Quiz – I have a tradition that in my lectures in the first 5 slides there has to be a quiz (audience participation)
“That’s why it is called hardware.” Rein Aardse at FabFuse, 9 August 2012.
“That’s why it is called hardware.” Rein Aardse at FabFuse, 9 August 2012.
misconception that 1 = 2
this is not
something that technocrats don’t understand because they are not able to perceive that there are multiple epistemologies … while they love the sci-fi stories of parallel universes …!!!give Ronen workshop example (exercise with audience)
Third Industrial Revolution?
Third Industrial Revolution ? Peter Troxler
Peter Troxler• Industrial Engineer – PhD 1999 – Factory Automation – Knowledge Management / Research• Community – Fringe theater company and arts festivals (1990s; 2000s) – Knowledge management researchers (2000s)• Fab Lab – 2008/09 Fab Lab Amsterdam – 2010 Fab6 – Fab Lab Luzern (Switzerland), Rotterdam (NL) – International Fab Lab Association
Industrial Revolution• Neil Gershenfeld, 2005: Fab. The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop• Jeremy Rifkin, 2011: The Third Industrial Revolution. How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World.• Chris Anderson, 2012: Makers: The New Industrial Revolution
Gershenfeld[P]ossession of the means for industrial production has long been thedividing line between workers and owners. But if those means are easilyacquired, and designs freely shared, then hardware is likely to follow theevolution of software. Like its software counterpart, opensourcehardware is starting with simple fabrication functions, while nipping atthe heels of complacent companies that don’t believe that personalfabrication “toys” can do the work of their “real” machines. Thatboundary will recede until today’s marketplace evolves into a continuumfrom creators to consumers, servicing markets ranging from one to onebillion. (FAB. The Coming Revolution on Your Desktop, 2005)
Gershenfeld http://web.media.mit.edu/%7emonster/screambody/screambodydiag.jpg, rights unclear
Gershenfeld[T]he killer app for personal fabrication in the developed world istechnology for a market of one, personal expression in technology (…).And the killer app for the rest of the planet is [to overcome] theinstrumentation and the fabrication divide, people locally developingsolutions to local problems. (TED talk, 2006)
Gershenfeld 2• Examples from book http://web.media.mit.edu/%7emonster/screambody/screambodydiag.jpg, rights unclear
AndersonIn the Next Industrial Revolution, Atoms Are theNew Bits (Wired, January 25, 2010) Local Motors: Rally Fighter $50,000 off-road (but street-legal) racer “crowdsourced” design, BMW clean diesel engineGizmodo, January 26, 2010:Atoms Are Not Bits; Wired Is Not A BusinessMagazine
Rifkin[T]he conventional top-down organization of society that characterizedmuch of the economic, social, and political life of the fossil-fuel basedindustrial revolutions is giving way to distributed and collaborativerelationships in the emerging green industrial era. We are in the midst ofa profound shift in the very way society is structured, away fromhierarchical power and toward lateral power.
Rifkin[A] new digital manufacturing revolution now opens up the possibility of(…) the production of durable goods. In the new era, everyone canpotentially be their own manufacturer (…). Welcome to the world ofdistributed manufacturing.
OSS = OSH ? Or: Is Fab Lab Easy?• continuum from creators to consumers• killer app = market of one
OSS = OSH ? Or: Is Fab Lab Easy?“[I]t would be naïve to believe that open source software practices couldbe simply copied and applied to the manufacturing domain without anyalteration or adaptation, ignoring the constraints and opportunities thatthe materiality of hardware entails.”“[M]ore than four in five Fab Labs are set up and run by institutionsrooted in the old world order that by their very nature struggle tounderstand polycentric structures and heterarchies, are alien to lateralpower relationships, and a fail to embrace a peer-production commons.”
Gilbreth Frank Bunker Gilbreth 1868 - 1924 scientific management motion study
Eric Steven RaymondThe Cathedral and the Bazaar (2000)Linux is subversive.Linus Torvalds’s style of development—release early and often, delegateeverything you can, be open to the point of promiscuity—came as a surprise.cathedral … carefully crafted by individual wizards or small bands of magesworking in splendid isolationa great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches (…) out ofwhich a coherent and stable system could seemingly emerge only by asuccession of miracles
RaymondI think the future of open-source software will increasingly belong topeople who know how to play Linus’s game, people who leave behind thecathedral and embrace the bazaar. This is not to say that individualvision and brilliance will no longer matter; rather, I think that the cuttingedge of open-source software will belong to people who start fromindividual vision and brilliance, then amplify it through the effectiveconstruction of voluntary communities of interest. (p. 23)
Yochai Benkleron a political economy of information1. economic—concerned with the organization of production and consumption in this economy2. political—concerned with how we pursue autonomy, democracy, and social justice in this new condition
Kurt Lewin (1952), Field theory in social science: Selected theoretical papers by Kurt Lewin. London: Tavistock. p. 169THERE IS NOTHING MOREPRACTICAL THAN A GOOD THEORY
Practice• in music • piracy is the new radio’ (Neil Young)• in journalism • e.g. Huffington Post• in encyclopedia • Wikipedia has outgrown its printed predecessors in volume, depth, recency and use.
