Data preparation and discussion should be formatted equally
Topic is not finalized in 3rd step coz I don’t know that I m checking relationship of advertising with what. Then I will read article and then find gap then will refine topic and start researchnote: topic should be neither be to broad nor to narrow.Impact of inflation on economy Economy is broader topicHr impact on organizational performance so first analyze employee performance
In the name of Allah Kareem,Most Beneficent, Most Gracious,the Most Merciful !
Research Process 1.Select a Topic / Problem 2.Literature review 3.Research design 4.Data Collection 5. Data Preparation 6.Data Analysis 7.Discussion and Conclusion 8.Report Writing
A LITERATURE REVIEW“A literature review is a body of text and its main goal is to bring the reader up to datewith current literature on a topic and forms the basis for another goal, such as thejustification for future research in the area. It seeks to describe, summarize, evaluate,clarify and/or integrate the content of previous researches". Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.27)
WHY LITERATURE REVIEW ?The literature review in a research study accomplishes several purposes that are asfollows: 1- Distinguishing what has been done form what need to be done 2- Discovering important variables relevant to the topic 3- Synthesizing and gaining a new perspective 4- Establishing the context of the topic or problem 5- Rationalizing the significance of the problem 6- Enhancing and acquiring the subject vocabulary 7- Understanding the structure of the subject 8- Relating ideas and theory to applications 9- Identifying the main methodologies and research techniques that have been used Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.27)
HOW TO CODUCT LITERATURE REVIEWThere is no one way to conduct a literature review, but many scholars proceed ina systematic fashion to capture, evaluate and summarize the literature. 1. Identify the topic 2. Locate sources of literature 3. Read the literature 4. Analyze the literature 5. Assembling and organizing 6. Writing the literature
1. Identification of Topic •Chose Area for research1 (Management Sciences) •Select field of research2 (Finance, HRM, Marketing) •Select topic of research3 (Advertising in Marketing) •Refine topic of research4 (Refining topic)
2. SOURCES OF LITERATUREThe literature sources available to help you to develop a good understanding of andinsight into previous research can be divided into three following categories: Primary Sources Secondary Sources Tertiary sources Reports Indexes Theses Newspapers Abstracts Emails Books Catalogues Conference reports Journals Encyclopedia Company reports Internet Dictionnaires Unpublished Some government Bibliographies manuscript publications Citation indexes sources Search Engines Adapted from “research Methods for business Students” by Mark Saunders (p.68)
TERTIARY SOURCESTertiary Resource available at Superior can be accessed via following addresshttp://www.digitallibrary.edu.pk/superior.html OrThrough Superior website www.superior.edu.pk by clicking onDigital Library link Name Type Internet address Google Search engine www.google.com Google Scholar Search engine for www.scholar.google.com scholarly material Yahoo Search engine www.yahoo.com Ebscohost Database Springer link Database http://www.springerlink.com Blackwell synergy http://www.blackwell-synergy.com Oxford press Publisher http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/oso/public/index. html University Of Chicago Publisher http://www.journals.uchicago.edu Press Adapted from “research Methods for business Students” by Mark Saunders (p.68)
3.READING THE LITERATURE Read abstract of the article or preface and introduction of book Skim through the article/ book Survey the main parts of the article/ book Read in detail the selected important parts Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.53)
4. ANALYSIS AND SYNTHESISAnalysis is the job of systematically breaking down something into itsconstituents parts and describing how they relate to each other – it is not randomdissection but a methodological examination.There are two types of analysis i.e. argument analysis and systematic analysis. 1. Systematic Analysis: Systematic Analysis is the kind of analysis in which we systematically evaluate the literature on the basis of key ideas, theories, concepts and methodological assumptions and the overall structure and format of the research work 2. Arguments Analysis: If a range of arguments is being analyzed, you will need to explicate the claim, data and warrant for each argument. In this way, the identification of the individual and similar elements in a range of items can be compared and contrasted.
