Develpment pack


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Develpment pack

  1. 1. Aid – money or resources given or lent on favourable terms to developing countries. Appropriate technology or intermediate technology – simple or small- scale machinery and tools that, because they are cheap and easy to use and maintain, may be most use in developing countries. Balance of trade – the difference in value between imports and exports Bilateral aid – direct from government to government Birth rate – the number of live births for every 1000 of the population per year Brand name – a name or trademark that is well known and easily recognisable Charity – voluntary organisation that provides help for those in need Correlation – the relationship between two sets of information Death rate – the number of people dying per 1000 of the population Developed country – 1st world, rich north, MEDC, a country that has a lot of money, many services and a high standard of living Developed world/first world/rich north – the countries that have a money economy and a highly developed industrial sector. 1
  2. 2. Developing country – 3rd world, poor south, LEDC, a country that is often quite poor, has few services and a low standard of living Development – involves changes that usually bring improvement and growth. Countries can be at different stages of development depending on how rich or poor they are Employment structure – proportion of people working in primary, secondary, tertiary or quaternary Exports – goods sold to another country Fair trade – giving a fair price for a product, benefits the producers (farmers etc.) Global companies – see Transnational Globalisation – the process by which corporations, ideas and lifestyles are spreading around the world with increasing ease Gross domestic product (GDP) – the total value of all the goods (such as food, cars etc.) and services (tourism, banking etc.) produced by a country or region within a country annually (in one year). Usually expressed as per capita i.e. per person. HDI – human development index – a way of measuring the development of a country using three indicators, life expectancy, literacy rates and the purchasing power of money. Imports – goods bought from another country Infrastructure – the services a settlement requires, such as energy supply, sewage, roads, shops, hospitals, police etc. Interdependence – when countries work together and rely on each other for help LEDC – less economically developed country – another term for the developing or third world or poor south. 2
  3. 3. Life expectancy – the average number of years a person can expect to live Literacy rate – the proportion of people who can read and write Long-term aid – over a long period of time e.g. builds homes, improve infrastructure, build schools etc. Manufactured goods – secondary industry products such as cars, computers and electronics MEDC – more economically developed country, rich north, developed world, first world. Multilateral aid – through international organisations such as the World Bank, IMF (international monetary fund), EU (European Union) etc. Multinationals – see Transnational Newly industrialised countries (NICs) – mainly in East Asia, have undergone rapid and successful industrialisation since the 1960’s, e.g. China, South Korea Non-government organisation – charity not governed by a government Over dependence – depend too much on just one thing e.g. one crop, which might fail due to disease or drought etc. Primary industry – collecting natural resources, farming, fishing, forestry and mining Quality of life – a measure of how contented people are with their lives and the environment in which they live and work Quaternary industry – an industry that provides information and expertise, such as microelectronics, research etc. Raw materials – natural resources that are used to make things Resources – things that can be useful to people 3
  4. 4. Secondary industry – natural resources are turned into goods, manufactured Self help scheme – where local people are involved in improving conditions for themselves e.g. building better housing or reducing soil erosion Shantytown – group o unplanned shelters constructed from cheap or waste materials such as cardboard, wood, corrugated iron. Commonly located on the outskirts of cities in developing countries, or within cities on derelict land or near rubbish tips. Often lack services such as electricity, running water, toilets etc. They are overcrowded resulting from mass emigration from rural areas in response to pull factors. Short-term aid – emergency relief e.g. after an earthquake people need shelter, water, food and medicine Single product economy – rely on just one or two products, which can cause problems Social indicators – measures of development e.g. life expectancy, literacy rates etc. Standard of living – how well off a person or country is Sustainable development – a way to improve people’s standard of living and quality of life without wasting resources or harming the environment for future use Sweatshops – factories where people have to work long hours for very little money Tertiary industry – service jobs that provide a service for people e.g. nursing Tiger economy – based on industrial growth that is rapid and competitive e.g. South Korea, Hong Kong, Taiwan Trade – the movement and sale of goods between countries 4
  5. 5. Trade deficit – when a country spends more on its imports than it earns from its exports Trade surplus – when a country earns more from its exports than it spends on its imports Transnational – large business with offices and factories all over the world, cheap labour and low production costs in developing countries Voluntary aid – from charities such as Oxfam, Action Aid etc. low cost schemes based on simple technology which benefit local people 5
  6. 6. 6Interactions
  7. 7. STANDARD OF LIVING This is to do with income and wealth. It’s about how many possessions you have, the luxuries you can afford, whether you are rich or poor. Words associated with standard of living are; income, employment, class, GDP, education etc. An easy way to remember it is the idea of a person who seems to have everything; tow houses, two cars, two T.V.’s etc. but on psychiatrist because they may be stressed. (economic development) QUALITY OF LIFE This is to do with a person’s general well being and enjoyment of life. You can still be poor and happy. It’s not about money but the personal relationships, stress, health and enjoyment of life. It is about emotional, social and physical well being. In some countries/cultures, this can be to do with freedom from slavery, torture, political freedom, religious freedom, discrimination, the right to vote, women’s rights etc. An easy way to remember it is the idea of only one house, one car, one T.V. but no psychiatrist! (social development) 7
  8. 8. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007214 World development NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 134–135 If the world were a village ... 7.11 If you could shrink the world’s population to a village of 100 people: ១1 Working with a partner, cut out each statement and organise them into piles under the headings: N Gender N Quality of life N Population distribution N Wealth distribution N Other. ១2 Write a paragraph summarising each heading. Which statistics surprised you? Which was the biggest shock to you? ១3 On a large sheet of paper design a poster with the title: If we could shrink the world. Use a variety of techniques to show the information about the village of 100 people. For example, you could use graphs drawn by hand or on a computer using a spreadsheet program, along with pictograms, diagrams or cartoons. N 20 would be from the more developed world, 80 from the less developed world N 60 would be from Asia, 13 from Africa, 12 from Europe, 9 from Latin America, 5 from North America and 1 from the rest of the world N 49 would be female, 51 would be male N 70 would be non-white, 30 would be white N 80 would have access to clean water N 56 would have access to sanitation N 30 would be smokers N 11 would be HIV infected N 47 would live in urban areas, 53 in rural areas N only 5 people would be involved in agriculture N 30 would be aged between 0 and 14 years, 63 between 16 and 64 and 7 older than 65 N life expectancy would be 66 years N 14 would speak Chinese and only 6 English N 25 would have televisions N 14 would have cars N 60 would have electricity N 10 would have a telephone N 67 would be non-Christian, 33 would be Christian N 6 people would own 59% of the world’s wealth – and all 6 would be from the USA N 50 would not have enough food, 80 would live in poor housing N 70 would be unable to read N only 1 would have a higher education N only 1 (yes, only one) would own a computer. 8 Working with a partner, colour code or number the above statements under the headings:
  9. 9. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007205 World development NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 126–127 Where in the world ...? 7.3 All countries are different. Some are rich and others poor. The richer countries are mainly in the North and the poorer countries in the South. ១2 How do you feel about the following facts? Explain your answers. N 1 billion people – one in six of the world’s population – live on less than 65p a day. N The three richest people in the world have more wealth than all 48 of the poorest countries put together. ១3 What can you tell about unequal development from the photographs of people on pages 124 and 125 of your textbook? Rich countries Poor countries A Famine, disease and war B Unable to read and write C Own a fridge D Own a TV E Good neighbours F Consumer goods G Relatives working abroad and sending back money H Good roofs on homes to keep the rain out I Food security J Send children out to work K Single parents L Absolute poverty M Good life expectancy N Access to technology O Encourages sustainable development P Welfare state Q Sufficient food R Use solar power for electricity S Hospitals and doctors T ‘Mountains’ and ‘lakes’ of spare food U Women’s rights V Modern farming methods W Own a mobile phone X Quality housing Y Have only unsafe water to drink Z Freedom and democracy ១1 Read the statements below and then, using letters, complete the diagram to show the most likely charac- teristics of people in rich countries and poor countries. Those statements that could apply to both types should be written in the overlapping sector. 9
  10. 10. Where in the world? 10
