The following notes should be used with your photocopied booklet, class
               notes and the Antarctica revision r...
You should make sure that you can answer the following
                               questions.
             In what ways...
Futures- how, and why, might a place be in the future?


   Uneven Development- why are some places more developed than
  ...
Can you provide examples from the graphic
Example of a product web-                                 below to illustrate th...
Europe
          North America                                 Asia

                               Africa

           Sou...
Primary                      Secondary                          Tertiary                      Quaternary
    - Extraction ...
How could the products                                What’s stopping LEDCs
  be traded more fairly?                      ...
Ethical consumerism is                                         A fairer trade?
     the intentional
 purchase of products ...
The New Economic Foundation have                     How and why are our high streets
 suggested that high streets have
 i...
Cloning and Letchworth   Criticism of the sampling technique
                         • How were the two areas chosen?
   ...
Cloning is it all bad?
                Pros of cloning                                     Cons of cloning.

    Raised st...
How can we find your ‘My Place’s’ sphere of influence?
             Technique                         What this would show...
Describe the location of                                     How would you describe
     Letchworth Garden City.          ...
What would you tell people about
                                                     Ilkeston?

        Education        ...
Can you draw a simple sketch map to show
       the location of your place?


          Peak District

                   ...
Letchworth Garden City                                 Ilkeston
Complete the following table using
    resources 5, 6, 7 a...
Issues in our place!
                                  • Pays local rates/taxes

       WHAT HAPPENED?
                   ...
• Local bus company axed its Kirk
                                                   Hallam - Ilkeston town centre route,
...
WHAT HAPPENED?
Local iron works, been around for 150 years,
  finally shutting up shop and moving from
site. This releases...
• Plans are for a multi functional land-            • Loss of @200 local jobs in
use, including housing for different soci...
What is globalisation?


       The term globalisation is contested, a general          Make sure you know this definition...
Who are the winners of globalisation?
Global competition keeps import                 Greater cultural
prices and inflatio...
Who are the losers of globalisation?

MEDC jobs are outsourced to           Trading rules are unfair and                  ...
What is an              What type of biome would
   extreme               you classify our extreme
environment?           ...
Why can Antarctica be classed as an
           extreme environment?
• Very cold temperatures - even coastal areas are @ mi...
How does the climate of resource
environments compare with our extreme
             environment?
                     Much...
Use of Antarctica

 What is meant by the term exploitation?

         The use of an environment by humans.


What is meant...
I would revise a                       Tourism
couple of examples-
please also use your
  Antarctica notes.

             ...
Scientific research

• Research in global warming
    and ozone depletion.         • Contamination of lakes
              ...
Primary Resource exploitation


• Whaling by the Japanese   • Threatens sustainability of
                                ...
Sustainability
Antarctica Treaty- International agreement
  on the exploitation of the environment.

• No military use of ...
Dry Valleys warm, permafrost         Icebergs reduce open                Global warming makes
       Global               ...
Mass Tourism                                     Mineral
                                                           Extrac...
Portrayal and Place
                                          Portrayal of place: a depiction
                            ...
Portrayal and Place

How is our extreme environment portrayed?
Portrayal and Place
              TV series based on Scott and
              Amundsen’s race to the South
                ...
Portrayal and Place

                Al Gore’s documentary on
                     climate change.
                  • Fra...
Portrayal and Place

              March of the Penguins- film
               about Emperor Penguins.
                • Ha...
Portrayal and Place

                Remember Andrew Cooney
                (Youngest Person to reach
                the ...
Portrayal and Place
                 We listened to an extract
               from Michael Palin’s Pole to
               ...
Process: Basal melt and slippage           Physical Processes
                                               Pre-release b...
Dry Valley conditions
  Process: Ventifaction
                                   Abrasion erosion:             favour proc...
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OCR Pilot Geography Revision notes 2010

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OCR Pilot Geography Revision notes 2010