1. SYSTEMATIC ANALYSISSystematic Analysis is the kind of analysis in which we systematically evaluatethe literature on the basis of key ideas, theories, concepts and methodologicalassumptions and the overall structure and format of the research work. Insystematic analysis we can do the analysis of single research work butpreferably we should go for comparative analysis of two or more studies on thesame topic
COMPARING AND CONTRASTINGA common practice in the social sciences is to make comparisons betweenthe works and ideas of different authors. This usually involves findingcommon points of interest between, definitions of main concepts, kinds ofdata collected and the interpretations of findings. The practice can beuseful in identifying common areas of interest and differing positions onsimilar topic areas.Following figure points out the levels of comparison and contrast. Thepoint to note, however, is that comparing theorists has inherentdifficulties, mainly to do with the selection of criteria or points of referencethat are valid and comparable
COMPARING AND CONTRASTING Theorist A Theorist B Area of difference Ontology Ontology Epistemology Epistemology Morality Area of Morality Politics similarity Politics Interpretation Interpretation Data Data Methodology Methodology Axiology Axiology Rhetoric Area of Rhetoric difference Points of reference for making a comparison between theorists Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.131)
2. ARGUMENT ANALYSISAn argument involves putting forward reasons to influence someone’s beliefthat you are proposing in the case (Hinderer, 1992). Whichever way someonemakes an argument they are attempting to convince others of the validity (orlogic) of how they see the world and convince us that we should see it the waythey do.An argument has at least two components: a point and a reason: Making a point (or statement/ conclusion) Providing sufficient reason (or evidence) for the point to be accepted by others
METHODS OF ANALYZING ARGUMENTSThere are basically two method to analyze and evaluate argumentsintelligently and fairly: 1. Fisher’s method of critical reading 2. Toulmin’s method of argumentation analysis
Fisher’s Method of critical reading:Fisher (1993) provides a method for a systematic reading of texts. This initial readingtechnique enables the reader to systematically extracts the main elements (words) ofany arguments for the purposes of evaluation. SKIM THROUGH THE TEXT CIRCLE ANY INFERENCE INDICATORS (THUS, THEREFORE etc.) UNDERLINE CONCLUSION ( C ) & PLACE REASONS ( R ) IN BRACKETS < > INDICATED BY WORDS LIKE BECAUSE, SINCE etc. CONSTRUCT AN ARGUMENTS DIAGRAM R=C R1 + R2 = (Therefore) C1 (Interim conclusion) C1 or R3 = (Therefore) C2 (Main conclusion) Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.110)
Toulmin’s Method Of Argumentation Analysis:Toulmin developed an approach to argumentation analysis that was rooted inthe practice rather than the theory of logic.He proposes that an argument can be broken up into a number of basicelements that are as follow•Claim an arguable statement•Evidence Data used to supports the claim•Warrant (or permit) an expectation that provides the link between the evidence and claim•Backing Context and assumption used to support the validity or the warrant and evidence
Example:Following is an example from everyday life. In dry summers consumers are asked andexpected to save water through careful and limited use. This is normally taken to meanwater should only be used for essential things-watering lawns, filling swimming poolsand washing cars are prohibited. The argument for this could have the followingstructure Data Claim so Car washes can use upto Car owners should 250,000 gallons of water Warrant restrict washing their in the main summer Since cars in areas of the weeks. This quantity country where there is depletes water reservoirs Water is essential a water shortage by 20% during a season and people should (Restriction). when there is heavy not waste it in water usage. times of shortage Backing because Water shortage cause inconvenience, are a danger to people and can be costly to consumers. Adopted from “Doing a literature review “ by Chris Hart p.87)
DEFINING (CONSTRUCTING MEANING)Defining is about placing boundaries around the meaning of a term; it comesfrom the Latin defenire – to put boundaries around. The boundaries relate to theway in which a term or word is used in a give context. There are different typesof definitions, such as formal definitions and stipulate definitions. Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.110)
CONNECTION BETWEEN ANALYSIS, SYNTHESIS, COMPREHENSION & KNOWLEDGE Analysis Select, Unpacking a thing into its constituent parts in order to differentiate, infer or determine the relationship and/or organizing dissect, and break principle between them; thereby isolating the main up. variables. Synthesis Integrate, Synthesis is the act of making connections between the combing recast, parts identified in analysis. It is not simply a matter of formulate, reassembling the parts back into the original order, but reorganize. looking for a new order. Rearranging the elements derived from analysis to identity relationship or show main organizing principle or show how these principles can be used to make a different phenomenon. Comprehension Understand, be Interpreting and distinguishing between different types able to explain, of data, theory and argument; thereby being able to distinguish, and describe, discuss and explain in various ways the interpret. substance of an idea or working of a phenomenon. Knowledge Define, classify, Perceiving the principles, use and function of rules, describe, name, methods and events in different situations; classify, use, recognized, characterize, generalize, analyze the structure of, and become aware of, learn from experimentation on the meaning of, concepts understand, and their application. problem solve.
