Peter Troxler
Research Professor, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences
Fab Lab — Open Design — Distributed Digital Man...
•  starting point
•  open source—the freedoms
•  infrastructure—the third industrial revolution
•  open source—the practic...
STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS
© 2005, Lee Kindness
FREEDOMS
1.  Everyone has the right freely to participate in the
cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to
share in ...
3.  Work towards zero tolerance of
infringement. This requires
legislative revision, through the
inclusion of a ‘Duty of C...
8.  Create guidelines, codes of
practice, legal frameworks and
experimental spaces to promote
the use of Open Design.
INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
•  Karl Marx (1867)
Das Kapital
•  Frank B. Gilbreth (1911)
Motion Study
•  Frederic W. Taylor (1911)
Principles of Scient...
•  David F. Noble (1984)
Forces of Production. A Social
History of Industrial Automation
•  James R. Beniger (1986)
Contro...
•  Jeremy Rifkin (2011)
The Third Industrial Revolution.
How Lateral Power is Transforming
Energy, the Economy, and the
Wo...
VIDEO
1st revolution
Automatic printing
press
Steam-powered
technology
19th century
3rd revolution
Internet
Renewable
energy
21s...
1st revolution
Automatic printing
press
Steam-powered
technology
19th century
3rd revolution
Internet
Renewable
energy
21s...
•  The 3rd industrial revolution scales laterally
•  New chapter for the SMEs, the producer co-ops, the
consumers
•  Scali...
PRACTICE
“… the Linux community seemed to resemble a great
babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches
(aptly symbolized by...
Zanetti et al. (2013). Categorizing bugs with social networks
Peer-production
•  “It would be naïve to believe that open source software
practices could be simply copied and applied to the
manufacturi...
Eric S. Raymond, Wednesday July 03 1996: Merged hostrec and option structures.
Abraham Bosse (1604-1676): Voici la représentation d'un sculpteur dans son atelier.
Tacit
knowledge
to
Explicit
knowledge
Tacit
knowledge
Socialization:
Sympathized
Knowledge
Externalization:
Conceptual
Kno...
•  “[The] isolation from others is the necessary life
condition for every mastership which consists in being
alone with th...
•  Ostrom, Elinor (1990). Governing the Commons,
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
•  Ostrom, Elinor and Charlotte He...
0"
10"
20"
30"
40"
50"
60"
70"
80"
2002"+"
Fab1"
2006"+"
Fab2"
2007"+"
Fab3"
2008"+"
Fab4"
2009"+"
Fab5"
2010"+"
Fab6"
201...
Hexagonal Paper Dress Hexacopter
© 2012, nachetz, cc-by-nc-sa
design Goof van Beek, 2009
photo © 2009, Ton Zijlstra, cc-by...
FabLab Solar House FabFi
© 2008, Fabfolk Inc., cc-by-sa© 2010, FabLab Barcelona, cc-by-nc-sa
OUTLOOK
•  How to build effective forms of (collective) action and
(self-)organisation in lateral environments?
•  How to protect ...
•  …we need a central repository…
•  …we need a centrally maintained list…
•  …we need one place to go where we find all t...
“Some day that creation may become something that
many people want and as such may develop into an
extremely valuable comm...
•  inverse infrastructures
•  take responsibility
•  participative research & concurrent development
•  emergent (organiza...
Destruction of icons in Zurich 1524.
A (?) new epistemic culture(s):
"amalgams of arrangements and mechanisms –
bonded through affinity, necessity and historic...
“We might miss the chance to benefit
from a distinctive socio-technical system
that promotes
not only cultural and intelle...
On this journey
we have to be prepared to get surprised,
we must dare to fail,
and we will have to disagree,
but construct...
Keynote at FAD Open Design / Shared Creativity Conference in Barcelona, 5 July 2013
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Keynote at FAD Open Design / Shared Creativity Conference in Barcelona, 5 July 2013

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Open Source—standing on the shoulders of giants—is the preferred mode of production, insight and creativity today, and even more so when the 3rd industrial revolution starts to take effect: distributed and collaborative relationships, and a shift away from hierarchical power and toward lateral power.

The 3rd industrial revolution is bringing affordable digital tools into the sphere of manufacturing and beyond: Affordable tools do not require huge capital investments; they bridge the labour-capital-divide, the owner-maker is re-emerging. Digital tools connect designing and manufacturing, they bridge the white collar-blue collar-divide, the designer-producer is having a comeback. Affordable digital tools also spread outside the industrial world, they bridge the producer-consumer-divide in new and powerful ways.