  1. 1. The following notes should be used with your photocopied booklet, class notes and the Antarctica revision resource. Exam time- 24th June 2010 Please be present promptly for 8.45 – Quick tips. Remember this is 33% of your final mark. T.Cassidy- Kirk Hallam Community Technology and Sports College 2010 1
  2. 2. You should make sure that you can answer the following questions. In what ways are jeans a global product? How can products be traded more fairly? Page 4-7 What is ethnical consumerism? How can people be persuaded to buy fairly traded products? Page 8 What are ‘clone’ and ‘home’ towns? Why are our high streets changing? How would you describe your ‘My Place’? Page 9-11, 13-20 How would you discover the sphere of influence of your ‘My Place’? Page 12 What is globalisation? Is it a good thing? Who are the winners and losers? Page 21-23 What makes extreme environments extreme? How and why are extreme environments used by people? What is the future for extreme environments? Page 24-42 It might be useful to answer these blind (do not use a blindfold, this wouldn’t be appropriate ) using the resources, then complete revision on your areas of weakness. 2
  3. 3. Futures- how, and why, might a place be in the future? Uneven Development- why are some places more developed than others? Globalisation –the flow of wealth, people and goods increasingly across national borders. Interdependence – how are different places linked to each other. Sustainability –the use of resources, or an environment, in a way that makes it available to future generations. Love the Fugis! By the way, it would not be useful to just ignore this booklet, or smoke it, read and revise.
  4. 4. Can you provide examples from the graphic Example of a product web- below to illustrate the different sectors of industry? Mmm, nice jeans- remember that these represent a niche market. They are targeted at a smaller market , therefore command a higher price. Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary - Extraction of raw materials - Manufacturing of a product. - Provides a service - Research and development from the ground. 4
  5. 5. Europe North America Asia Africa South America Oceania Antarctica LEDC- Less economically developed country. MEDC- More economically developed country. Example of a product web- 5
  6. 6. Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary - Extraction of raw materials - Manufacturing of a product. - Provides a service - Research and development from the ground. Jeans are a good example of a global product; they require a number of components from different countries. Fourteen countries are involved in the manufacturing of ‘Style Jeans’. Most of the countries involved are located in the continent of Europe. The majority of the primary products needed for the creation of the jeans are from LEDCs , whilst the majority of the manufacturing of the component products for the jeans are from MEDCs. Why are the jeans sewn in Tunisia? • Cheaper wages- due to lower quality of life. • Lower fixed overheads, i.e. buildings, energy. We could also speculate on • Weaker legalisation on working practices governing, pay, holidays, working hours. • Weaker legalisation on treatment of the environment. • Lack of trade union representation. Why do retailers take a larger share of the profits? • Higher fixed overheads • Employment of staff. • Cost of high street locations. • Energy costs. If you were trying to flog the jeans, what would you promote to the consumer? 6
  7. 7. How could the products What’s stopping LEDCs be traded more fairly? manufacturing Jeans? Freer and fairer trade? MEDCs could Issue inhibiting the development of LEDC •Remove import taxes, tariffs and quotas- this economies. would • Trade rules •Make LEDC products cheaper •Widen their market •Lack of infrastructure, roads, railways, airports. •Encourage the manufacturing of products • Lack of capital for investment in manufacturing. by LEDCs (import taxes tend to be higher on manufactured products.) • Lack of skilled workers, due to lack of •Reduce subsidies for rich producers i.e. investment in education and training. American cotton growers- this would • Difficulty in accessing MEDC markets. • Enable LEDC farmers to compete • Widen their market • Political Stability. • Allow LEDCs to reduce imports, international loans are dependent on opening their markets- this would • Allow LEDCs to protect their local industries as they grow and become What might put people off purchasing the jeans? competitive.