  11. 11. WHERE ARE THE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES? The map of the world below shows the division between the ‘rich’ developed countries of the north and the ‘poor’ developing countries of the south. (Australia is considered to be in the ‘rich’ north). 1. Draw lines on the map indicating the Equator and the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. 2. Which four of the following statements are correct about the location of developing countries?  They all lie south of the North-South divide.  They all lie south of the Equator.  Most are found within the tropics.  They all lie in South America, Asia and Australasia.  None are found in Europe and North America.  They all lie in South America, Asia and Africa. 11
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  13. 13. LESSON 1; 1. Pack p11; Where are the developing countries? 2. Pack p12; North and South 3. Doddle; Comparing development mini quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 13
  14. 14. 14 Wider World
  15. 15. 15 A B C D E F G H I J writing the correct letter in each box
  16. 16. © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 73 DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 34 Development indicators Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.11 Your task 1 a) Match each of these development indicators with the correct definition in the box below. Write each one in the correct space. b) Draw an arrow in the box next to each one pointing up or down to show whether this indicator would increase or decrease with development. ________________________________ The average amount of money a country earns per person ________________________________ The average age that people can expect to live to ________________________________ The percentage of people with a tap or well close to their home ________________________________ The rate at which the population is growing ________________________________ The average amount of fuel used by each person in a year ________________________________ The percentage of people living in towns or cities ________________________________ The average number of people for each doctor ________________________________ The number of children, aged one or less, who die per 1,000 born ________________________________ The percentage of people aged 15 or over who can read and write ________________________________ The percentage of the workforce who work on farms ________________________________ The percentage of children aged 5–11 who attend school ________________________________ The percentage of car ownership 2 Choose the six indicators that you think are the most important to compare levels of development between countries, for the assignment on page 35 of the Pupil’s Book. Population growth Adult literacy rate Children in primary school Energy consumption GNP/capita Population with access to safe water Life expectancy People per doctor Employment in agriculture Urban population Car ownership Infant mortality Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 73 16
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  23. 23. LESSON 2; 1. Write a summary of what the UN is 2. Use gapminder, or any other resource you know of to produce five graphs (each one for a different social indicator) DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 23
  24. 24. 24 Wider World
  25. 25. DEVELOPMENT REVIEW PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 23–44 Differences in development Name ________________________________________________________________________________ B © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 89 Your task 1 Look at the table below. It shows GNP per capita and life expectancy for some countries. Both are used as indicators of development. a) Explain what the two indicators mean. GNP per capita __________________________________________________________________________ Life expectancy __________________________________________________________________________ b) Rank the countries in the table according to each of the two indicators. One is done for you. Country GNP/capita Rank Life Rank (US$) expectancy Brazil 4,400 5 67 6 China 750 69 France 26,270 78 India 380 63 Japan 40,940 80 Nigeria 240 53 Russian Fed. 2,410 67 UK 19,600 77 USA 28,020 77 Zambia 360 45 GNP/capita (rank) Lifeexpectancy(rank) 10 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 102 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 2 a) Draw a scattergraph on the grid to see if there is a link between GNP/capita and life expectancy. Use the rank figures from the table to draw the graph. b) Describe what the graph shows. _____________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ c) Explain what you can see in the graph. ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________________ Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 89 25
  26. 26. 26 Interactions
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  30. 30. LESSON 3; 1. Pack p28 Interdependence 2. Pack p29 Single product economies 3. Doddle; Trade mini quiz and super quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 30
  31. 31. Review What is meant by the term development? Development is the process of change which improves the well-being of a society in terms of material wealth and quality of life. Development includes;  Access to education  Better food supply  Better working conditions  Decreased infant mortality  Improved health care  Longer life expectancy  Secure employment  Security in old age  Warm dry housing  Water supply and sanitation A developed country is a rich country. It may be endowed with natural resources that have been used to create wealth. Most developed countries are industrialized and incomes are high. After fulfilling the everyday needs for water, food, shelter and clothing, most people have money left over (disposable income) for buying consumer goods and luxuries for the home and for themselves, or for spending on entertainment, leisure and travel. A large, productive service sector develops. A less developed country is a poor country. In many of these countries there is still a great dependence upon farming, which has not been modernized and from which output is low. Although industry is increasing in some countries, in others it still makes only a small contribution to the economy. For all but a few people who are very rich, there is a constant struggle to achieve even the bare necessities of life. With insufficient food and without clean water, health suffers, particularly that of infants and children. Medical care is sparse. Access to education is limited as well, with the resulting low levels of literacy and the chances of a child improving upon the standard of living and quality of life of its parents are not good. Living in dirty, cramped conditions is the lot of many of millions of people in South America, Africa and Asia. Wealth is an economic factor, but variations in wealth affect quality of life, health, literacy and housing, which are examples of social conditions. Both economic and social measures of development are used. For example, life expectancy, literacy rates, birth rates, death rates, population growth etc. The Human Development Index was introduced by the United Nations to measure development combining economic factors of wealth (GNP) and social factors of Health (life expectancy) and education (literacy rates). 31
  32. 32. 32 Interactions
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  35. 35. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007203 World development NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 124–125 What is the development problem? 7.1 Development is a process of growth and change, which can help countries become better places in which to live. ១1 Cut out the dominoes and study the key words written on them. ១2 Working in pairs, set out all the dominoes in a straight line. ១3 In order to put down a word, you will need to explain to your partner the link between the words. There is only one correct order! ១4 Stick the dominoes in your book or file in the correct order. START Bangladesh The amount of money owed Aid START Bangladesh Goods that are brought from other countries Adult literacy rate START Bangladesh More economically developed country Debt START Bangladesh A process of change and growth; it should be for the better (but is not always) Sustainable development START BangladeshSTART MEDCSTART Bangladesh Help given by richer countries to improve the quality of life of people in poor- er countries Development indicators START Bangladesh Data used to compare how developed countries are LEDC START Bangladesh Less economically developed country Life expectancySTART Bangladesh Development that does not harm future generations and allows the environment to thrive Infant mortality START Bangladesh How long a new baby can expect to live, on average Imports START Bangladesh Goods that are sold to other countries DevelopmentSTART Bangladesh The percentage of people who can read and write Exports START Bangladesh A name sometimes used for the world’s poorer countries FINISH START Bangladesh The number of deaths per 1,000 babies born each year Third world 35 Number or colour code the dominoes into the correct order.
  36. 36. REVISION NOTES 36
  37. 37. REVISION NOTES 37
  38. 38. LESSON 4; 1. Revise and make notes on the revision pages on what you have learnt so far. Use the BBC bitesize file on MyQG to help you 2. Doddle; Review; What is development mini quiz, super quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 38
  40. 40. 40 Interactions
  41. 41. 41 Places/Wider World
  42. 42. 42 Places/Wider World
  43. 43. 43 Wider World
  44. 44. 44 Interactions/Places
  45. 45. DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 24 Quality of life in the UK (1) Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.2 64 earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY Your task 1 Look at the table below. It contains data for three measures of the quality of life in UK regions. The regions are shown in this map. 2 Complete three maps on Sheet 2.3 to show regional differences for each quality of life measure. a) Find the range of data in the table for each measure. For example, average income per family ranges from £321 per week in the North-east to £482 per week in the South-east. b) Divide the range into four bands which are roughly equal in size. Write the bands on the key beside each map on Sheet 2.3. The key on the first map is done for you. c) Choose one colour. Use a different shade or pattern to colour the regions in each band. Colour the key. Colour each map using the data in the table. 3 Work out a quality of life index for each region. One way to do this is to rank the regions according to each of the three measures in the table. a) Write the rank position for each region in the empty columns in the table. One has been started for you. Add the three rank scores for each region to work out the quality of life index and write it in the last column of the table. The lower the score, the better the quality of life. 0 100km Scotland North-east Yorkshire East Midlands Eastern London South-east South-west Wales West Midlands North-west Northern Ireland Quality of life Average Rank Unemployment Rank Car Rank Quality measure income per (%) ownership of life family per (%) index Region week (£) Eastern 427 3 5.2 78 East Midlands 369 6.3 74 London 454 2 9.1 62 North-east 321 9.8 60 North-west 377 6.9 71 Northern Ireland 326 7.5 70 Scotland 367 8.5 64 South-east 482 1 5.2 77 South-west 398 5.2 80 Wales 359 8.4 68 West Midlands 360 6.8 68 Yorkshire 365 8.1 68 b) Complete the final map on Sheet 2.3 to show the quality of life in each region. Use the same method that you used for the other three maps. Source: Regional Trends 1998 © Crown copyright 2000 Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 64 45
