Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Leopoldo Estol Univ. del Salvador Buenos Aires ARGENTINA Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics
World Society for the Protection of Animals. <ul><li>Concepts in Animal Welfare . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wspa.org.uk...
University of Bristol UK <ul><li>Teaching resource </li></ul><ul><li>David Main </li></ul><ul><li>27 and 28 January 2003 ....
Science, Ethics & Law <ul><li>Welfare  science  considers the  effect  on the animal  from the animal’s point of view. </l...
Animal welfare concepts Mental Physical Early tumours Early infections Fear Anxiety Clinical disease Injury
3 Animal welfare concepts Mental Physical Naturalness Restrict natural behaviour
<ul><li>To understand what ethics are. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand why vets need ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>To recognis...
<ul><li>What are ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do vets need ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>The moral status of animals. </li>...
What are ethics ? <ul><li>What is good or bad, right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>A branch of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li...
Branches of Ethics Personal Ethics (e.g.) what should we eat ? Society Ethics (e.g.) we should not steal Professional Ethi...
Ethical sceptics 1 <ul><li>Are ethics ‘just subjective’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>Wide agreement between different ethical syste...
Ethical sceptics 2 <ul><li>Are ethics just preferences ? </li></ul><ul><li>A preference requires no rational defence. </li...
Ethical Dilemmas <ul><li>These are situations in which each possible course seems to be morally wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Why do vets need ethics? <ul><li>Vets have obligations to different parties so ethical decisions are constantly faced </li...
Why do vets need ethics? vet farmer public Other vets patient Only ethics has the answer !
Important Concepts in Animal Ethics  <ul><li>anthropomorphism  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriately giving animals human ...
Approaches to Animal Ethics: Utilitarianism <ul><li>Emphasises consequences of actions </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to maximise...
Peter Singer’s Utilitarianism  <ul><li>Aim to maximise the satisfaction of preferences of all species. </li></ul><ul><li>R...
Approaches to Animal Ethics: Duty Based Ethics <ul><li>‘ deontology’  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Greek ‘deontos’ meani...
Tom Regan’s Deontology: Animal Rights <ul><li>Animal rights another form of deontological theory </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Reg...
Approaches to Animal Ethics:  An Ethical Matrix Parties to Problem Fair trade ? Universal affordable food ? Equal consider...
Animal Rights AND welfare ? <ul><li>Rights and welfare not necessarily opposed </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Welfare  Science  ...
Ethics of killing animals <ul><li>Most difficult question in animal ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is death a harm ? </li></ul...
Conclusions <ul><li>Vets make ethical decisions all the time so need to know about ethics  in order to make them well. </l...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics

10,307 views

Published on

Lecture to students at the SOCRATES / ERASMUS INTERNATIONAL COURSE 2003, ANIMAL PRODUCTION AND VETERINARY PUBLIC HEALTH, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Utrecht,The Netherlands