  8. 8. Ethical consumerism is A fairer trade? the intentional purchase of products Fair Trade products and services that do guarantee that the producer not exploit humans, is paid a price that covers and do minimal harm their cost of production. to animals and the On top of this a 10% social premium is paid- this is invested in •Community programmes i.e. Health care. natural environment. •Improved production methods •New equipment Ethical consumerism is practiced •Diversifying into new markets through 'positive buying' of ethical Fair Trade products also guarantee products and the 'moral boycott‘ of non- •Guaranteed prices and markets for the producer ethical products and companies. •Appropriate working conditions •No child labour As sourced, and adapted, from •Co-operative and democratic decision making Wikipedia. •Organic production http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ethical_con sumerism 8
  9. 9. The New Economic Foundation have How and why are our high streets suggested that high streets have increasingly become homogenised. changing? Increase in multiple stores, loss of •Multiple stores offer independent stores • predictability of price, service and This means that multiple (those environment with outlets on a number of high • loyalty schemes streets) retailers and services now • larger range of products dominant the high street, therefore Remember, your place Ilkeston is a • lower prices due to bulk buying and they have become clones. High good example of how a town has their influence with producers streets increasingly look the same. both suffered from out of town • in the case of supermarkets, a wider shopping and fought back using range of goods under one roof, free car environmental improvements and parking , longer opening times etc diversification. •Multiple stores can afford high rents for prime Environmental Improvements positions. •Enhanced environment to compete with Increase in empty, vacant, stores • Closure of independent stores due to out of town shopping, in order to attract competition from multiples and out-of-town people and business. shopping. Think Ilkeston- • Current economic climate. •Pedestrianisation •CCTV Diversification of land-use • Leisure and entertainment- pubs, clubs, cafes •Vegetation and street furniture etc. • Heritagisation • Emphasis on heritage to attract tourism. •Improvement car parking • Special events, markets, fairs. •Improving public transport links The New Economics • A home town, one that is dominated by • A border town, one with a balance of Foundation also recognises independent retailers and services. independent and multiple retailers two other types of high street. and services. 9
  10. 10. Cloning and Letchworth Criticism of the sampling technique • How were the two areas chosen? Garden City • Are these the best areas or worse? Either would influence the results. • A full area survey may have given a more accurate result. How else could we present this data? • Produce % results, this also allows comparison with other shopping areas. • Graph these results to produce a visual representation. • Map the results, this produces spatial representation of the data, clustering may be seen which will highlight the more successful shopping areas and suggest whether there is business by association in terms of multiples, or retailers/service selling similar products and services. Why the result? Litchfield Garden City has 17 multiples (30%) , 5 vacant shops (10%) and 34 independent stores (60%), this makes it a home town- why? • According to the resource the town has four supermarket, competition and everything under one roof! • The settlement is only half an hour to London, a vast range of outlets here for people to shop within! In your own research, most of your results concluded that Ilkeston was a clone/border town. Why? • Environmental improvements such as pedestrianisation. • Serves surrounding semi-rural area? But it’s not dominant by multiples. Why? • Environmental issues- i.e. Lower Bath Street • Proximity to Nottingham and Derby • Impact of Tesco • Lacks the threshold population for some multiples. 10
  11. 11. Cloning is it all bad? Pros of cloning Cons of cloning. Raised status of the shopping area, more Less choice for consumers. consumers attracted potentially from a larger area. Multiples attract other multiples- business by Independent retailers can not compete with association. multiples due to higher overheads. Closure. Loss of employment. Leakage of money from the high street and local area. Multiples will be willing to pay higher rents for Loss of independent retailers leads to prime locations. Tax incomes increase, increase in homogenisation. employment. Multiples have more money to spend on shop Loss of independent retailers could lead to an frontages, environment is improved. increase in vacant buildings and a declining environment. Loss of tax incomes. Health of the high street is improved. Potentially declining health of the high street. Consumers like the predictability of multiples. Less able and affluent in society left with less (Services, quality, environment, price.) choice. 11