  46. 46. © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 65 DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 24 Quality of life in the UK (2) Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.3 Use this sheet to map quality of life for the regions in the UK. You will need the data on Sheet 2.2. 0 100km Average income per family per week Unemployment Key (£) Under 350 350– 400 400– 450 Over 450 Key (%) Quality of life indexCar ownership KeyKey (%) Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 65 46
  47. 47. 47 Places/Wider World
  48. 48. 48 Wider World 48
  49. 49. 49 Connections/Places
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  51. 51. Kenya, a developing country NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 114–115 Improving life in a shanty town 6.8a NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006166 ១1 Imagine you have the chance to improve life in a shanty town of poor quality, self-built houses on the fringe of Nairobi. You can provide money and equipment for two years but, with so many real emergencies occurring around the world, there is no guarantee of more money in the years ahead. ១2 You have 300 shanty town credits to spend in your first year and another 250 in the second year. You can help the community with any of the projects listed in the table below. The main aim of people living in squatter settlements is to survive and improve themselves. Unemployment is not an option. They have to do something to survive. They do this by working hard and making money. They work to improve their self-built homes. The process of improving their quality of life is known as self-help. Project Shanty town credits Install a small petrol electricity generator. 25 Install a village pump giving clean, safe water. 45 Pay for a teacher for one year. 25 Set up a locally-run health and family planning centre. 25 Install a drainage and sewerage network. 35 Pay for a government advisor/expert. 25 Build 100 m of concrete road with street paving. 20 Fit solar cells to hut roofs, providing electric lighting. 40 Set up a community centre. 30 Pay for a monthly doctor’s visit to the shanty. 20 Set up a factory employing people in poorly paid jobs. 120 Pay for a weekly nurse’s visit to the shanty. 30 Build a latrine. 10 Pay for a weekly refuse collection. 15 Set up a self-help work scheme. 10 Electricity connection for an area. 35 Pay for medical supplies. 25 Set up a communal water tap. 30 Install a sealed cesspit, emptied regularly. 20 Pay for water connection per building. 20 Pay for electric connection to one building. 15 Training for one teacher. 20 Paint for one house. 10 Provide sports areas; 25 x 25 m grass. 5 Set up street lighting per street. 20 Send delegation from community to city authorities. 10 Build and run an orphanage for one year. 20 Repair and build a small, new brick house. 10 Remove a house in the path of mudslides. 5 Widen selected streets so that emergency services and waste collection services can gain access. 15 Use labour from within the shanty so that residents can develop and use new skill. 20 51
  52. 52. ១3 Who should have the most say in deciding about the projects, you or the shanty town community? Give reasons for your answer. ១4 Create a PowerPoint presentation for the Project Director to outline your spending proposal for the scheme, and use ICT to create an eye-catching poster to promote the scheme. ១5 Imagine that you are an estate agent in Nairobi trying to sell a self-built house in a shanty town. Use ICT to produce a leaflet that includes details of the property and a picture. Be sure to concentrate on its positive features. Kenya, a developing country NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 114–115 Improving life in a shanty town 6.8b NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006167 What should be the priorities for development? Select the projects on Activity Sheet 6.8a that you think would be most effective in helping to solve the problems of shanty towns. Justify your selection and explain why you chose that project and rejected others. First year: Second year: Plans for future years: Improvements in first year Cost Reasons for choice Improvements in second year Cost Reasons for choice 52
  53. 53. You are going to produce graphs and tables to represent the data in the previous pages to compare MEDC’s and LEDC’s. The first one must be a bar graph for the information on page 40. The rest is up to you. You could produce a table with the countries down the side and the information along the top. I am leaving this open as there are many ways that you could represent the data. 53
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  61. 61. LESSON 5; Pack pages 53 to 55; representing data using tables and graphs DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 61
  62. 62. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN ECONOMICALLY MORE DEVELOPED AND ECONOMICALLY LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ECONOMICALLY MORE DEVELOPED COUNTRIES ECONOMICALLY LESS DEVELOPED COUNTRIES GROSS NATIONAL PRODUCT Majority over US$5000 per person per year; 80% of world’s total income Majority under US$2000 per person per year; 20% of world’s total income POPULATION GROWTH Relatively slow partly due to family planning; 25% of world’s population; population doubles in 80 years Extremely fast, little or no family planning; 75% of world’s population; population doubles in 30 years HOUSING High standard of permanent housing; indoor amenities, e.g. electricity, water supply and sewerage Low standard, mainly temporary housing; very rarely any amenities TYPE OF JOBS Manufacturing and service industries (75% of world’s manufacturing industry) Mainly in primary industries (25% of world’s manufacturing industry) LEVELS OF MECHANISATION Highly mechanised with new technologies; 96% of world spending on development projects and research Mainly hand labour or the use of animals EXPORTS Manufactured goods Unprocessed raw materials ENERGY High level of consumption; main sources are coal, oil, HEP and nuclear power, use 80% world’s energy Low level of consumption; wood still a major source, use 20% world’s energy COMUNICATIONS Motorways, railways and airports Road, rail and airports only near main cities, rural areas have little development DIET Balanced diet, several meals per day, high protein intake Unbalanced diet, 20% of population suffers from malnutrition, low protein intake LIFE EXPECTANCY Over 75 years Over 60 years HEALTH Very good, large numbers of doctors and good hospital facilities Very poor, few doctors and inadequate hospital facilities EDUCATION Majority have full-time secondary education (16+) Very few have any formal education; females disadvantaged 62
  64. 64. WHAT IS GLOBALISATION? You have probably heard the expression ‘it’s a small world!’ People have been saying it for years but now it is true. Just check out the labels on your clothes – almost certainly they have been made in another part of the world. Turn on your computer and the internet will give you access to websites almost anywhere. Everyone in the world is becoming more connected, with improved transport and communication, which have made links with other people and countries around the world so much quicker and easier. These links have increased at such a rapid rate that we now have a new word for it; GLOBALISATION. This means the way that companies, ideas and lifestyles are spreading more and more easily around the world. It has made it much easier for goods and services produced in one place to be sold, used and seen elsewhere. Fashion is a good example of this. Large countries, who can afford it, can locate all over the world, usually searching for bigger markets and higher profits. These are called TRANSNATIONAL CORPORATIONS (TNCs). The headquarters are usually located in developed countries such as the USA, with smaller offices and factories in developing countries, where labour is cheap and production costs are low. In the past 30 years, TNCs or MULTINATIONAL COMPANIES have grown in size and influence. Some of the largest ones make more money than all of the African countries put together. The world’s 500 largest companies now control at least 70% of world trade and produce more than half of the world’s manufactured goods. Being so large, they also influence consumer tastes and lifestyles and are responsible for many of today’s scientific and technological breakthroughs. Many people are concerned about the effects of TNCs. They argue that they locate in poorer countries just to make a profit and pay low wages, particularly to women and young children. Others say that without transnational’s the poorer countries would simply not be able to develop their own industries. People would have no jobs at all and their future would be very bleak. 64
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  66. 66. Money earned for twenty selected countries Country Total Wealth produced (GDP in US$ billions/trillions) 2004 USA 11.8 Japan 4.6 UK 2.1 France 2.0 China 1.9 Italy 1.7 India 721 Brazil 663 Switzerland 362 Sweden 362 Norway 260 Indonesia 256 Saudia Arabia 250 Ireland 186 Portugal 185 Israel 126 Singapore 109 Chile 100 Bangladesh 56 Kenya 16 Country Total Wealth produced (GDP in US$ billions/trillions) 2012 USA 15.68 China 8.22 Japan 5.96 France 2.61 UK 2.43 Brazil 2.25 Italy 2.01 India 1.84 Indonesia 878 Switzerland 632.2 Saudia Arabia 576.8 Sweden 525.7 Norway 499.7 Singapore 274.7 Chile 268.3 Israel 242.9 Portugal 212.5 Ireland 210.3 Bangladesh 115.6 Kenya 37.23 66
  67. 67. 67 countries
  68. 68. Draw either one graph, or two separate graphs (by hand or using Excel etc.), showing the wealth produced for the twenty selected countries for both 2004 and 2012. Then summarise what changes have taken place. 68