Open source practice in software is characterized by structures that 'resemble a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches'. Similar practices have yet to evolve in (open) design. Is it conceivable that a design brand start to release beta products early and often, to delegate designing to the ‘users’, and to involve those ‘users’ as beta testers? How likely are designers to share semi-finished work with colleagues, even from different disciplines or the other side of the world, and to accept that others might take their intermediary results, sketches and models, continue to work on them and turn them into next-step intermediary results that are quite different to what the initial designer conceived them to be?

There is a small micro cosmos out there, the global network of Fab Labs, where some of these questions can be explored. Fab Labs are pretty popular with designers, but larger scale co-operative projects have so far been in the domains of engineering and education. What would be the reason: Is it a lack of interest, a disbelief in the power of the results, a missing skill, an absent opportunity, too early to tell—or are we just not seeing the projects?

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Keynote at FAD Open Design / Shared Creativity Conference in Barcelona, 5 July 2013

  1. 1. Peter Troxler Research Professor, Rotterdam University of Applied Sciences Fab Lab — Open Design — Distributed Digital Manufacturing OPEN DESIGN AND THE IMPACT OF THE 3RD INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  2. 2. •  starting point •  open source—the freedoms •  infrastructure—the third industrial revolution •  open source—the practice •  outlook
  3. 3. STANDING ON THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS
  4. 4. © 2005, Lee Kindness
  5. 5. FREEDOMS
  6. 6. 1.  Everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. 2.  Everyone has the right to the protection of the moral and material interests resulting from any scientific, literary or artistic production of which he is the author. Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
  7. 7. 3.  Work towards zero tolerance of infringement. This requires legislative revision, through the inclusion of a ‘Duty of Care’ for shared responsibilities on IPR protection across the digital value chain. Set up a specific EU Tribunal /Court for European IP cases and promote and increase the training of judges in national courts, in relation to the protection of Intellectual Property Rights in the physical world and online.
  8. 8. 8.  Create guidelines, codes of practice, legal frameworks and experimental spaces to promote the use of Open Design.
  9. 9. INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
  10. 10. •  Karl Marx (1867) Das Kapital •  Frank B. Gilbreth (1911) Motion Study •  Frederic W. Taylor (1911) Principles of Scientific Management •  Henry Ford (1922) My Life and Work (The Autobiography of Henry Ford) 1st Industrial Revolution Rifkin: Automatic printing press Steam-powered technology
  11. 11. •  David F. Noble (1984) Forces of Production. A Social History of Industrial Automation •  James R. Beniger (1986) Control Revolution. Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society •  Shoshana Zuboff (1988) In the Age of the Smart Machine. The Future of Work and Power 2nd Industrial Revolution Rifkin: Electrical communication Oil-powered combustion engine
  12. 12. •  Jeremy Rifkin (2011) The Third Industrial Revolution. How Lateral Power is Transforming Energy, the Economy, and the World •  Umar Haque (2011) The New Capitalist Manifesto: Building a Disruptively Better Business •  Yochai Benkler (2011) The Penguin and the Leviathan. How Cooperation Triumphs over Self-Interest 3rd Industrial Revolution Rifkin: Internet Communication (Distributed) renewable energy production
  13. 13. VIDEO
  14. 14. 1st revolution Automatic printing press Steam-powered technology 19th century 3rd revolution Internet Renewable energy 21st century 2nd$revolu+on$ $ Electrical$ communica+on$ $ Oil3powered$ combus+on$ engine$ $ 20th$century$ © 2010 Kevin Dooley, cc-by ©1968,ElginCountyArchives,St.ThomasTimes-Journalfonds ©2011WaagSociety,cc-by-nc-nd
  15. 15. 1st revolution Automatic printing press Steam-powered technology 19th century 3rd revolution Internet Renewable energy 21st century 2nd$revolu+on$ $ Electrical$ communica+on$ $ Oil3powered$ combus+on$ engine$ $ 20th$century$ © 1907 E.A. Thomson Butte-Silver Bow Public Library ©2009mars_discovery_district,cc-by-nc-sa © 2011 adafruit, cc-by-nc-sa