  12. 12. How can we find your ‘My Place’s’ sphere of influence? Technique What this would show us? How could we present/interpret What issues are there with this this information? technique? Questionnaire of people on the high • Where people travel from to get to •Convert the results into % and graph  Sample size street Ilkeston. to show different locations.  Age of the individuals sampled? • Map the results.  Location of the sample taking • From the map work out the average may affect the result. i.e. next to distance travelled by people. car park/bus stop/ supermarket  Result may vary due to the time of day/day/time of year, i.e. Ilkeston market/Christmas Survey the tax discs of cars within car • Tax discs will show the areas the • Convert the results into % and graph • Only surveys car users, who may parks cars are registered in, and to show different locations. therefore travel further. therefore how far people have • Map the results. • Cars may be registered in different travelled. • From the map work out the average areas to where the owner lives. distance travelled by people. Bus timetables •Shows the area that people are able to  Map the locations served by the • Only surveys bus users. travel from via bus to the area. bus routes • People may not travel the full distance  Worked out the average from the surrounding settlements. distance an individual can travel to from Ilkeston. Where shops/services deliver • Shows how far services/retailers are • Approach different retailers/services.  Some shops/services may not willing to deliver. • Map the distance that they are willing deliver. to deliver their products.  Shops/Services may be unwilling • Work out the average distance. to share the information. Visitor books at tourist locations- i.e.  Will show where visitors have • Use visitors books and tourist • Tourist are likely to travel further, Erewash museum travelled from. literature to find out the areas people therefore is this an accurate portrayal? Languages used on tourist literature  Tourist materials will be in have travelled from. • Ilkeston is not tourist hotspot! languages of the most frequent • Map the findings. Gathering data may be difficult. visitors. •Work out the average distance travelled. 12
  13. 13. Describe the location of How would you describe Letchworth Garden City. Ilkeston? (My Place) •Market town •Rural-urban fringe •Nottinghamshire/Derbyshire border •Located between Nottingham and Derby •Population 38,000 •Limited ethnic diversity- majority of the population is white and British •Ex- industrial settlement- primary – coaling mining, secondary, steel production and textiles. • Employment services/ tertiary related- largest employer is Tesco. Why are house prices so high in Letchworth • South East of England • Next to the M1/A1, close to the A505 Garden City? • North-West of London • Higher population in the South-East, supply and • Appropriately 30 Km North-West of London demand. • Appropriately 7.5 km North-West of Stevenage. • Close proximity to London, house prices extremely high. It might be useful to bring a ruler to the exam- particularly useful for scales! • Short commute and access to capital London. Ok, go over the top- bring a pen and pencil too! • Semi-rural nature of the settlement.
  14. 14. What would you tell people about Ilkeston? Education Employment Tourism • Four secondary schools • Tesco is currently the largest • Industrial heritage, mining and steel • local sixth-form employer making. • Numerous primary schools • Primary industry employment in •Links to author Lawrence who lived • Local college farming, mining has declined in the area and used Ilkeston as •University of Derby •Loss of secondary employment in inspiration for town life in his writing steel making and textiles • Sea Environment Ilkeston Transport • Close to the M1 •Semi-rural • Some Brownfield sites, i.e. Stanton My Place • Well served by buses • Continued campaign for the • Close to the Peak District National reopening of the train station Park The resource suggests you may have to •Short distance to East Midlands • Environmental improvements made describe your place- you are best placed to Airport to the High Street do this! Sadly we struggle with physical features-, but you could talk about the proximity of the Peak National Park. Shopping Local Issues • Decline in employment • Tesco, two other supermarkets. • Vibrant high street with a number of Leisure and opportunities- i.e. Stanton • Drugs use multiples • Close to both Nottingham and Derby- Entertainment •Dominance of Tesco and its • Vibrant high life impact on retailers major shopping areas • Leisure centre •Reopening of the train station •Bowling •Lady boy dancers 14
  15. 15. Can you draw a simple sketch map to show the location of your place? Peak District Ilkeston 26 Nottingham Derby 25 M1 Approx 8 miles NE of Derby City Centre Approx 6.5 miles NW of Nottingham City Centre