5. ASSEMBLING ORGANIZING LITERATURE USING MAPSMapping ideas is about setting out, on paper, the geography of research andthinking that has been done on a topic. In other words it is the process oforganizing the content of the literature into sections and subsections in order tomake connections between ideas contained in different articles, books and workpublished over a certain time period. It is an effective way of getting overview ofthe topicTYPES OF MAPS There are four types of maps that are as follows 1. Feature map 2. Tree construction 3. Content Map 4. Taxonomic Map 5. Concept Map Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.142-143)
1- Feature Maps: Feature maps are a method by which the content of many articles can be systematically analyzed and recorded in a standardized format the method entails recording the key features of a predetermined aspects of study to - Produced a summary schemata of the argument proposed by that study - to locate any similarities and differences between other studies on the topic Extract from an analysis of feminist analysis of fragrance advertisement.Author / Questions /Concerns Materials/ Arguments Concepts/Form of Main Sources Date Evidence Analysisshield, How is meaning Photocop visual images communicate meaning Feminist/structuralism Williamson,19781990 communicated y ads for through codes/ messages which are /semiotics barthes, 1985 through visual cologne, produced within the dominant male male interest ad power Nichols, 1981 images, ads in 2illustrati ideology of looking Berger, 1973 particular? How do ons, other images reflect/reinforce/reproduced objectified/ Haug, 1987 spectators of different studies dominant cultural discourse of commodified female genders find attractiveness pleasures in images Codes/messages and referent systems can constructed for the therefore be analyzed using visual images male interest? to reveal the dominant ideologyYanni, how do women enter other ad images (visuals/text) continually Feminist critique. Jhally, 19871990 into the thing-people studies no devalue women while maintaining a Addresses the nature Berger, 1972 relationship illustratio priority/ privilege to male experience and and function of Williamson, 1978 differently form men ns position of power to define convention advertising through (1) Kappeler, 1986 how can feminist codes the structure of analysis of ads theories of commodities, representations (2) the provide evidence for the material and symbolic meaning of process of the power of women is misconceived by ads which commodification (3) the dominant misrepresent and objectivity women for the power of ads. ideological forms of sake of beauty as it were a commodity constraint women are therefore given material value Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.148-149)
2- Tree Construction:A subject tree aims to show the different ways in which the major topic has developed sub-themes and related questions. The tree shows how the topic has branched out not the author.Following is the example of subject relevance tree based on the general topic of advertising,showing some of the sub-topics within the general literature. Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.152)
3- Content Maps: Content map is a common hierarchal (top to bottom) arrangement of the contents of a topic starting with the conceptual elements, subdivided into segments and further into levels producing a linear flow diagram. Following is an example of content map developed by Tesch (1990) for partial classification of qualitative research. Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.153)
4- Taxonomic Maps: Closely related to content maps are taxonomic maps (sometimes called elaboration maps), that aims to show how a range of things can be placed into a general class. They also show differences between objects within the general class. Following is the example of taxonomy of passenger cars Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.154)
5- Concept Maps:In order to turn declarative knowledge into procedural knowledge we often need to now the linkagesbetween concepts and processes. A concept map can be useful because it can be constructed to show therelationships between ideas ad practice and include, if necessary, reference to relevant examples.Following figure shows some of the processes involved in undertaking and analysis of qualitative data.Note how different concepts can be linked in multiple ways and how emphasis can be given to somelinks. Also note the cause and effect or problem and solution structure that is an implicit assumptionunderlying all concept maps. Adapted from “Doing Literature Review” by Chris Hart (p.154)
6. WRITING THE LITERATURE REVIEWWe have already studied that in quantitative and mixed method literature reviewplays an important role and its is usually composed in five parts. Introduction Review on independent variable Review on dependent variable Review on the relationship of independent and dependent variables Summary Adapted from by Creswell, 2003 (p.45)
Course Aims• To introduce the basic philosophical and methodological approaches currently used as a foundation for research in Business, Management and Social Sciences.• To discuss critically the conventional distinction between “quantitative and qualitative” research and its usefulness in planning and evaluating research.• To develop the skills of literature review and critical analysis of research reports by giving practical exposure to locating literature and reviewing critically by argumentation, reading analysis and mapping.• To provide a comprehensive knowledge about the introduction, purpose statement, research questions, hypothesis, use of theory limitations and significance for the development of rationale in designing research.• To provide a comprehensive understanding about quantitative research and develop their skills in different areas like operationalization, quantitative methods and ensure the reliability and validity of the data.• To make a clear understanding for the use of SPSS (which is related to their previous course “Quantitative Techniques”).• To provide a comprehensive understanding about qualitative research and develop their skills in using valid and reliable qualitative methods.• To discuss various ways of designing research which focuses on the purpose of research, the use of theory and the research significance, its limitations and delimitations.• To present a range of ethical issues relevant to the conduct and publication of research.• To give an introduction of Nvivo (for qualitative data).
