.Deminaralised water  4. Makeup water  a. To make up the furnace oil  b.make up loss due to lickage  c. In dearator  d. Makeup water is maintained with Dm water so it remains in tpge plant.  Coal :- Here given is the mode of transport.  1. By road  2. By rail  3. By ropeway  4. By convayer belt  5. By sea  The above 4 ways are used in CSEB Korba for the transmission.
  8. 8. COAL HANDLING PLANT:-  1. Stress the coal  2.Break big pieces of coals into smaller pieces.  3. Hooper is devided in 3 rack. Each rack contains 500 tones and in railway 13 tones.  4.coal size- 10x10x10 inch. Crusher capacity and removing rock impurities manually and the impurity of iron particles is removed by electromagnets.  5. The convayer belt transfers from one place to another place. Transfers which is placed between one convayer to another Problem in use of Convayer belt for Coal Transfer :-
  9. 9. CONVAYER BELT  Convayer belt failure jamming the exess coal deposition in Belt. Fuder has a limit switch which breaks the circuit and stops the belt,  1. Exess belt heating  2. Roller objects  3. Coal switching  Preventation for problems :-  1. Hooters  2. Break switch  3. Staker returner
  10. 10. *CLASSIFICATION OF COAL :-  For power in Manikpuri 2400-3600 kcal energy is generated by coal burning  -8500 tons of coal is used to generate 450 mw energy in Korba(East)  -Coal transfer by convayer belt - 1200mm (east), 1400mm (west)
  11. 11. PROCESS-  *Coal Crusher :-  In coal crusher, coal is break into a size of 1-1.25 inch.  *Cyclone - It is An outlet from where the mortified coal gets into furnace. It is taken as indicator to identify the coal line.  Coal Bunker- After the coal crusher, coal comes into coal bunker, than it moves to coal feeder and then it goes to Mill for pulverisation and then goes to furnace through primary air.  *Quality of coal depends upon-  1. Ash content should be less  2. Calorific value should be high (3500 j/kg).
  12. 12. AIR-  1.Primary Air- Provide carriage for powder coal to turbine furnace, as well as heated primary air is spread to avoide moisture of coal powder.  2. Secondary Air- It is used for combussion in furnace.  3. Exess Air- Quality of coal varies with various region and surrounding exess air is supported to exist and exess air is supplied to maintain smooth combusion. 4.5% is adjusted for combusion.
  13. 13. EQUIPMENTS USED FOR POWER GENERATION-  1. Turbine and auxilaries  2. Condenser  3. Heaters  4. Dearators  5. Boilor and boilor feed pump  6. Boilor and auxilaries  7. Economisers  8. Transfomers  9. switchyard  10. Generator and alternator
  14. 14. TURBINE-  turbine is a perimover, which converts the energy of steam into rotation of turbine which rotates the rotor of generator. In small generation units (below 100mw) only single stage turbine is used, but in large generator units, 3 stage turbine are used.  1. H.P. Turbine  2. I.P. Turbine  3. L.P. Turbine  - H.P. Turbine- It is a single heated turbine. The superheated steam from the final superheater enters in H.P. Turbine at steam pressure 127 kg/cm2 and 540 deg.cal. Temprature.  - I.P. Turbine- The exhaust steam from H.P. turbine is heated again by reheater and sent to I.P. Turbine at pressure 27 kg/cm2 and 540 deg. Cal.  - L.P. Turbine- the exhausted steam from I.P. Turbine is Fed in L.P. Turbines.
  15. 15. *MAIN ELEMENTS OF TURBINES-  1. Nozzles  2. Blades  3. Rotor  4. Casing  5. Volves  6. Bearing  7. Shaft glands
  16. 16. ELEMENTS-  Nozzles- Steam is normally admitted into house of steam chest emergency, ship volve and governing volves. The steam is exhausted on the nozzles.  Blades- The blade recieve the working force of steam and transmitted into a working torque into dises on which carry..  Rotor- Usually impulse type of rotor is used in large turbime which is built up of saperate wheels pressed on shaft  Casing- This holds the ring bearing and the stationary parts.  Shaft glands- Where as the turbine, a high pressure region there will be a layer of steam leakage. Steam is reduced by the use of glands.