  16. 16. Letchworth Garden City Ilkeston Complete the following table using resources 5, 6, 7 and 8. Characteristic Type of settlement Town Town Location Located next to A1 Located near M1 South-East of England, 30 NW of London 6.5 miles NW of city centre Nottingham Rural/Urban Urban/Rural Fringe Urban/Rural Fringe Population 333,600 38,000 Ethnicity Not provided in the resource Predominantly white Average House price 2 bedroom house £249,950 Semi-detached 2-3 bedrooms 3 bedroom house £335,000 £100.000+ Accessibility Close to A1/M1- Good road access. Close to M1/Good road access. London 30 mins via rail. Frequent bus services to Derby and Nottingham, no train station. Employment opportunities Not provided in the resource Primary industry- local-farming, opencast Highly likely that many individuals work in mining. London. Declining manufacturing industry. Tertiary- largest employer Tesco. Local Services 4 secondary schools, 5 primary schools Vibrant High Street, number of multiples 4 supermarkets and a number of multiples Tesco Supermarket on the high street Cinema Leisure centre Leisure centre Local issues Not provided in the resource Impact of Tesco High cost of housing? Close of manufacturing, Stanton. Crime, particularly drugs You might wish to consider where you would rather live! 16
  17. 17. Issues in our place! • Pays local rates/taxes WHAT HAPPENED? • Provides local jobs in TERTIARY sector Development of large Tesco store at the bottom of Bath • Positive multiplier effect locally Street, to the north of Ilkeston’s town centre. Only a • Provides wide range of affordable products and couple of minutes walk from the peripheral part of Ilkeston services shopping area. The store has quite recently developed • Sponsors local community events, and ‘cause- another floor and increased its product range. related marketing’ such as computers for schools • Supports some local product producers • Byincreasing Ilkeston shopping’s catchment area, may have been instrumental in attracting Make sure you know at other multiples to local out-of-town retail parks, least one of these issues. such as M&S • Good disabled access / child-friendly environment
  18. 18. • Local bus company axed its Kirk Hallam - Ilkeston town centre route, • Signs of Death of High Street in Ilkeston town blaming this on fact that in survey, over centre, such as … half of Kirk Hallam shoppers used Tesco; only 25% used the town centre (April - closure of main food multiple in town, 2006) Safeway - high % vacant / vandalised shops, therefore • All in all, Tesco doesn’t seem to have less choice for those not using Tesco (who?) acted as an overall magnet for increasing numbers of shoppers visiting - high % charity shops / pound shops Ilkeston. No visible signs of it having helped to revitalise Lower bath Street •Location on loop road, meaning that shoppers tend to by-pass the town centre • Tesco is a large multiple; despite shops? local economic benefits, large • Encourages more car journeys (pollution, amounts of money generated will congestion) ‘leak’ out of the immediate area
  19. 19. WHAT HAPPENED? Local iron works, been around for 150 years, finally shutting up shop and moving from site. This releases a 500 acre brownfield site for redevelopment . CHARACTERISTICS: . Majoremployer (secondary industry) in local area, although well past its boom period • Since 1990’s, owned by a French multi national company (HQ Nancy) - Saint Gobain (operations in 46 countries) • Makes iron and concrete pipes • No longer a desired site - scrap steel and energy costs too expensive in Britain
  20. 20. • Plans are for a multi functional land- • Loss of @200 local jobs in use, including housing for different socio- secondary industry economic groups, employment opportunities with an industrial estate development, leisure / green field • Resulting local negative multiplier effect facilities, local shops, school. (including implications for suppliers of component parts) • Release of 500 acre site for redevelopment (of regional • Road links to site aren’t good - importance) congestion fears (eg to A52) • Currently targeted as a housing development site, helping to meet the • Pressure to leave as a wild-life site due housing needs of the East Midlands to urban pressures on greenfield sites (Why the need?) Bring house prices down? • This will provide a huge amount of local tax revenue and local jobs; initially construction, later, in shops, school, industrial estate • Could boost trade in Ilkeston town centre! • Site currently a bit of an eye-sore
  21. 21. What is globalisation? The term globalisation is contested, a general Make sure you know this definition. definition is… An increase in the flow of goods, services, people, capital across national borders in order to create a more integrated and interdependent world economy. There are several factors which have lead to the process of globalisation- Improved transport means that people and goods can be moved around the world more quickly. Distance between places hasn’t changed, but the time needed to cover those distances has. Improvement in technology, such as the internet, has meant that capital (money) can be transferred instantly between Basically the locations. People can also use telephones and the internet to communicate more easily in ‘real time’. World is shrinking. Improvements in technology have also lead to the development of a mass media, television, radio and internet, far off places now seem much closer… we can even see them in real time. 21