Classification Topics At the end of this module, successful students will be able to demonstrate the knowledge of: A range of methodological approaches and philosophical assumptions to organizational and professional research. Ways of formulating and defining business and management research problems,Knowledge and significance or limitations.Comprehension Understanding of Literature Review and critical Analysis Issues in, and methods of, research design. The importance of ethics and values in business research. The requirements for effective analysis and interpretation of quantitative, qualitative data and mixed methods. At the end of this module, the successful students will be able to: Make informed decisions about different research approaches, strategies, design and methods which are relevant to different purposes To write a literature review related to business research problems.Application and To conduct interviews and interpret them to develop results. Skills To conduct surveys and develop analysis & interpretation of them. Write a successful research proposal which outlines and evaluates the research process and method(s) most appropriate to investigate the student’s own research questions/subject. At the end of this module successful students will be able to: Critically evaluate the range of qualitative and quantitative data and information Analysis and collection strategies in a meaningful manner to solve problems. Synthesis To analyze the research and findings of other people. Analyze the quantitative & Qualitative data for interpretation of results.
FINAL PROJECT TO DEVELOP A RESEARCH PROPOSAL FOR AN APPROVED RESEARCH PROBLEMGuidelines and Assessment Criteria (a) Abstract (b) Aims of the investigation: Including the need for / value of the research (c) Problem formulation: Relevant social / business context Main research questions / hypotheses Brief summary of theoretical / conceptual bases of the project Target population of interest (d) Selective literature review: Brief summary (max. 3000 words) of the areas to be addressed, and of illustrative resources, including selective bibliography in recognized format (e) Initial choice of methodological approach * and research strategy (ies) (f) Fieldwork: An outline (only) of plans for methods of data production / sources, and for negotiating access
(g) Research design: Outline of plans for indicators / descriptors for key concepts Methods for ruling out alternative explanations (or descriptions) Sampling procedures / selection of cases (organizations or individuals)(h) Discussion of issues of validity and reliability – or alternative criteria for research quality (to be clearly specified)(i) Ethical and other commitments: Brief discussion of any major ethical or legal dilemma and political or organizational constraints etc.
PresentationThe aim of the presentation is to allow students to gain constructive feedback fromtheir peers regarding their comparative reports as well as allowing them to demonstratetheir presentation skills. The structure of the presentation will largely mirror thestructure of the report and thus contain the comparison on the basis of three basicresearch approaches i.e. qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods.Points to consider when marking presentations are:• Timing of presentation.• Clarity of concepts.• Structure of the presentation.• Quality of overheads, handouts etc.• Application of theory to practice.• Ability to answer questions effectively.• Use of sources of information.
Criteria of Assessment • Clarity and conciseness of your specification of various aspects of the proposal. • The relation of details of your research design specifically to the aims of your particular study (That is, credit will not be given for the production of generalities about research design that are unrelated to any particular study). • Justification of key decisions made. • Completeness of coverage of guidelines.Weighting: 20 Marks • Guidelines (a,b,c) (5% + 5% + 15%) 25% • Guidelines (d,e) 15% • Guidelines (f,g) 40% • Guideline (h) 10% • Presentation (including bibliography in a recognized format) 10%Length:Maximum 6000 words, plus references (at most 10) in selective bibliography (based onselective literature review).Weightage: 30% (project: 20%, presentation: 10%)