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics

  1. 1. Leopoldo Estol Univ. del Salvador Buenos Aires ARGENTINA Introduction to Animal Welfare Ethics
  2. 2. World Society for the Protection of Animals. <ul><li>Concepts in Animal Welfare . </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.wspa.org.uk </li></ul><ul><li>John Callaghan , Director of Education and Training </li></ul>
  3. 3. University of Bristol UK <ul><li>Teaching resource </li></ul><ul><li>David Main </li></ul><ul><li>27 and 28 January 2003 . </li></ul>
  4. 4. Science, Ethics & Law <ul><li>Welfare science considers the effect on the animal from the animal’s point of view. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare ethics considers the human actions towards the animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Welfare legislation considers how humans must treat animals </li></ul>
  5. 5. Animal welfare concepts Mental Physical Early tumours Early infections Fear Anxiety Clinical disease Injury
  6. 6. 3 Animal welfare concepts Mental Physical Naturalness Restrict natural behaviour
  7. 7. <ul><li>To understand what ethics are. </li></ul><ul><li>To understand why vets need ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>To recognise different views of animals’ moral status. </li></ul><ul><li>To be aware of the main ethical theories and how they relate to animals. </li></ul><ul><li>To be able to construct ethical arguments about animals. </li></ul>Learning objectives
  8. 8. <ul><li>What are ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why do vets need ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>The moral status of animals. </li></ul><ul><li>Important concepts in animal ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches to animal ethics. </li></ul><ul><li>Animal rights and animal welfare. </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics of killing animals. </li></ul>Summary of Content
  9. 9. What are ethics ? <ul><li>What is good or bad, right or wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>A branch of philosophy. </li></ul><ul><li>BUT ethics are a part of everyday life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moral philosophers can impact our everyday lives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Our everyday actions impact on the interests of others. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Branches of Ethics Personal Ethics (e.g.) what should we eat ? Society Ethics (e.g.) we should not steal Professional Ethics (e.g.) vets should not cause patients to unnecessary pain
  11. 11. Ethical sceptics 1 <ul><li>Are ethics ‘just subjective’ ? </li></ul><ul><li>Wide agreement between different ethical systems and cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. ‘the golden rule’ found in many cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethics as ‘glue’ holding societies together </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ethical sceptics 2 <ul><li>Are ethics just preferences ? </li></ul><ul><li>A preference requires no rational defence. </li></ul><ul><li>A preference is not binding for others. </li></ul><ul><li>The nature of moral justification. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Ethical Dilemmas <ul><li>These are situations in which each possible course seems to be morally wrong </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. client confidentiality when clients break the law </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. 2 patients same problem, only 1 dose of medicine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Not all ethical problems </li></ul><ul><li> are dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Not all dilemmas are </li></ul><ul><li> ethical dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Many dilemmas can often be solved by careful thinking </li></ul>?
  14. 14. Why do vets need ethics? <ul><li>Vets have obligations to different parties so ethical decisions are constantly faced </li></ul><ul><li>Ethics are the tools to make these decisions well </li></ul><ul><li>Enlightened self interest of the individual and the profession </li></ul>
  15. 15. Why do vets need ethics? vet farmer public Other vets patient Only ethics has the answer !
  16. 16. Important Concepts in Animal Ethics <ul><li>anthropomorphism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inappropriately giving animals human capacities. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treating animals as ‘little humans’ can lead to wrong choices for animals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speciesism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discrimination against animals on basis of species. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Approaches to Animal Ethics: Utilitarianism <ul><li>Emphasises consequences of actions </li></ul><ul><li>Seeks to maximise good outcomes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ the greatest good for the greatest number’ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking rules for good consequences. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How do we make the calculation? </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Peter Singer’s Utilitarianism <ul><li>Aim to maximise the satisfaction of preferences of all species. </li></ul><ul><li>Radical conclusions. </li></ul><ul><li>Major animal interests versus minor humaninterests. </li></ul><ul><li>Utilitarianism: can be interpreted pragmatically as well as radically. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Approaches to Animal Ethics: Duty Based Ethics <ul><li>‘ deontology’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>From the Greek ‘deontos’ meaning ‘obligation’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on principals guiding behaviour rather than outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(e.g.) treat people as ends, not as means to other ends </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Tom Regan’s Deontology: Animal Rights <ul><li>Animal rights another form of deontological theory </li></ul><ul><li>Tom Regan argues that animals have inherent value </li></ul><ul><li>Rights flow from this inherent value </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental ‘right to respect’ forbids use of animals as means </li></ul><ul><li>This view demands abolition of animal farming and </li></ul><ul><li> experimentation </li></ul>
  21. 21. Approaches to Animal Ethics: An Ethical Matrix Parties to Problem Fair trade ? Universal affordable food ? Equal consideration of interests ? Fairness or Justice Freedom of choice to adopt or not adopt certain practices Freedom of choice (food labelling?) Behavioural freedom Autonomy Producer income & working conditions Availability of safe food Welfare of cow Utilitarianism Producer Consumer Animal Theory or principle
  22. 22. Animal Rights AND welfare ? <ul><li>Rights and welfare not necessarily opposed </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Welfare Science does not imply acceptance of all customary practices </li></ul><ul><li>‘ New Welfarism’: welfare short term and rights long term </li></ul><ul><li>Less radical interpretations of ‘rights’ </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ethics of killing animals <ul><li>Most difficult question in animal ethics ? </li></ul><ul><li>Is death a harm ? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>death is distinct from dying </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>‘ grief’ in social groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>thwarts desire to stay alive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents future projects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>prevents further opportunities to satisfy desires </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Conclusions <ul><li>Vets make ethical decisions all the time so need to know about ethics in order to make them well. </li></ul><ul><li>There are arguments for granting animals some form of moral worth. </li></ul><ul><li>There are various ethical theories which attempt to address the issues of animals and their treatment. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps the most difficult question raised in animal ethics is when is it acceptable to kill animals ? </li></ul>

×