  22. 22. Who are the winners of globalisation? Global competition keeps import Greater cultural prices and inflation low- good for exchanges- via travel, consumers. social networking, employment. I would reconsider these Countries with a comparative statements again, how are advantage in a certain area can Liberalisation of cultural values individuals, LEDCs, MEDCs and compete internationally, i.e. i.e. attitudes towards women, TNCs winner and losers because of cheaper labour in Asia. importance of democratic globalisation? processes. You could do this with a cup of tea and some coloured pencils, but Wider access to markets Raised global awareness of that’s just me. across the World. environmental problems and the need to protect fragile environments – Antarctica and the Brain drain from LEDC Antarctica Treaty. countries- MEDC attract educated workers, i.e. Doctors/Nurses in the NHS. Raised awareness of the plight of workers in LEDC countries- Improved flow of Coca-Cola. capital, goods and people. Allows capital investment in LEDC countries, Individuals become employment, potential to more globally aware raising quality of life. through increased opportunity to travel A wider range of consumer and a globalised media. products and culture to consume. 22
  23. 23. Who are the losers of globalisation? MEDC jobs are outsourced to Trading rules are unfair and Trans-national corporations Increased risk of global cheaper locations – My disadvantage LEDC countries, their pandemics being spread- Swine dominating certain sectors i.e. Place- St Gabian- Stanton- products are subject to import Microsoft, less choice for Flu. consumers. manufacturing moved to tariffs and quotas. East Europe. Issues with related to Critics argue that access to More integrated global National brands and consumer products and culture companies are taken over migration? UK- migrants economy- national from Iraq/Afghanistan, is restricted to the educated and economies are more by transnational wealthy, it is also restricted in corporations, this may Eastern Europe- issues of sensitive to financial integration and social some countries. i.e. censorship malpractice/crisis in impact on local of media in Iran and Iraq. communities- the friction- local politics other countries i.e. sub- BNP. prime loans in the U.S. company has no loyalty Trans-national corporations to the country of origin-. have huge influence over and the credit crunch. St Gabian, Stanton and Multinationals exploit less government policy due to their Kraft and the take-over of rigorous worker investments – Columbia, Coca- Global connections are not Cadburys. protection/health and Cola and Trade Unionism. always positive- Heroin trail, safety legislation in LEDC Brain drain from LEDC Increased risk of cultural Afghanistan to Ilkeston. countries – Coke- Sugar countries- MEDC attract misunderstanding and production in El Salvador, educated workers, i.e. violent reaction to it – National companies may not Nike in Indonesia. Doctors/Nurses in the NHS. Islamic Cartoons row in be able to compete with global counterparts. i.e. Steel Denmark, McDonalds in Local traditions threatened Access to loans for LEDC India. Industry in the UK, faced countries is reliant on them with competition from by alien cultural values- Environmental impact- Japanese tradition of not opening their markets to China. products produced in countries eating and walking, imports from MEDC, their with poor environmental Chinese not celebrating industries are unable to legislation- i.e. India and Coke- birthdays- McDonalds compete. water sustainability. Food miles? 23
  24. 24. What is an What type of biome would extreme you classify our extreme environment? environment as? Definition of an Polar Extreme Environment: “Exhibits harsh and Remember the resources show, desert, polar and mountain challenging extreme environments. environmental conditions such as You should think about which is most like your extreme climate and landscape, environment, how it is similar and how it differs. far outside the boundaries of what a human can comfortably tolerate” What is an our extreme environment? Antarctica Cold temperatures Low Precipitation
  25. 25. Why can Antarctica be classed as an extreme environment? • Very cold temperatures - even coastal areas are @ minus 12 degrees C in summer. Vostok recorded minus 89.2 degrees in 1983 • Extreme Weather events such as whiteouts and blizzards, strong katabatic winds. •Long periods of 24 hour darkness in parts during winter. • Low precipitation- classed as a desert area. • Accessibility to the continent is difficult- particularly during Winter months. • Extreme physical landscape- ice sheets, glaciers, crevasses, Sustrugi, high altitude.
