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Literature Review (Review of Related Literature - Research Methodology)

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Literature Review or Review of Related Literature is one of the most vital stages in any research. This presentation attempts to throw some light on the process and important aspects of literature review.

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Literature Review (Review of Related Literature - Research Methodology)

  1. 1. Prof. Dilip Barad Head, Dept. of English M.K. Bhavnagar University Bhavnagar – Gujarat www.dilipbarad.com
  2. 2. Guba, E.G. in 'The Paradigm Dialogue' (1990) • . . . has argued that there are three fundamental research questions that structure any research project: • What is there that can be known – what is knowable? • What is the relation of the knower to the known? • How do we find things out?
  3. 3. Ann Gray in 'Research Practice for Cultural Studies' (2003 - Sage Publication) • elaborates these questions: • What is there that can be known - what is knowable? This is an ontological question . . . (video on Ontology in next slide) • What is the relation of the knower to the known? This is an epistemological question… (video on Ontology in next slide) • How do we find things out? This is methodological questions.
  4. 4. WHAT IS A LITERATURE REVIEW? • Many students are instructed, as part of their research program, to perform a literature review, without understanding what a literature review is. Read more: http://www.experiment-resources.com/what-is-a-literature-review.html#ixzz1QGfAxinx
  5. 5. What is Literature Review? • A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. • Occasionally, we are asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report, dissertation or thesis.
  6. 6. Standing on the shoulders of giants
  7. 7. WHY? What is the purpose of Literature Review? • In writing the literature review, our purpose is to convey to our reader what knowledge and ideas have been established on a topic, and what their strengths and weaknesses are. • As a piece of writing, the literature review must be defined by a guiding concept (e.g., our research objective, the problem or issue you are discussing, or your argumentative thesis). • It is not just a descriptive list of the material available, or a set of summaries
  8. 8. Why do a literature review? • to identify gaps in the literature • to avoid reinventing the wheel (at the very least this will save time and it can stop you from making the same mistakes as others) • to carry on from where others have already reached (reviewing the field allows you to build on the platform of existing knowledge and ideas) • to identify other people working in the same fields (a researcher network is a valuable resource) • to increase your breadth of knowledge of your subject area • to identify seminal works in your area • to provide the intellectual context for your own work, enabling you to position your project relative to other work
  9. 9. Why do LR? • to identify opposing views • to put your work into perspective • to demonstrate that you can access previous work in an area • to identify information and ideas that may be relevant to your project • to identify methods that could be relevant to your project • As far as the literature review process goes, ultimately the goal for students is to complete their review in the allocated time and to ensure they can maintain currency in their field of study for the duration of their research(Bruce 1990).
  10. 10. Two important objectives of LR: • Besides enlarging your knowledge about the topic, writing a literature review lets you gain and demonstrate skills in two areas: 1. information seeking: the ability to scan the literature efficiently, using manual or computerized methods, to identify a set of useful articles and books 2. critical appraisal: the ability to apply principles of analysis to identify unbiased and valid studies
  11. 11. A literature review must do these things: • be organized around and related directly to the thesis or research question we are developing • synthesize results into a summary of what is and is not known • identify areas of controversy in the literature • formulate questions that need further research
  12. 12. How? Ask yourself questions like these: • What is the specific thesis, problem, or research question that my literature review helps to define? • What type of literature review am I conducting? Am I looking at issues of theory? methodology? policy? quantitative research (e.g. on the effectiveness of a new procedure)? qualitative research (e.g., studies )?
  13. 13. How? Ask yourself questions like these: • What is the scope of my literature review? What types of publications am I using (e.g., journals, books, government documents, popular media)? What discipline am I working in (e.g., Engineering, Psychology, Humanities, Pharmacy, Management)? • How good was my information seeking? Has my search been wide enough to ensure I've found all the relevant material? Has it been narrow enough to exclude irrelevant material? Is the number of sources I've used appropriate for the length of my paper?
  14. 14. How? Ask yourself questions like these: • Have I critically analysed the literature I use? Do I follow through a set of concepts and questions, comparing items to each other in the ways they deal with them? • Instead of just listing and summarizing items, do I assess them, discussing strengths and weaknesses? • Have I cited and discussed studies contrary to my perspective? • Will the reader find my literature review relevant, appropriate, and useful?
  15. 15. How? Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • Has the author formulated a problem/issue? • Is it clearly defined? Is its significance (scope, severity, relevance) clearly established? • Could the problem have been approached more effectively from another perspective? • What is the author's research orientation (e.g., interpretive, critical science, combination)? • What is the author's theoretical framework (e.g., psychological, developmental, feminist)?