  69. 69. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007120 ១2 Discuss: ‘Globalisation is the answer to the world’s problems, not the cause.’ or ‘Transnational corporations represent a major force in international trade and are one of the main driving forces of economic development.’ Improvements in transport and communications have made it easier for companies, ideas and lifestyles to spread around the world. This is called globalisation. The growth of a transnational corporation (TNC) is an example of globalisation. Fashion and sport NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 70–71 What is globalisation? 4.3 ១1 Working with a partner, read about the advantages and disadvantages of TNCs. Decide if each statement is an advantage or a disadvantage and colour the statements as follows: N Colour the first circle red if the statement shows an advantage. N Colour the second circle green if the statement shows a disadvantage. Be careful! This activity is not as easy as it first seems. You may need to use both colours on some statements. Advantage Disadvantage TNCs employ 50 million people worldwide. Workers learn new skills. Jobs provided are usually not very well paid. One billion people live on less than a dollar a day. The creation of manufacturing jobs in LEDCs has led to improvements in living standards. Factories provide work for local people. World trade is unfair and poor countries will never get a fair deal. Globalisation dilutes national differences and creates a single global culture. Often the profits made by the TNC are taken out of the country, back to the country where the TNC has its headquarters. Globalisation of trade is the answer to poverty and injustice in the poorest countries. One-fifth of all the products in the world are made by the world’s largest 600 companies. Increasing the demand for luxury items has created new markets and attracted more manufacturers to locate in LEDCs. Workers have a regular income so they can buy things to improve their standard of living. In some cases TNCs have polluted the local environment. The TNC pays taxes that can be spent on improving things like hospitals and public transport. Working conditions can be poor, e.g. long hours. Two-thirds of the world’s trade is controlled by 500 TNCs. Some TNCs operate in a socially responsible way, for example by giving money to charity or by trying to improve the lives of the people who work for them at the same time as making profits. TNCs make it impossible for people in poor countries to make any money and improve their lives. 69
  70. 70. Fashion and sport NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 70–71 Just another ordinary day ... 4.2 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007119 Because we live in a time of rapid invention, we might think that we created our own culture. In fact, there is probably no place on earth today that owes more than 10% of its everyday life to discoveries made by members of its own society. ១1 Read the passage below that tells the beginning to an ordinary man’s day over 70 years ago. ១2 Each one of us, every day, is connected to people we will never meet, who live in places we will never visit. Give five examples of how globalisation affects you. Think about the food you eat, the clothes you wear and what you do in your spare time. ១3 Explain what the phrase ‘the world is getting smaller’ means to you. Give examples from your own life that demonstrate this. The American citizen awakes in a bed built on a pattern which was invented in the Middle East, assembled in Northern Europe and shipped to America. He throws back the duvet covers made from cotton and wool from sheep domesticated in India and spun and woven by processes invented in the Middle East. He slips into his moccasins, invented by the American Indians, and goes to the bathroom, whose fixtures are a mixture of European and American inventions. He takes off his silk (the use of which was discovered in China) pyjamas, a garment invented in India, and washes with soap invented by the French and shaves, a habit copied from Ancient Egypt. Returning to the bedroom, he gets dressed in clothes imitating the skin clothing of the nomads of Asia and ties around his neck a strip of brightly coloured cloth which is all that remains of the shoulder shawls worn by 17th-century Croatians. Before going out for breakfast he looks through the window, made of glass invented in Egypt, and as it is raining puts on overshoes made of rubber discovered by the American Indians and takes an umbrella, invented in south-eastern Asia. He wears a hat made of felt, a material invented in Asia. On his way to breakfast he stops to buy a paper, paying for it with coins, an ancient Lydian invention and using an Indo-European language. At the restaurant his plate is made of pottery invented in China, his knife is made of steel, an alloy first made in southern India, and his fork and spoon are medieval Italian inventions. He begins his breakfast with an orange from the eastern Mediterranean, or perhaps a piece of African melon. With this he has coffee, an Abyssinian plant, with cream and sugar. Both the domestication of cows and the idea of milking them originated in the Middle East, while sugar was first made in India. He goes on to waffles, cakes made by a Scandinavian technique. Over these he pours maple syrup, invented by the American Indians. As a side dish he chooses the egg of a species of bird domesticated in China and thin strips of the flesh of an animal domesticated in eastern Asia that has been salted and smoked by a process developed in northern Europe. After breakfast he settles back to smoke, consuming a plant domesticated in Brazil in a cigarette, derived from Mexico. While smoking he reads the news of the day, imprinted in characters invented by the Ancient Semites upon a material invented in China by a process invented in Germany, thankful that he is 100 per cent American. Adapted from The Study of Man by Ralph Linton 70
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  72. 72. LESSON 6; 1. Pack p64 to 68 Graphs 2. Pack p69 Advantages and disadvantages of globalisation 3. Pack p70 Just another ordinary day DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 72
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  74. 74. How is the fashion industry changing? The fashion industry has changed in recent years. It has become a growth industry and has taken advantage of globalisation by spreading its operations throughout the world. So, why has this happened? The main reason is that people living in richer countries have become increasingly well off and can afford to spend more money on clothes than in the past. They are able to buy clothes more often and can afford the more expensive, designer fashions that have become popular. Many are attracted by the brand or label as much as by the product itself. It is these brand-name companies that have most increased their sales and are leading the way in seeking more profitable ways of manufacturing their products. In the past, most clothing companies produced goods in their own factory. The traditional location of the factory was determined by the availability of transport and the nearness of raw materials, power sources, workers and markets for its goods. This is now very different. Most large brand-name clothing companies have become transnational corporations that have offices and factories all over the world. They have fund that going global reduces the costs and increases profits. These companies include big names like Gap, Timberland, Reebok, Nike and Primark. Nike is a typical TNC. It has its main office in the Portland Oregon in the USA, where most of its product design, marketing and administration is done and its production lines in developing countries, mostly South East Asia, where labour is cheap and costs are low (£2.50 per day). Nike has factories in 40 countries and employs over 500,000 people. As the designs and styles of trainers and sportswear change constantly, it is also cheaper to employ manual workers, who are readily available in these places, than machines. This is because it is easier, faster and cheaper to get employees to adapt to the new designs than to change or buy new machinery. Transnational’s can bring many benefits to poorer countries but they can also cause problems. One of the main problems concerns working conditions. In the fashion industry some TNCs have been accused of creating sweat shops where people are forced to work long hours for very little regard for health and safety. Not all the clothes factories in developing countries are bad; some are now more modern than some factories in the UK. One of the reasons for this improvement is that companies like Gap and Nike have rules to control working conditions in factories producing their goods. These rules are a response to criticism that they have been exploiting workers in poorer countries in order to increase profits. However, as you will see when we look at Primark, that these rules are not regularly checked and are often ignored. Many workers are still being exploited and often the company does not even know about it. 74
  75. 75. 75 this page Wider World 75
  76. 76. Fashion and sport NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 74–75 The global fashion industry ... fair trade? 4.9 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007126 Most of the brand names you know do not own any factories. They subcontract work to other suppliers, who do the work for them. ១1 Read the job advert below which explores some of the issues about global trade in fashion and working conditions in places that make clothes and shoes. ១2 Make a list of the key issues included in the job advert and annotate your answers around it. Give your opinion about each key issue. ១3 Ask a relative or a friend who is in work to answer the same questions. Compare your findings with the poster above. ១4 Why do you think textile factories in parts of the developing world are called ‘sweatshops’ and the workers called ‘fashion victims’? SITUATIONS VACANT YOUNG WOMEN WORKERS WANTED IN CLOTHES FACTORY! WHAT IS THE JOB? Sewing jeans and other clothes for people in Europe and the USA. WHAT IS THE PAY? Garment workers in China earn between 13 and 22 pence per hour. WHAT ARE THE HOURS? Workers in India regularly work 12–14 hours a day, 6 days a week and are not paid for overtime. If workers say no to overtime, they are sacked. WHAT ABOUT BREAKS? None, and only one toilet break. Workers in Bulgaria were found locked into a factory to prevent them from taking a break. WHAT ABOUT HOLIDAYS? Workers in Mexico get 1 week off a year – if they make it up by working Sundays. WHAT ABOUT HEALTH AND SAFETY? Accidents are common. In Bangladesh, factories are often hot and dusty, no protective gear is provided, and the fire exits are blocked. There are regular reports of deaths due to factory fires. WHAT ABOUT WORKERS’ RIGHTS? None. In Vietnam you cannot join a union. In Thailand, your manager will shout at you to work harder and faster. WHAT ABOUT BENEFITS AND SICK PAY? None. In Taiwan, you have to buy food in the factory’s dirty canteen. WHAT ABOUT PROMOTION? There is no chance of promotion. APPLY TODAY ... and don’t complain or you will be fired! 76 Would you apply for this job? Write a new one for the same job but change it to one that you would apply for.