  26. 26. How does the climate of resource environments compare with our extreme environment? Much lower temperatures (Remember temperatures vary across the continent.) Cold desert- low precipitation. (Remember rainfall equivalents vary across Antarctica- Peninsula rainfall per month is generally higher than the due to its coastal location 200 mm, Vostok- annual equivalent 4.5 mm!)
  27. 27. Use of Antarctica What is meant by the term exploitation? The use of an environment by humans. What is meant by the term sustainability? The exploitation of an environment ,or natural resource, in a way that if can be used by future generations.
  28. 28. I would revise a Tourism couple of examples- please also use your Antarctica notes. • Disturbing breeding birds and •Landscape seals appreciation • Litter and waste- entangled •Wildlife watching sea birds • Pollution from ships, effluent •Mountaineering and oil •Explorer curiosity •Vegetation degradation- (e.g. Scott’s hut) trampling on moss and lichens. •Scientific research • Invasive species from the hulls station visits of boats. How is Antarctica • Taking cultural objects- i.e. Scott’s Hutt. used? What is the impact?
  29. 29. Scientific research • Research in global warming and ozone depletion. • Contamination of lakes under the ice sheet through • Large ice records for ice drilling. cores -measure changing concentrations of carbon • Waste disposal from the dioxide. research stations. • Remote location allows • Plane transport adds to accurate assessment of global warming risk. carbon dioxide concentrations/ measuring of • Shipping, threat of invasive UV intensity. species, oil spillage. • Measurements of ice sheet • Japanese also state that thickness, glacier their whaling is for scientific speeds/retreat, sea temps. research.
  30. 30. Primary Resource exploitation • Whaling by the Japanese • Threatens sustainability of the whale population- • Krill fishing humpbacks particularly. • Whaling ships may introduce invasive species, or contaminate the ocean, through oil spillage etc. • Overfishing of Krill may impact on higher trophic levels e.g. Penguins and Whales.
  31. 31. Sustainability Antarctica Treaty- International agreement on the exploitation of the environment. • No military use of Antarctica. • Any scientific activity must not impact on the flora/fauna. • All waste must be removed from the continent. • Historical/cultural heritage must not be damaged by any • Currently mineral exploitation activity. is banned. • Any tourist activity must • No hunting or killing of seals meet the requirements of • Strict quotes on fishing in the the treaty- environmental Southern Ocean. impact audits must be conducted.
  32. 32. Dry Valleys warm, permafrost Icebergs reduce open Global warming makes Global melts- resulting in increased ocean- plankton decline the continent more risk of carbon dioxide being in numbers, food chain is Warming released. disrupted. accessible. In the short term, ice Icebergs collide into the sheets may thicken and continent- disrupting glaciers grow. migration routes of Antarctica Emperor penguins. future? Native species can’t adapt to the changing climate Land- based ice sides into the sea. conditions. Increase in global The booklet suggests you will sea levels. Invasive species need to know about how overwhelm native Antarctica might change in the species. Warming of the Peninsula has future and why, make sure you lead to increased colonisation by are familiar with the following land-based penguins, mosses examples. Warmer temperatures and lichens. Nearly there! accelerate the process of basal slippage. Warmer seas. Increased calving resulting in more Loss of sea ice results in a decline icebergs. in the Krill population- they feed on algae on the bottom of the ice- impacts on the food chain. 32
  33. 33. Mass Tourism Mineral Extraction Aesthetics of the continent are destroyed. Global warming makes the continent more Mineral resources, such as accessible. Fauna Increased risk of accidents. oil become rarer- it Limits on tourism are disturbed becomes more cost removed. during mating effective to exploit Potential oil spills. season. resources. Cultural heritage such as Scott’s hut is Increased risk Warmer temperatures damaged. of accidents. make working conditions Overfishing more liveable. Rare lichens, mosses and plants damaged. Potential oil spills. Antarctica Treaty is not renewed. Ships bring invasive Potential conflict over mining Krill is overfished species to the continent. and drilling rights on the resulting in decline in continent. species higher up the Invasive species food chain- i.e. Whales, overwhelm native Potential conflict and Penguins. species. militarisation of the continent International Increase in litter left Ships bring invasive species to Agreement on behind, hazard to the the continent. Whaling breaks fauna, doesn’t down- species are degrade. at increased risk of Invasive species extinction. overwhelm native Increased awareness of species. the importance of the continent. Industrial pollutants released in the sea. 33