  17. 17. SWITCHYARD  A Switchyard or Substation, consisting of large breakers and towers, is usually located in an area close to the plant. The substation is used as the distribution center where:  electrical power is supplied to the plant from the outside, and  electrical power is sent from the plant  Often there are at least 2 main Buses. Very high voltages (typically 220,000 or 345,000 volts) are present. Gas and oil circuit breakers are used. The gas (e.g. sulfur hexaflouride) or oil is used to extinguish the arc caused when a breaker is opened, either by a control switch or due to a fault. Manually or motor operated disconnects are provided on either side of the breaker to allow the breaker to be electrically isolated so that maintenance work can be performed. 
  18. 18. GENERATOR AND ALTERNATOR -  This page is an explanation of the theory of operation behind the alternator and the generator. If you know how these critters work already, then this won't matter much to you. If they are nothing short of alchemy and you need to work on or need to modify your charging system - then this page is a must-read for you. I wrote this as a side-bar to my work on various projects, see the High Amp Alternators for older GM's and  Alternator Conversions for GM's articles for more details on each area. Each section describes a basic component and how it works.  My experience (and thus this page) is heavily tilted toward GM vehicles, so if your manual says different things for your car, trust it instead of me. I know Ford and Chrysler are fairly close to this, but some imported models use some really weird variations on these basic systems. The basic theory is the same, but some of the wiring is, um, a bit more funky that is described here. In particular, I believe both the Ford and Chrysler alternator systems were externally regulated until well into the '80s, and neither has the remote voltage sensing feature. There are unique issues to be aware of on each one, so I'd suggest that you go read up on them elsewhere before you attempt a non-GM swap. Or, just be like me and  stick a GM alternator in it even if it's not a GM. :-)
  19. 19. *AUXILARIES OF TURBINE-  1. Turbine  2. Main steam stop volve  3. By-pass volve of main steam volve  4. Emergency stop volve  5. Geveaning system
  20. 20. FUNCTION OF TURBINE-  1. In Terbine the raw water inlet from bottom and outlet from upper way.  2. Jack is given in terbine to lift the boilor and reduse the pressure of the spring.
  21. 21. *OIL PUMP USE IN TERBINE-  1. Jacking oil pump-  The jacking oil pump in turbine does the following- a. To reduse pressure on gear b. To stop or start the turbine. c. To reduse initial torque. d. To roll the turbine.  2. Main Oil Pump- It couple with the rotor of the turbine. Its application is in totally close or totally open position.
  22. 22. PUMPS :-  3. Auxillary Oil pump- It couples with the turbine. It starts when M.O.P. stops.  *Oil Purifier-  Moisture and water particles of oil in terbine is reduced by the oil purifier. 4. Ac Flushing Oil pump-  The Oil pass through the discharge power starting airpump than C.O.P., the M.O.P, the A.O.P and than in Ac Flushing oil pump.
  23. 23. FUNCTION OF OIL PUMP IN TURBINE -  1. Control the governing system of the turbine.  2. It cools and lubricant learing of the turbine.  3. It supports of the bearing & warms jacking oil pump is most importent of turbine, it also called starting and stopping oil pump. The 2nd main pump is the M.O.P and 3rd is A.O.p. And then the AC Flushing oil pump....
  24. 24. INTERLOCKING OF THE TURBINE-  1. Both/all turning mills trip  2. Both/all P A Fan trip.  3. Both/all running JD fan trip.  4. Both/all running FD fan trip.  5. Both/all boiler feed pump trip.  6. Both gas coolhng pump trip.  7. Both/all CW Pump trip.  8. Low/high furnace pump trip.  9. Low drums levels.  10. High drum level.  11. Overspeed of the turbine.  12. Low speed of the turbine.  13. No secondary air supply.  14. No ash exist, no fuel exist cause of corrosion and furnace blasting.  15. No water supply to boiler drum change of terminating
  25. 25. CONDENSER - When the steam has completed, it work in turbine and before returning in boiler, it must be change in water and this process is done in condenser. It is the largest and most important part of heat exchange in power station In condenser 1 inch diameter of 4000 to 6000 tubes are in there, in which inside raw water and outside expand steam are present which condense and convert in water and it gets collected into hot well. This hot water through C.E.P. gets into low pressure turbine and then gets into dearator and again running from dearator to boiler feed pump. HP heaters(1,2,3) economiser. The boiler drums then again steam superheated and go to the turbine and pass throuh main steam stop volve and main steam stop volve by the I.P. and the L.P. and again comes into condenser.