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  79. 79. LESSON 7; Pack p76-78 Situations vacant DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 79
  80. 80. Fashion and sport NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 74–75 How do transnationals affect poorer countries? 4.7 NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007124 Transnational corporations can bring benefits to developing countries but they can also cause problems. Care must be taken to ensure the trans- nationals do not exploit workers in poorer countries. ១1 Different people have different opinions on buying branded goods. Read what people say about this. ១2 Decide whether each person supports the global fashion industry or is concerned about some things to do with the industry. On the line below, write the letters A–J, where you think they should go. Say why you put the letters in these places. ១3 What is your opinion on the fashion industry? Explain your answer. ១4 Colour in the statement you most agree with. Explain why you have chosen this statement. ១5 ‘Decisions about how we trade or buy are not only decisions about how we want to live our lives, but how other people live their lives too.’ Discuss. A I like to wear fashionable clothes. I’m more interested in what the clothes look like than where they come from or conditions in foreign factories. C But if we didn’t buy the clothes and trainers, then those poor people would get no money at all. K I mean, with much of the world starving, who can in all conscience wear such clothes? H I don’t think workers in the fashion industry are poorly treated. Their wages may be less than the legal minimum, but it’s better than having no job at all. G Powerful advertising forces teenagers to keep up with their friends by buying expensive brand names. D If you have this sort of money, you should use it to make a difference! It is appalling that we can so forget others that we waste money on fashion. E This is a free market. I need trainers. They need jobs. They would be worse off without our trade. I don’t like what is happening but I need cheap trainers. F The best thing to do is to stop buying anything with a logo on. Then the big companies would have to listen.I I don’t see why I should buy clothes that help to create such inequalities for the world’s workers. I would rather do something to make working conditions fairer. J This is so wrong! This situation cannot go on and I must do something to change things. B Even if conditions are not perfect there, once more money comes into the country, living standards will improve and development will follow. L This is really bad but I’m not sure if I can do anything. Agree/Very strongly support Support Neither Do not support/Disagree 80
  81. 81. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007127 Fashion and sport NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 74–75 Who are the winners and losers in the fashion industry? 4.10 ១1 Working with a partner, read the statements below which present a range of facts from both sides of the argument for and against buying branded clothes. ១2 Highlight the case for buying branded clothes in green and the reasons against in red. Do not shade the borders. ១3 Choose different colours and shade the borders to further sort the case for and against buying branded clothes into economic, social and ethical arguments. ១4 Many of our biggest brands make their clothing in very poor countries and their workers have appalling working conditions. How far should we, as consumers, worry about this fact? ១5 Should fashion have a conscience? Find out how many of your branded clothes are made in devel- oping countries. How do you feel about this now? Many clothes and shoes are made in developing countries. Here labour is cheaper and factory costs are lower, so brand-owners can make bigger profits. But one of the main problems is to do with working conditions. Textile and shoe industries are often the first ones to be set up in developing countries. Raw materials are available locally and there are many people available for work. There is competition for clothing contracts and small companies accept very low payment in order to win the contract. Workers in many factories have to endure poor working conditions and abuse of their human rights. The work can be done by hand, so expensive machinery is not needed. Developing countries are becoming more interdependent with important trading partners in the developed world. Clothes factories employ millions of workers, most of them women. Wages enable workers to support their families, who most often live in the poorer rural areas. In some sportswear and textile factories, people can only earn £3 a day even if they work for over 12 hours. Most of developing countries’ trade is with the more developed countries. Some workers have only two days off a month and they often work 14 hours a day. During peak production periods, workers sometimes work through the night. Discipline in factories is very strict, with fines for talking, arriving late or for refusing to work overtime. If workers miss three days of work in a row they may be sacked. Sportswear and textile companies provide employment for people who otherwise would have no work. Sportswear and textile factories make products that many people want to wear. In some sportswear and textile factories there are fair rules to control working conditions. Investment by sportswear companies leads to factory closure and unemployment in richer countries. Wages may not be as low as they appear, because the cost of living is often much lower than in the UK. Large factories are able to provide the working conditions that companies in the West insist on. The ‘codes of conduct’ insisted on by retailers and consumer associations are also changing conditions in sportswear and textile factories. Sportswear and textile companies have no commitment to a particular country. They can move production from country to country, searching for the cheapest labour. 81 3 81
  82. 82. 4.3 INDUSTRY WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 70–1 Child labour – then and now Name ________________________________________________________________________________ Children have always had to work. Until the end of the nineteenth century in Britain, children were an important part of the workforce, just as they still are in many poorer countries today. The sight of children working was a common one during the Industrial Revolution in this country. Children as young as four or five worked in factories or down coal mines. Few people at the time saw anything wrong with this. Childhood was not regarded as being different from other stages in people’s lives, and so children were treated as little adults. They were expected to learn skills that would give them a job for the rest of their lives. This was particularly true for poor people who were seen as a burden on society if they did not work. Gradually, during the nineteenth century, the harsh conditions under which some children were expected to work came to light, and attitudes began to change. The Factory Commission of 1833 revealed that children as young as six were working 14 to 16 hours a day. Young children were also used in mines where their small bodies were able to crawl along low tunnels. Drawings published in 1842 shocked many people who had no idea that such working conditions existed, and laws were passed to ban children under ten from working in mines. The number of children working in factories began to fall with the introduction of new machinery. But the most important factor that brought child labour in Britain to an end was the introduction of compulsory education for all children under ten in 1880. Throughout the twentieth century the school leaving age continued to rise until it reached its present age of sixteen. Around the world today, it is estimated that there are 250 million child workers. This number does not include the large number of children doing domestic work. If it did the total would probably double. Like Britain in the nineteenth century, many of these countries do not provide education for all their children. In sub-Saharan Africa (Africa south of the Sahara Desert) almost half of six to eleven year olds do not attend school, mainly due to lack of money to pay for schools and teachers. It would cost about $2 billion to pay for education for every child in this region, much less than the same countries have to spend each year to repay their debts. Your task 1 Read the information on this sheet together with pages 70–1 in the Pupil’s Book. 2 In a group, discuss your ideas about child labour. Is it a good thing or not? What are the problems and benefits of child labour? 3 Read the ideas in the box on the right. If you were the government of a poorer country trying to bring child labour in your country to an end, which of these ideas would be most effective? Give reasons for your decision. 136 earthworks 2 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY Ban the use of child labour in factories. Make education compulsory. Persuade banks and rich countries to cancel debts. Encourage companies to invest in machinery. EARTHWORKS TRB2 (B1 [F] TP) 12/8/00 4:51 pm Page 136 82 82
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  85. 85. LESSON 8; 1. Pack p80 How do transnational’s affect poorer countries? 2. Pack p81 Who are the winners and losers in the fashion industry? 3. Read Pack pages 82 to 84 Child labour in the UK DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 85
  86. 86. POVERTY AND AID 86
  87. 87. 87 Connections
  88. 88. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006199 World issues NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 136–137 The cycle of poverty 7.16 Poverty is a problem that affects large numbers of people around the world. It is difficult for people living in poor countries to break out of the cycle of poverty. ១1 Working with a partner, write the statements below in the correct order on the flow diagram to show how a poor country can get further into debt. The diagram has been started for you. ១2 Write a short summary of what have you learned from completing this activity. So, its exports do not earn as much as it had hoped and the country is in even more debt. But the export prices for these low value goods have dropped yet again. So, once again, the country borrows more money it cannot afford to repay. Which then leaves it short of money to pay for imports, and for schools, hospitals and other projects. But it still has to pay the interest on its original loans. And now the money it earns each year is used just to pay off increasing debts. The next year the country sells crops and minerals to other countries, as usual. So, once again, the country borrows more money and doesn’t earn enough. So, the country finds it has to borrow more and more money to survive. The country ends up paying back several times the original loan. 88
  89. 89. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006203 World issues NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 136–139 Solving the poverty problem 7.19 The diagram below shows some of the causes and effects of poverty. For each statement, explain how the problem could be solved. A Lack of jobs means liitle or no income. Too many people for the resources available. Lack of schools means people are poorly educated. Shortage of hospitals and medical care means people are in poor health. People are weak when not enough food is grown to provide a good diet. Lack of transport makes movement of people and goods difficult. Country has few exports which means little money to buy essential goods that it lacks. Very poor quality housing without electricity, clean water or the disposal of sewage. 89
  90. 90. LESSON 9; 1. Pack p88, The cycle of poverty 2. Pack p89, Solving the poverty problem DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 90
  91. 91. 91 Connections
  92. 92. 92 Interactions
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  94. 94. 94 Wider World
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  96. 96. 96 Understanding GCSE Geography
  97. 97. 97 You need to include its aims, the countries it works in and supports and how it provides aid. 97
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  101. 101. LESSON 10; 1. Pack pages 96-100, Aid 2. Doddle; Aid mini quiz, Fair trade mini quiz DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 101