  34. 34. Portrayal and Place Portrayal of place: a depiction (description) of a place through the use of words, images and music. Diverse range of flora and fauna Barren Increasingly inviting, through tourism, research opportunities and the globalisation of media Uninviting Resource rich, though in some cases difficult to exploit e.g. mineral Resource limited resources, fishing Economically poor…. Potential for economic development, limited to tourism and But later recognised as a potential area for commercial fishing due to Antarctica Treaty. exploitation Challenging; though made easier through advancements in Challenging equipment/technology. Heroic/Manly Heroic, gender no barrier Geographically isolated Still geographically isolated; more accessible through tourism and research, plus remote access via the globalisation of media Mysterious/Mythical Mystery debunked somewhat by scientific research and the media Dangerous (?) Contested Dangerous Stable Still, but limited due to the Antarctica Treaty Fragile, vulnerable to environmental degradation and human exploitation
  35. 35. Portrayal and Place How is our extreme environment portrayed?
  36. 36. Portrayal and Place TV series based on Scott and Amundsen’s race to the South Pole. • Place for heroes and heroics. • Challenge to be overcome. •National Importance – status/pride. • Enduring part of our national history. • Harsh environment that that the human body struggles to cope with.
  37. 37. Portrayal and Place Al Gore’s documentary on climate change. • Fragile environment. •Influence by human activity. • As such, how environment is interconnected to our lives. • Importance of physical features and processes, such as basal slippage, ice sheets, and ice shelves. • Global importance in relation to sea level stability.
  38. 38. Portrayal and Place March of the Penguins- film about Emperor Penguins. • Harsh and challenging environment. • As a result biodiversity is limited. •Special adaptations are need to survive in the environment.
  39. 39. Portrayal and Place Remember Andrew Cooney (Youngest Person to reach the South Pole) visited you and gave a lecture. • Entices people who look for challenge. •Harsh environment, an individual has to be prepared mentally and physically. • The challenging climate and physical features, such as crevasses and Sustrugi.
  40. 40. Portrayal and Place We listened to an extract from Michael Palin’s Pole to Pole • Inaccessibility of the continent. • Harsh and challenging conditions. •Entices people who look for challenge, explorers, mountaineers. • Importance of scientific research on climate, e.g. global warming and ozone. • Availability of mineral resources. • Strategically importance- United States presence at the South Pole.
  41. 41. Process: Basal melt and slippage Physical Processes Pre-release booklet doesn’t refer to physical Snow falls, and over thousands of processes this year, but it is useful to have a background knowledge, particularly when years of not melting, accumulates considering the future of Antarctica. I love a - can be several km deep, bit of basal slippage. As snow accumulates, it is In summer when compressed into ice forming temperatures rise, an ice sheet icebergs break off the Due to basal melt, bottom of end of the ice shelf - ice is lubricated and slides over by process called bedrock downhill due to calving gravity.(Basal slip) As ice is Ice may move fast as an ice compressed stream (moves through ice) or , bottom slower as a glacier (moves layer is through rock-sided valley) under great pressure. This forms an ice This causes shelf - protruding basal melt. When ice stream or out to sea, but glacier reaches the connected to land coast, it carries on ice. It floats as it flowing out to sea reaches deeper water
  42. 42. Dry Valley conditions Process: Ventifaction Abrasion erosion: favour process of Location: Mc Murdo Dry wind carried ventifaction: Valley particles are ‘sand • Desert conditions Prevailing winter wind blasted’ against (lack of precipitation) direction: Westerly off Ice facing rock surface • No snow cover and Sheet little vegetation, so … plentiful supply of Katabatic Ventifact exposed particles of (gravity driven) Side of rock rock - rock and ice winds carrying facing often weird rock and snow prevailing wind and • Frequent strong particles may become wonderful katabatic (gravity grooved or shapes driven) winds. (eolian transport) polished Even in strong winds, particles can’t be continuously held in the air. Instead, particles bounce Loose, exposed rock and along ground - saltation. snow particles This erosion is focused on Enjoy! base of ventifact, resulting in mushroom shaped rocks

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