Yochai BenklerCOMMONS-BASED peer production is a socio-economic system of productionthat is emerging in the digitally networked environment. Facilitated by thetechnical infrastructure of the Internet, the hallmark of this socio-technicalsystem is collaboration among large groups of individuals, sometimes in theorder of tens or even hundreds of thousands, who cooperate effectively toprovide information, knowledge or cultural goods without relying on eithermarket pricing or managerial hierarchies to coordinate their commonenterprise. Benkler, Y., and H. Nissenbaum. (2006) Commons-Based Peer Production and Virtue. The Journal of Political Philosophy 14, no. 4: 394–419.
How do we organize the ecosystem• Text books• Industrial practice• Consultants
Fab now• Neil Gershenfeld• “outreach programme”, started 2003• FAB, the book “The future is already here — its just not very evenly distributed” William Gibson
How do we organize the ecosystem• How to build effective forms of collective action and self-organisation, for Fab Labs?• how to break free from traditional systems and creatively design new systems that tap into the capabilities of distributed digital manufacturing?• How to evaluate developments and monitor progress?• How to achieve equity and fairness?• How to protect the interests and creative freedom of makers while also ensuring wide access to new knowledge, processes and products?• What are appropriate and effective “business models” for distributed digital manufacturing?
How?Option 1 traditional knowledge of governanceOption 2 experience from OSSOption 3 trial and error, perpetual betaOption 3+ what do we know
• Ronald H. Coase, 1937 The Nature of the Firm• Mancur Olson, 1965 The Logic of Collective Action• Oliver E. Williamson, 1981 The Economics of Organization: The Transaction Cost Approach
Ellinor Ostrom• 1990. Governing the Commons, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.• with Charlotte Hess, 2003. “Ideas, Artifacts, and Facilities: Information as a Common- Pool Resource.” Law and Contemporary Problems 66, Winter/Spring: 111–145.• with Charlotte Hess, 2007. Understanding Knowledge as a Commons. From Theory to Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Yochai Benkler• 2002. “Coases Penguin, or Linux and the Nature of the Firm.” Yale Law Journal, 112: 369–446• 2003. “Freedom in the Commons: Towards a Political Economy of Information.” Duke Law Journal 52: 1245–1276.• 2004. “Sharing nicely: on sharable goods and the emergence of sharing as a modality of economic production,” Yale Law Journal, 114 , 273–358.
Christian Siefkes• 2008. “From Exchange to Contributions. Generalizing Peer Production Into the Physical World.” Berlin: Siefke.
Eric von Hippel• with Jeroen P J de Jong and Stephen Flowers. 2010. Comparing Business and Household Sector Innovation in Consumer Products: Findings From a Representative Study in the UK.• Hippel, von, Eric. “Open Source Projects as Horizontal Innovation Networks - by and for Users.” MIT Sloan School of Management Working Paper.
Tineke M. Egyedi and Donna C. Mehos• 2012. Inverse Infrastructures. Disrupting Networks from Below.
Peter Troxler• 2010. “Commons-Based Peer-Production of Physical Goods Is There Room for a Hybrid Innovation Ecology?.” Free Culture Conference, Berlin.• 2011. “Libraries of the Peer Production Era.” In: Open Design Now. Why Design Cannot Remain Exclusive.• 2012. Making the Third Industrial Revolution. The Struggle for Polycentric Structures a New Peer- Production Commons in the Fab Lab Community. In: Shape your world. Theoretical, empirical and practical insights into FabLabs.
Epistemologyin philosophy: in “practice”:the study or a theory of Karin Knorr-Cetinathe nature and grounds of Epistemic Culturesknowledge especially with an "amalgam ofreference to its limits and arrangements andvalidity mechanisms – bonded through affinity, necessity and historical coincidence – which in a given field, make up how we know what we know"