  16. 16. •  The 3rd industrial revolution scales laterally •  New chapter for the SMEs, the producer co-ops, the consumers •  Scaling laterally requires different forms of working together, which include •  rules •  practices
  17. 17. PRACTICE
  18. 18. “… the Linux community seemed to resemble a great babbling bazaar of differing agendas and approaches (aptly symbolized by the Linux archive sites, who’d take submissions from anyone) out of which a coherent and stable system could seemingly emerge only by a succession of miracles.” Raymond, Eric (1999). The Cathedral and the Bazaar.
  19. 19. Zanetti et al. (2013). Categorizing bugs with social networks
  20. 20. Peer-production
  21. 21. •  “It would be naïve to believe that open source software practices could be simply copied and applied to the manufacturing domain without any alteration or adaptation, ignoring the constraints and opportunities that the materiality of hardware entails.” Troxler, Peter (2011). Libraries of the Peer-Production Era. In: Open Design Now, p. 89
  22. 22. Eric S. Raymond, Wednesday July 03 1996: Merged hostrec and option structures.
  23. 23. Abraham Bosse (1604-1676): Voici la représentation d'un sculpteur dans son atelier.
  24. 24. Tacit knowledge to Explicit knowledge Tacit knowledge Socialization: Sympathized Knowledge Externalization: Conceptual Knowledge from Explicit knowledge Internalization: Operational Knowledge Combination: Systemic Knowledge Nonaka & Takeuchi 1995, The Knowledge Creating Company, Oxford. p. 72
  25. 25. •  “[The] isolation from others is the necessary life condition for every mastership which consists in being alone with the ‘idea’, the mental image of the thing to be.” •  “Action, as distinguished from fabrication, is never possible in isolation; to be isolated is to be deprived of the capacity to act.” Arendt, Hannah (1958). The Human Condition. p. 161 | p. 188
  26. 26. •  Ostrom, Elinor (1990). Governing the Commons, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. •  Ostrom, Elinor and Charlotte Hess (2003). “Ideas, Artifacts, and Facilities: Information as a Common- Pool Resource.” Law and Contemporary Problems 66, Winter/Spring: 111–145. •  Ostrom, Elinor and Charlotte Hess (2007). Understanding Knowledge as a Commons. From Theory to Practice. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  27. 27. 0" 10" 20" 30" 40" 50" 60" 70" 80" 2002"+" Fab1" 2006"+" Fab2" 2007"+" Fab3" 2008"+" Fab4" 2009"+" Fab5" 2010"+" Fab6" 2011"+" Fab7" 2012"+" Fab8" 2013"+" Fab9" Fab$Labs$Present$at$Interna-onal$Conference$ © 2012, 2013, stadslab Rotterdam
  28. 28. Hexagonal Paper Dress Hexacopter © 2012, nachetz, cc-by-nc-sa design Goof van Beek, 2009 photo © 2009, Ton Zijlstra, cc-by-nc-sa
  29. 29. FabLab Solar House FabFi © 2008, Fabfolk Inc., cc-by-sa© 2010, FabLab Barcelona, cc-by-nc-sa
  30. 30. OUTLOOK
  31. 31. •  How to build effective forms of (collective) action and (self-)organisation in lateral environments? •  How to protect the interests and creative freedom of makers while also ensuring wide access to new knowledge, processes and products? •  How to appropriately and effectively create and capture value?
  32. 32. •  …we need a central repository… •  …we need a centrally maintained list… •  …we need one place to go where we find all the information…
  33. 33. “Some day that creation may become something that many people want and as such may develop into an extremely valuable commercial asset.” from WIPO Magazine, June 2013© stockCharts.com, 5 July 2013
  34. 34. •  inverse infrastructures •  take responsibility •  participative research & concurrent development •  emergent (organization) design
  35. 35. Destruction of icons in Zurich 1524.
  36. 36. A (?) new epistemic culture(s): "amalgams of arrangements and mechanisms – bonded through affinity, necessity and historical coincidence – which in a given field, make up how we know what we know." Knorr-Cetina, Karin (1999). Epistemic Cultures: How the Sciences Make Knowledge. p.
  37. 37. “We might miss the chance to benefit from a distinctive socio-technical system that promotes not only cultural and intellectual production but constitutes a venue for human character development.” Benkler, Yochai, and Helen Nissenbaum (2006). Commons-based Peer Production and Virtue
  38. 38. On this journey we have to be prepared to get surprised, we must dare to fail, and we will have to disagree, but constructively.

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