  16. 16. How? Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • Has the author evaluated the literature relevant to the problem/issue? Does the author include literature taking positions she or he does not agree with? • In a research study, how good are the basic components of the study design (e.g., population, intervention, outcome)? • How accurate and valid are the measurements? Is the analysis of the data accurate and relevant to the research question? Are the conclusions validly based upon the data and analysis?
  17. 17. How? Ask yourself questions like these about each book or article you include: • How does the author structure the argument? Can you "deconstruct" the flow of the argument to see whether or where it breaks down logically (e.g., in establishing cause-effect relationships)? • In what ways does this book or article contribute to our understanding of the problem under study, and in what ways is it useful for practice? What are the strengths and limitations? • How does this book or article relate to the specific thesis or question I am developing?
  18. 18. Four Examples of Literature Review • Step by Step – drafting LR: Psychology. Systematic arrangement… • Ph.D. Thesis on ELT – Engineering Colleges in Tamil Nadu. Summarizing… • Example with teacher’s remark on LR. What to do and what not to… • CALL – The best of all
  19. 19. Web Tools for LR:
  20. 20. Web Tools helpful in LR: • www.delicious.com/dilipbarad • Google Docs – www.docs.google.com - Prepare a ‘form’ – easy to manage records in auto- generated spread sheet. - https://spreadsheets.google.com/spreadsheet/viewform?formkey=dDBCQi1PeVduZTFTVHY3WnFyWktCY3c6MQ
  21. 21. Reference: • • Afolabi, M. (1992) 'The review of related literature in research' International journal of information and library research, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 59-66. • Barad, D P. Research Methodology. http://dilipbarad.blogspot.in/2013/12/presentations-on-research- methodology.html • Bourner, T. (1996) 'The research process: four steps to success', in Greenfield, T. (ed), Research methods: guidance for postgraduates, Arnold, London. • Bruce, C. (1993) 'When enough is enough: or how should research students delimit the scope of their literature review?', in Challenging the Conventional Wisdom in Higher Education: Selected Contributions Presented at the Ninteeth Annual National Conference and Twenty-First Birthday Celebration of the Higher Education Research and Development Society of Australasia Inc., HERDSA, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. pp. 435-439. • Bruce, C. (1994) 'Supervising literature reviews', in Zuber-Skerritt, O. and Ryan, Y. (eds), Quality in postgraduate education, Kogan Page, London. • Bruce, C. S. (1990) 'Information skills coursework for postgraduate students: investigation and response at the Queensland University of Technology' Australian Academic & Research Libraries, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 224-232. • Bruce, C. S. (1994) 'Research student's early experiences of the dissertation literature review' Studies in Higher Education, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 217-229. • Bruce, C. S. (1997) 'From Neophyte to expert: counting on reflection to facilitate complex conceptions of the literature review', in Zuber-Skerritt, O. (ed), Frameworks for postgraduate education, Southern Cross University, Lismore, NSW. • Caspers, J. S (1998) 'Hands-on instruction across the miles: using a web tutorial to teach the literature review research process' Research Strategies, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 187-197. • Cooper, H. (2010). Research Synthesis and Meta-Analysis: A Step-By-Step Approach. Los Angeles: Sage. (call number McHenry Stacks H62 C5859)
  22. 22. Reference: • Cooper, H. M. (1988) 'The structure of knowledge synthesis' Knowledge in Society, vol. 1, pp. 104-126 • Cooper, H. M. (1989) Integrating research : a guide for literature reviews, 2nd ed, Sage Publications, Newbury Park, Calif. • Deakin University. (2009). The Literature Review. Geelong, Victoria, Australia: Author. Retrieved 4th September 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://www.deakin.edu.au/library/findout/research/litrev.php • Hart, Christopher r., Doing a Literature Review: Releasing the Social Science Research Imagination. Published in association with The Open University. • Jesson, Jill, Lydia Matheson, Fiona M. Lacey. Doing Your Literature Review: Traditional And Systematic Techniques. Sage Pub • Leedy, P. D. (1997) Practical research: planning and design, 6th ed, Merrill, Upper Saddle River, N.J. • Library Guides. Santa Cruz. University of California. http://library.ucsc.edu/print/help/howto/write-a-literature-review. Retrieved 4th September 2009. • Libutti, P.& Kopala, M. (1995) 'The doctoral student, the dissertation, and the library: a review of the literature' Reference Librarian, vol. 48, no. 5, pp. 5-25. • Machi, L.A. (2009). The Literature Review: Six Steps to Success. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press. (call number McHenry Stacks LB1047.3 M33) • Madison, Wisconsin. The University of Wisconsin-Madison Writing Center. (2009). Writer's Handbook: Common Writing Assignments: Review of Literature. Retrieved 4th September 2009 from the World Wide Web: http://www.wisc.edu/writing/Handbook/ReviewofLiterature.html • Martyn Shuttleworth (Sep 16, 2009). What is a Literature Review?. Retrieved Dec 04, 2016 from Explorable.com: https://explorable.com/what-is-a-literature-review • Mauch, J. E.& Birch, J. W. (2003) Guide to the successful thesis and dissertation: a handbook for students and faculty, 5th ed, Marcel Dekker, New York. • The Writing Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. http://writingcenter.unc.edu/handouts/literature-reviews/. Retrieved 4th December 2016 • Writing. University of Toronto. http://www.writing.utoronto.ca/advice/specific-types-of-writing/literature-review
  23. 23. Thank You . . . • Website: www.dilipbarad.com • Mail: dilipbarad@gmail.com • Facebook: www.facebook.com/dilipbarad • FB Page: www.facebook.com/dr.dilipbarad • Twitter: www.twitter.com/dilipbarad • Gtalk: dilipbarad • Y!Msngr: d_barad • Skype: dilip.barad

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