  102. 102. WE FREQUENTLY come across the abbreviation NGO in geography lessons, on the television and in newspapers. The term non-governmental organisation (NGO) came into common usage in 1945 when the United Nations used it in its Charter to distinguish between intergovernmental agencies and international private organisations (NGOs). Some 25,000 organisations, covering a huge variety of objectives, now qualify as international NGOs. The influence of NGOs on international policy has increased markedly in the last few decades. They have successfully promoted: • new environmental agreements • women’s rights • arms control and disarmament measures • the rights of children, the disabled, the poor and indigenous peoples. The NGOs that people seem to know most about are those such as Oxfam, CARE, Cafod and WaterAid which seek to improve economic and social development in poor countries (Figure 1). Such organisations often combine their operations when major human catastrophes occur (flood, drought, earthquake, etc) or when they want to exert maximum pressure on international opinion. The most recent example of the latter is the Jubilee 2000 Campaign on Third World debt. A mounting international NGO campaign is demanding fairer economic policies from the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. Kofi Annan, the Secretary General of the United Nations, has said that NGOs are ‘the conscience of humanity’. Large NGOs such as Oxfam can have a big impact on public attitudes. In a recent report (2002), Oxfam aimed to shame the world’s big four coffee sellers (Nestlé, Procter & Gamble, Sara Lee and Kraft) for ‘impoverishing 25 million farmers’ in poor nations. Oxfam argues that the global market for coffee needs a complete overhaul to ensure that farmers get a fairer (higher) price for their coffee beans. NGOs are usually financed from the following sources: • membership dues – the traditional source of funding • government grants • retail operations, eg charity shops • private foundations, corporations and wealthy individuals. Increasingly, relief and development NGOs receive large grants from governments’ international assistance programmes. Such grants represented, as a proportion of income: • 1.5% in 1970 • 35% in 1988 • over 40% in 2000. There are several reasons why the role of NGOs in development has increased: 1 They have developed considerable expertise over a number of decades in many different countries. 2 They have a more successful track record than other attempts at promoting development. Development is generally targeted very carefully and the impact of projects is also carefully monitored. 3 They concentrate on small and medium-scale projects that benefit genuinely poor countries rather than the better-off in LEDCs. Many of the really large-scale Series 15 Spring issue Unit 305 NGOs: Their Role in Promoting Development © 2004 Nelson Thornes GeoActive Online This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only. Page 1 of 4 305 by Paul Guinness NGOS: THEIR ROLE IN PROMOTING DEVELOPMENT GeoActive Online GeoActive Online Figure 1: Some well-established NGOs 102
  103. 103. projects in LEDCs, funded by large international organisations such as the World Bank or by individual countries, have had little beneficial impact for the poorest people. 4 They work with local people to sustain development in the long term. 5 They are seen to be independent of vested interests. Bilateral aid, from one country to another, is frequently criticised because it often seems to serve the interests of the donor nation as much as, if not more than, the country receiving aid. According to James Paul, executive director of Global Policy Forum: ‘Globalisation has created both cross-border issues that NGOs address and cross-border communities of interest that NGOs represent. National governments cannot do either task as effectively or as legitimately. In the globalising world of the 21st century, NGOs will have a growing international calling.’ However, some writers are concerned by the increasing funding of NGOs by governments, saying that it exposes NGOs to pressure from governments and limits their capacity to act independently. Case Study WaterAid WaterAid was established in 1981. Its first project was in Zambia but its operations spread quickly to other countries (Figure 2), and it completed its 1000th project in 1993. WaterAid is the UK’s only major charity dedicated exclusively to the provision of safe domestic water, sanitation and hygiene education to the world’s poorest people. These three crucial elements provide the building blocks for all other development. Without them communities remain stuck in a cycle of disease and poverty. The combination of safe water, sanitation and hygiene education maximises health benefits and promotes development (Figure 3). The combined benefits of safe water, sanitation and hygiene education can reduce incidences of childhood diarrhoea by up to 95%. A child dies every 15 seconds from diseases associated with lack of access to safe water and adequate sanitation. Figure 4 shows water supply and sanitation coverage for the 15 countries in which WaterAid operates. In the longer term, communities are able to plan and build infrastructure which enables them to cope better in times of hardship. In areas with WaterAid GeoActive Online Series 15 Spring issue Unit 305 NGOs: Their Role in Promoting Development © 2004 Nelson Thornes Page 2 of 4 This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only. Figure 2: WaterAid programmes in Africa and Asia Source: WaterAid Safe water + Sanitation + Hygiene education Maximises health benefits Without disease, communities are stronger • More people can work and attend school • People are able to save the money they spend on medicines • The time saved collecting water can be used productively The economy grows and develops Figure 3: WaterAid’s building blocks of development AFRICA ASIA Key MALI [2000] BURKINA FASO [2000] GHANA [1984] NIGERIA [1995] ZAMBIA [1981] MOZAMBIQUE [1995] PAKISTAN [1993] [1993] Year in which programme began NEPAL [1986] INDIA [1985] BANGLADESH [1986] ETHIOPIA [1983] MADAGASCAR [1999] UGANDA [1983] TANZANIA [1983] MALAWI [1999]0 1,000 km N 103
  104. 104. Series 15 Spring issue Unit 305 NGOs: Their Role in Promoting Development © 2004 Nelson Thornes GeoActive Online This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only. Page 3 of 4 projects, life in times of drought is eased because: • previously in times of drought women in particular would spend hours in search of water, leaving little time to find food • children would also miss out on education in the search for water • cattle can also be watered, rather than sold or left to die because of water shortage • during famines, with sanitation, water and hygiene people are sick less often and so are better able to fend off disease. Many more people have become aware of the activities of WaterAid over the past year or so because 2003 has been the UN International Year of Freshwater. WaterAid works by helping local organisations set up low-cost projects using appropriate (intermediate) technology that can be run by the recipient community itself. The organisation also aims to influence the policies of other important organisations such as governments, to secure and protect the right of poor people to safe, affordable water and sanitation. WaterAid has recently asked people to sign a petition entitled ‘Water Matters’, which urges the UK government to: 1 urge all UN member governments to agree an action plan for meeting the UN agreed target to halve the number of people without access to drinking water by 2015, and ensure that each country has national policies for managing water resources in place by 2005 2 promote and secure an international agreement and action plan to halve the number of people without adequate sanitation by 2015 3 increase the UK’s official development assistance to the agreed UN target of 0.7% of GNP, prioritising water supply, sanitation and water resources within that increase, and urge other MEDCs to do the same. Mali, in West Africa, is one of the world’s poorest nations (Figure 5). It is one of the countries to benefit recently from a WaterAid project. Figure 4: Water supply and sanitation in countries where WaterAid operates Source: WaterAid The natural environment of Mali is harsh, and is deteriorating. Rainfall levels, which are already low, are falling further and desertification is spreading. Currently 65% of the country is desert or semi-desert. Eleven million people still lack access to safe water. WaterAid has been active in the country since 2000. Its main concern is that the fully privatised water industry frequently fails to provide services to the poorest urban and rural areas. It is running a pilot scheme in the slums surrounding Mali’s capital Bamako, providing clean water and sanitation services to the poorest people. Its objective is to demonstrate both to government and to other donors that projects in slums can be successful, both socially and economically. WaterAid has financed the construction of the area’s water network. It is training local people to manage and maintain the system, and to raise the money needed to keep it operational. Encouraging the community to invest in its own infrastructure is an important part of the philosophy of the project. According to Idrissa Doucoure, WaterAid’s West Africa Regional Manager, ‘We are now putting our energy into education programmes and empowering the communities to continue their own development into the future. This will allow WaterAid to move on and help others.’ Already significant improvements in the general health of the community have occurred. The general view is that it takes a generation for health and sanitation to be properly embedded into people’s daily life. MALI MAURITANIA COTE D’IVOIRE BURKINA FASO GUINEA 0 200 km ALGERIA NIGER BENIN GHANA Taoudenni Kidal R. Niger Tombouctou Bamako Sikasso N Figure 5: Mali: WaterAid in action Country Water Sanitation supply coverage coverage (%) (%) India 88 31 Bangladesh 97 53 Nepal 81 27 Pakistan 88 61 Ghana 64 63 Nigeria 57 63 Mali 57 63 Burkina Faso N/a 29 Ethiopia 24 15 Madagascar 47 42 Tanzania 54 90 Uganda 50 75 Zambia 64 78 Mozambique 60 43 Malawi 57 77 104
  105. 105. 1 (a) What is meant by the initials NGO? (b) Make a list of all the NGOs you have heard of. (c) Compare your list with those of others in your class. (d) Produce a ‘top five’ class ranking of NGOs. 2 (a) Where do NGOs get their money from? (b) Ask three people who support one or more NGOs the reasons why they chose those particular charitable organisations. (c) Which NGOs have shops in your local town centre? 3 (a) Why are NGOs receiving much more money from national governments than they did in the past? (b) Draw a bar graph to show the proportion of NGO income from this source in 1970, 1988 and 2000. (c) Why are some people concerned by this trend? 4 (a) How can NGOs, such as Oxfam, change the attitudes of the general public? (b) Why are large companies sometimes fearful of the activities of NGOs? 5 (a) Draw up a table, in chronological order, to show the countries where WaterAid operates, and the year in which programmes began. (b) Suggest why WaterAid chose these particular countries to help. 6 Look at Figure 3. (a) What do you understand by the following terms? • Safe water • Sanitation • Hygiene education. (b) Why is it so important to combine these three factors to maximise the health benefits to a community? (c) Explain why healthier communities are more likely to be able to improve their living standards. 7 (a) Name the capital city of Mali. (b) Using an atlas data sheet or another source, produce a factfile to illustrate the poverty of Mali. (c) Briefly describe the role that WaterAid is playing in the country. (d) How effective do you feel the WaterAid project is? 8 Study Figure 6. Write a newspaper article, no more than 400 words in length, about the development of WaterAid since 1981. Include one graph based on data provided in the timechart. 9 Look at Figure 7. (a) How much does it cost for each of the improvements shown by the bar graph? (b) Suggest how WaterAid decides what to spend money on in each individual country it operates in. 10 Look at WaterAid’s website: Research the activities of WaterAid in two countries other than Mali. GeoActive Online Series 15 Spring issue Unit 305 NGOs: Their Role in Promoting Development © 2004 Nelson Thornes Page 4 of 4 This page may be photocopied for use within the purchasing institution only. Activities 1981 WaterAid established. First project funded in Zambia. 1982 Regional WaterAid committees formed. 1983 WaterAid starts work in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Uganda. 1984 Programme in Ghana begins. 1985 Indian programme started. 1986 Work begins in Bangladesh and Nepal. 1987 Income exceeds £1 million a year. 1988 Over 350,000 beneficiaries to date. 1989 New privatised water companies pledge continued support to WaterAid. 1990 Fundraising team expanded. 1991 HRH Prince of Wales becomes WaterAid’s President. 1992 Tree of life campaign run for the Earth Summit. 1993 WaterAid’s 1,000th project completed. 1994 BBC Blue Peter Well appeal raises £1.65 million. 1995 WaterAid awarded Stockholm Water prize. 1996 Hygiene promotion integrated into all projects. 1997 Kitchen garden display at Chelsea Flower Show wins bronze. 1998 Income rises to £8 million a year. 1999 Project officer for urban work appointed. 2000 Work begins in francophone West Africa. 2001 Over 6.5 million beneficiaries to date. 2002 Celebrating 21 years of water for life. Figure 6: The development of WaterAid, 1981–2002 Source: WaterAid 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 £ A buys a hand pump to serve 100–150 people in Madagascar. B can pay for a school sanitation block for 150 pupils in India. C pays for a public water point in an urban slum, used by up to 100 families, in Bangladesh. D pays for the completion of a 15-metre deep hand-dug well in Zambia. A B C D Figure 7: WaterAid: some cost examples Source: WaterAid 105 5. 6.