  26. 26. TYPES OF CONDENSERS-  1. Jet condenser- Water is mixed with the steam in a clossed vessel. The water removes heat from steam and direct contact and steam will condence because a very large quantity of cooling water is required and is not practical.  2. Surface condencer- cooling surface consists of a small diameter tubes, the nuring of cooling water does not matter because apart of any leakages which may occur in neva in contact With condencer.
  27. 27. **HEATERS  Two types of heaters are used for heating the feed water to economiser.  1. L.P. Heaters  2. H.P. Heaters  Both L.P. and H.P. heaters are surface heater
  28. 28. DEARATORS -  It is placed between LP & HP heaters. The main function of dearator is to reduce the oxygen content of condensate, collected from main condenser to a leve below 0.007ppm at full load.  Other useful purpose - 1. To act as feed water storage tank for suction of feed pump. 2. To provide adequat suction heat to heat pump 3. To act as direct contect heat exchanger between LP and HP heaters.
  29. 29. **BOILER AND AUXILARIES-  The steam plant is a natural circulation radian type water tube boiler with reheat and auxilaries equipments necessary to fire pulverised coal as it mainfold.  Incoming feed water is heated in a forced flow section and passed through the single drum and four down come to inlet boxes of banks of water tubes around the furnace roof tubes.  The steam then flow through front of pass wall, steam is supplied to turbine HP Cycle, inlet through boiler and outlet mainfold.  **Boiler Feed Pump- Boiler feed pump are required in the power station for feeding the boiler feed water. They take water from the dearator and supply to the economiser through HP heater. Boiler feed pumps are high speed pump.
  30. 30. **ECONOMISERS -  It consist of a number of tubes in path of boiler gases and through which the feed water flow. The saperate tubes are arranged in a bank elements interconnecting then with welded band tubes known as economiser bands or by expanding objecent tubes into a cast iron box. This way water flows into the hottest area of the economiser before flowing into outlet heater and on gilled tubes can be used as a greatest heat absorbing surface.
  31. 31. TRANSFORMER - It is an electrical device which transforms electricak quantity from one circuit to another without changing the frequency. It works on the principal of mutual induction.  The transformer imployed in power plant to set up the generated voltage.  1. Generator transformer- It is used to set up the voltage. A high voltage is required in transmission to reduce the loss.  Station & Auxilary transformer- These are comparatively small. At the time of starting, loads are supplied by station transformers. Than after some load is given, station transformers converts high voltage (220 kv) into 66 kv, whereas unit transformer is connected to generate a low voltage side i.e. 13.8 to 6.6 kv in 120 Mw Korba East.
  32. 32. POWER TRANSFORMER -  It is used for sleeping up the voltage for transmission at generating station for stepping down transformer substation. Power transformer are designed to have considerable leakage reactance then in Distribution Transformer.  urrent Transformer- Measurement of current power system is necessery for..  1. Indicating ammeters  2. Kwhokw meters  3. Tetametring system  4. Protective relays  It is intended to operate normally with the rated current of the network flowing through the primary winding.  The secondary transformer connected to the measuring instruments relays. CT supplies a current which is proportional to and in phase with the current circuiting in the primary except for the diffrence due to current transformer
  33. 33. POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER-  - Potential transformers are instrument transformers. They have a large number of primary turns and a few number of secondary turns. It is used to control the large value of voltage.  The potential transformer works along the same principle of other transformers. It converts voltages from high to low. It will take the thousands of volts behind power transmission systems and step the voltage down to something that meters can handle. These transformers work for single and three phase systems, and are attached at a point where it is convenient to measure the voltage.