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  108. 108. APPROPRIATE TECHNOLOGY Some aid has been criticised as being too high-tech for LEDCs. The local people lack the expertise to maintain the project and have difficulty sustaining it. Spare parts are expensive or not available in the LEDCs. Appropriate technology projects are low-tech, cheaper, use local materials and there is less to go wrong. They leave local people in control and there is less bureaucracy. Appropriate technology schemes often make use of the abundant local labour supply; products are cheap and local people can afford them. Think about the example I gave you about giving a state of the art John Dear tractor that runs on diesel and is all computerised. If it breaks down the local people probably can’t read the manual, don’t know how to fix the electrical system, let alone the computers and have no access to diesel. If they were given a simple low-tech mechanical tractor that runs on petrol, then they can fix it if it breaks down. Think of the Water Aid video and how they used easily found parts like the bicycle wheel for the water pump and how local people (including the women) built it. Other examples of appropriate technology projects include;  Installing simple bamboo water pumps in villages  Providing bicycles for farmers to get goods to markets  Using local streams to generate small amounts of hydro-electricity  Collecting rainwater in large clay pots  Using cement and chicken wire to reinforce walls and roofs Sometimes these projects need help to get started. Help can be provided by charities (NGOs Non-Government Organisations) and may include some initial advice and start-up capital. 108
  109. 109. DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 44 Why cancel debt? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.25 © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 87 Many people have called for the debts of the heavily indebted poor countries (HIPCs) to be cancelled. But there are lots of questions about whether this could work. Your task 1 Before you read this sheet, write down in your workbook any questions that you would like to ask about cancelling debt. Now read the questions on this sheet. How many of your questions are the same questions as those on this sheet? 2 Read the answers to the questions on this sheet. To obtain answers to your other questions you could contact Jubilee 2000, an organisation that campaigns for debt cancellation, at: Use the information to help you to prepare the arguments in favour of cancelling Zambia’s debt for the assignment on page 44 of the Pupil’s Book. FIVE QUESTIONS ABOUT DEBT How much would it cost to cancel all the poor countries’ debt? Nearly all the HIPCs are in sub-Saharan Africa (the part of Africa which is south of the Sahara). Their total debt amounts to $135 billion. This sounds a huge amount, but is actually only about 10 per cent of the UK’s annual GNP – roughly the amount we spend on defence each year. In fact, many banks have already written off the debt from these countries because they never expect to get it back. In this case, cancelling debt would not really cost anything. If the debt was cancelled wouldn’t it just encourage governments to borrow more money? It is up to banks to decide whether they lend money or not. They have to assess if a country is capable of repaying a loan, in the same way that they would with an individual borrower. In the past, people assumed that governments couldn’t go bankrupt, so too much money was loaned. After this experience banks are unlikely to make the same mistakes again. How will cancelling debt help to solve the problems in poor countries? If poor countries did not have to use so much of their money to repay debt, they would be able to spend more money on basic services like health and education. It would also leave more money free to invest and allow people to earn better wages. This would create more demand for goods and help poor countries to get their economies working. How do we know that cancelling debt won’t benefit corrupt governments? It is not governments that suffer the consequences of debt, but ordinary people living in the countries. In many cases, these people had no choice of government because the government was not democratically elected (people were not allowed to vote). If debts are cancelled it would have to be clear that the main purpose is to help the country to develop. Future loans should be carefully monitored to ensure that money reaches the people it is meant to help. How would cancelling debt benefit us? MEDCs would also benefit from cancelling debt to poor countries. Many world problems are linked to debt. Destruction of natural environments (like rainforest) and drug production are often the result of poor countries’ desperation to earn money. Conflict, war and mass migration often begin as a result of poverty in one country, but spread to other parts of the world. If poorer countries were free from debt they would also be able to trade more. This would benefit all countries. Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 87 109
  110. 110. 72 earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 31 Rules for aid Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.10 Your task 1 Read the six rules for aid on the right. 2 a) Read about two aid projects A and B, below. b) Tick the boxes beside the rules that each project has followed. Put a cross in the boxes beside the rules that each project has broken. 3 Which of the two projects do you think would be most successful? Give reasons for your answer. Rules for aid Project A Project B 1. It should cause little damage to the environment. 2. It should allow people to continue their traditional way of life. 3. It should help the poorest people who are in most need. 4. It should be cheap and easy to run. 5. It should be controlled by local people. 6. It should help people to use their knowledge and skills. Project A This is a health education project in Bangladesh. It employs local doctors and nurses. They travel around villages in this part of rural Bangladesh giving health education, mainly to women. They teach about contraception to help people to control the size of their families and about diet to improve standards of nutrition. This area is many kilometres from the nearest hospital, but by providing better health education they hope that people will be able to look after their own health better. Project B This is the Aswan Dam in Egypt. It was built in the 1960s to control flooding on the River Nile and to provide the country with electricity. The dam was built by Russian engineers with local labour. Behind the dam the valley was flooded and Lake Nasser was formed. Thousands of people lost their land and their homes. The dam has helped farmers to produce crops throughout the year, and reduced the danger of flooding. Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 72 110
  111. 111. LESSON 11; Pack p110, Rules for aid DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 111
  112. 112. FAIR TRADE 112
  113. 113. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007212 World development NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 132–133 How does trade affect development? 7.10a Making a living isn’t easy, especially for hardworking producers. They have to overcome huge barriers – including the rules that govern world trade. Trade is important in the world because it helps countries share resources and earn money. Rich countries gain more from trading than poor countries. ១1 On the diagram on Activity Sheet 7.10b, write the following labels in the correct boxes. ១2 What do you understand by this picture? The World Bank lends money to poorer countries Money is earned, so LEDCs can import goods LEDCs have large debts to pay off to MEDCs Aid is not always helpful to LEDCs MEDCs sell manufactured goods for a higher value Money is earned, so LEDCs can take out loans MEDCs get more jobs from giving aid to LEDCs Some people give money to charities LEDCs have to buy expensive goods from MEDCs Raw materials do not earn high prices for LEDCs Some people in MEDCs want to cancel the debt MEDCs export expensive machinery to LEDCs Exporting raw materials earns money for LEDCs LEDCs export cheap foodstuffs to MEDCs MEDCs earn money from giving aid to LEDCs MEDCs earn money from lending money to LEDCs TNCs buy food from one country and sell it to another TNCs invest in LEDCs; this costs less than in MEDCs Governments in MEDCs give money to the World Bank MEDCs earn money by investing in companies in LEDCs New industries in LEDCs can cause factories in MEDCs to close TNCs close factories in MEDCs, because LEDCs are cheaper LEDCs have to borrow money to pay for roads, schools and hospitals Some organisations buy food at a fair price and export them to MEDCs No, I believe they should depend on themselves – as we do! 113 the next page, write 113
  114. 114. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2007213 World development NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Interactions pages 132–133 How does trade affect development? 7.10b ១3 One reason why developed countries (MEDCs) trade with developing countries (LEDCs) is that they need raw materials. N Underline in green those types of trade that are good things for MEDCs. N Underline in red those types of trade that are bad things for MEDCs. ១4 LEDCs trade with MEDCs because they need the money. N Underline in blue those types of trade that are good things for LEDCs. N Underline in yellow those types of trade that are bad things for LEDCs. ១5 Which countries gain the most from trade – LEDCs or MEDCs? ១6 Which countries have the most problems caused by trade? ១7 What do you think is meant by the term ‘unequal trade’? ១8 What is your reaction to the following statement? Explain your answer. ‘Every little bit you do is important and will have an effect. The more of us there are, the more we can do.’ World Bank Charities Less economically developed countries (LEDCs) More economically developed countries (MEDCs) Fair trade Transnational companies (TNCs) 114
  115. 115. DEVELOPMENT WORKSHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGE 41 What is fair trade? Name ________________________________________________________________________________ 2.21 © JOHN MURRAY earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book 83 Many of the foods that we consume every day (such as bananas, sugar, coffee and tea) are grown in less economically developed countries. However, many of these foods are produced and traded in such a way that little of the price that we pay at the supermarket reaches the people who actually grow them. Part of the problem is the way that production is controlled. Poor farmers in the LEDCs are often locked into a cycle of debt and poverty. Many are forced to work on plantations for low wages. Small farmers who are lucky enough to own their own land are often isolated from the market and are forced to sell their product at low prices. Profits go to the companies who control the land, machinery and access to the markets of MEDCs. We live in a world where conflict, environmental destruction and the problems of poverty in one place can affect people on the other side of the globe. As consumers, our purchasing choices can have a global impact. During the 1990s, the environmental movement transformed the way that people shop. Because of pressures from concerned consumers, we now see a multitude of ‘environmentally friendly’ products on supermarket shelves. More recently, there has also been a movement for ‘people-friendly’ products – fair trade products that ensure that producers receive a fair deal. Fair trade products aim to: • Pay a fair price to farmers. This includes a guaranteed minimum price to ensure the farmer a living wage when the market price is too low to maintain living standards. • Buy directly from farmers. This ensures that the benefits of trade go directly to farmers and their communities. • Provide advance loans to farmers to improve their farms. Traditionally, such loans were unavailable to farmers, or only at interest rates that they could not afford. • Encourage environmentally sustainable farming methods. Sustainable farming helps to build a long-term future for farmers while protecting their communities, the environment and consumers from dangerous chemicals. Adapted from an article by Equal Exchange, a worker-owned fair-trade organisation based in the USA Your task 1 Read the information on this sheet before you do the homework on page 41 of the Pupil’s Book. 2 Look out for examples of fair trade products at your local supermarket. You could use some of these products to show people when you carry out your interviews. Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 83 115
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  118. 118. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006205 World issues NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 140–141 The Kenya Coffee FairTrade report 7.21a FairTrade: N encourages fair trade between countries N aims to reduce poverty mainly by paying higher prices to producers N tries to ensure a safe and healthy working environment for workers N supports sustainable farming methods and encourages a concern for the environment. Use your answers to activities 1 and 2, information from pages 140 and 141 in the pupil book and the writing frame below to help you write about the ways in which fair trade works for a better deal for Third World producers. You should include: N the need for fair trade N what a fair trade company needs to do N what the coffee growers will give in return N the effect of fair trade on people living in the UK N the effects of introducing fair trade. Introduction: How can fair trade help reduce poverty? Give a clear statement of what you believe. For example, ‘There is a lot of discussion about the need for fair trade. I am a ... and am for fair trade because...’ The people who agree with this idea, such as claim that... A further point they make is... There are strong arguments against this point of view. believe that... Another argument is... 118
  119. 119. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006206 World issues NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections pages 140–141 The Kenya Coffee FairTrade report 7.21b Help words This means that Another reason because but however so I believe that I know I think One reason A further point Finally Good presentation of your work is important so, if possible, use a word processing program to draft and redraft your thoughts and make your work look more professional. You will need to think about the whole report and not just the main headings. Investigate fair trade further by looking at the FairTrade website. See: Developing your debate You could even attack a point of view you do not agree with. Convince your audience using a series of relevant points: I would argue that... What is more... Save your best points until the end: In addition to this... That is not all... Conclusion: What is your most important point? Sum up all that you have said: Make clear your own point of view. After looking at the different points of view and the evidence for them, I think... because... And finally: These strategies should ensure that Kenya Coffee becomes a fair trade company and coffee growing in Kenya becomes more sustainable in the future. 119
  120. 120. NEW KEY GEOGRAPHY Connections Teacher’s Resource © Nelson Thornes 2006207 Finding the facts Did you find out: Student Peer N how much money goes to coffee growers N how much money ends up in Kenya N how much money ends up in the UK N where most of the extra money goes if the price of coffee in the shops goes up? Thinking about the issues What do you think may help: N reduce poverty N improve conditions for growers N protect the environment N affect people in the UK? Your report to Kenya Coffee Student Peer Assessor N Comment on why there is a need for more fair trade companies. N Summarise what a fair trade company needs to do. – How would Kenya Coffee have to change? N Explain what coffee growers will give in return for the fair trade agreement. – How might they alter their farming practices and how they use the environment? N Explain the effect of Kenya Coffee becoming a fair trade company on people living in the UK. – How might this make trade fairer? N Conclude what would be the overall effects of making Kenya Coffee a fair trade company. World issues enquiry Checklist Section 1Section 1 Section 1Section 2 Section 1Section 3 120
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  123. 123. LEESON 12; Pack p116-122, Fair Trade enquiry; Kenyan coffee DATE MARKED: GRADE: A B C D MERIT: 1 2 ORDER MARK: DETENTION: COMMENT: TARGET: 123
  124. 124. 94 earthworks 3 teacher’s resource book © JOHN MURRAY DEVELOPMENT SELF-ASSESSMENT SHEET PUPIL’S BOOK PAGES 23–44 Development self-assessment Name ________________________________________________________________________________ When you have completed the Development unit, assess how well you are able to do each of the following things. Not at all With help Quite well Very well – investigate the quality of life in your local area – distinguish between development and economic growth – recognise differences between MEDCs and LEDCs – describe and explain population changes as a country develops – describe the pattern of world trade and explain how it came about – suggest the most appropriate forms of aid for a country – recognise different views about development and choose your own priorities – compare levels of development in different countries – explain how relationships between countries have influenced their development – recommend priorities for development in Honduras What have you enjoyed in this unit? _______________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found easy in this unit?_____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What have you found difficult in this unit? __________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ What do you need to improve on in the next unit? ___________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Earthworks unit 2 05/05/2000 10:21 am Page 94 124 - distinguish between quality of life and standard of living - identify social indicators of development
  125. 125. DEVELOPMENT HOMEWORK  Lesson 1; 1. Pack p11 Where and what are the developing countries? 2. Pack p12 North and South 3. Doddle; Comparing development mini quiz  Lesson 2; 1. Write a summary of what the UN is 2. Use gapminder, or any other resource you know of to produce five graphs (each one for a different social indicator)  Lesson 3; 1. Pack p28 Interdependence 2. Pack p29 Single product economies 3. Doddle; Trade mini quiz and super quiz  Lesson 4; 1. Revise and make notes on the revision pages on what you have learnt so far. Use the BBC bitesize file on MyQG to help you 2. Doddle; Review; What is development mini quiz, super quiz  Lesson 5; Pack pages 53 to 55; representing data using tables and graphs  Lesson 6; 1. Pack p64 to 68 Graphs 2. Pack p69 Advantages and disadvantages of globalisation 3. Pack p70 Just another ordinary day  Lesson 7; Pack p76-78, Situations vacant  Lesson 8; 1. Pack p80 How do transnational’s affect poorer countries? 2. Pack p81 Who are the winners and losers in the fashion industry? 3. Read Pack pages 82 to 84 Child labour in the UK  Lesson 9; 1. Pack p88, The cycle of poverty 2. Pack p89, Solving the poverty problem  Lesson 10; 1. Pack pages 96-100, Aid 2. Doddle; Aid mini quiz, Fair trade mini quiz  Lesson 11; Pack p110, Rules for aid  Lesson 12; Pack p116-122, Fair trade enquiry; Kenyan coffee Extra extension work/independent learning; Doddle - browse in all resources; 125
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