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Ethics of Animal Use in Research          and Teaching
Rules and RegulationsThe primaryresponsibility whenworking withanimals is to treatthem humanely.
Questionable Animal Research 1: Foot shock induced aggression• Mild footshock to paired rats results in  fighting• Used to...
Questionable Animal Research 2:          Parabiosis• Surgical means to create conjoined twins• Used for behavioral endocri...
Questionable Animal Research 3:  Harry Harlow & monkey love • Tested food versus contact comfort • Important for adopted c...
AWA                 Animal Welfare Act• 1966, amended in most recently in 2007• Regulates use of dogs, cats, hamsters, gui...
rabb                      i ts                 guin                        e                pigs a              ham       ...
AWA enforcement• Enforced by the Animal and Plant Health  Inspection Service of the United States  Department of Agricultu...
IACUCInstitutional Animal Care and Use Committee                      • Reviews animal use                        proposal...
IACUC membership• A veterinarian who is certified in laboratory  animal medicine.• At least one practicing scientist who i...
Role of IACUC• To protect animal welfare.• To protect the University.• To assist in maintenance of a productive  research ...
Animal Care and Use Protocols• Rationale and purpose of the proposed use  of animals.• Justification of the need to use an...
Justification and Use of Animals
The Three R’s• Legislated by the AWA• Replacement  – Substitution of other models for animals (or    substitution of a les...
Societal Decision (Pros)  Benefits to Humans     •   Vaccines     •   Antibiotics     •   Medical procedures     •   Space...
Hair Analysis• Some rhesus monkeys exhibit self-abusive behavior (SIB)• Cortisol, a stress hormone, levels were examined i...
Societal Decision (Cons)• Similarity to Humans  – Chemistry  – Anatomy  – Pain?
• Association for the Assessment and  Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care  – This is a volunteer organization that wor...
Non-government Organizations•   AALAS                               •   NABR     – American Assoc. for Lab               –...
The Guide for the Care andUse of Laboratory Animals             • Describes institutional               responsibilities f...
Summary• AWA (R-R-R)
Research Methods: Ethics II (Animal Research)
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Research Methods: Ethics II (Animal Research)

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lecture 3 from a college level research methods in psychology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. (psy391@gmail.com) at Linfield College, includes IACUC, animal welfare act, refinement, reduction, replacement

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Research Methods: Ethics II (Animal Research)

  1. 1. Ethics of Animal Use in Research and Teaching
  2. 2. Rules and RegulationsThe primaryresponsibility whenworking withanimals is to treatthem humanely.
  3. 3. Questionable Animal Research 1: Foot shock induced aggression• Mild footshock to paired rats results in fighting• Used to study effects of hormones, temperature, drugs.• Justified?
  4. 4. Questionable Animal Research 2: Parabiosis• Surgical means to create conjoined twins• Used for behavioral endocrinology
  5. 5. Questionable Animal Research 3: Harry Harlow & monkey love • Tested food versus contact comfort • Important for adopted children • Animal rights movement is a reaction to his research1905-1981 2 min: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fg9QCeA4FJs
  6. 6. AWA Animal Welfare Act• 1966, amended in most recently in 2007• Regulates use of dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, farm animals, marine mammals, and non-human primates in research and teaching (rats, mice, and birds are currently not regulated, but probably will be in the near future).• The regulations cover the procurement, handling, treatment, and transportation of these animals.
  7. 7. rabb i ts guin e pigs a ham st e r s pigs dogs prim a tes sh e e pOt h ca ts er f a rm a nim als othe r ve rteb ra te s
  8. 8. AWA enforcement• Enforced by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Unannounced annual on-site inspections – Inspects all facilities, relevant records, and documentation – Progressive series of disciplinary actions for non-compliance, including citations, warning, fines, court orders, loss of registration
  9. 9. IACUCInstitutional Animal Care and Use Committee • Reviews animal use proposals • Conducts semi-annual inspections of animal facilities • Investigates concerns about animal care and use • Can suspend research or teaching activities when a major violation has occurred
  10. 10. IACUC membership• A veterinarian who is certified in laboratory animal medicine.• At least one practicing scientist who is experienced with research and training involving animals.• A least one member of the public to represent general community interests in the proper care and use of animals.
  11. 11. Role of IACUC• To protect animal welfare.• To protect the University.• To assist in maintenance of a productive research environment.• To utilize peer review in evaluation of protocols and inspection of animal facilities.
  12. 12. Animal Care and Use Protocols• Rationale and purpose of the proposed use of animals.• Justification of the need to use animals, the species of animal chosen and the number of animals requested.• Adequacy of training and experience of personnel.• Housing and care of animals.• Pain and distress• Method of disposition of the animals at the end of the study.
  13. 13. Justification and Use of Animals
  14. 14. The Three R’s• Legislated by the AWA• Replacement – Substitution of other models for animals (or substitution of a less sentient species for a more sentient one) • Can the hypothesis be tested or the training be done with cell cultures, computer simulations, or other non-animal system?• Reduction – What is the minimum number of animals that can still yield statistically valid outcomes? • Can you work with a statistician to determine this?• Refinement – What efforts are being made to eliminate or minimize animal pain and distress? • Anesthesia, analgesia and alternate experimental design must
  15. 15. Societal Decision (Pros) Benefits to Humans • Vaccines • Antibiotics • Medical procedures • Space travel• Benefits to Animals
  16. 16. Hair Analysis• Some rhesus monkeys exhibit self-abusive behavior (SIB)• Cortisol, a stress hormone, levels were examined in monkeys Davenport et al. (2008). Biological Psychiatry, 63, 990-996.
  17. 17. Societal Decision (Cons)• Similarity to Humans – Chemistry – Anatomy – Pain?
  18. 18. • Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care – This is a volunteer organization that works with research organizations to ensure the highest standards of animal care and use. – They emphasize appropriate veterinary care, in-depth oversight by IACUC, protection of the health of animals. – Full accreditation by AAALAC considered one of the best professional achievements in the field of lab animal care
  19. 19. Non-government Organizations• AALAS • NABR – American Assoc. for Lab – National Assoc for Biomedical Animal Science Research• AAALAC • FBR – Association for the Assessment – Foundation for Biomedical and Accreditation of Research Laboratory Animal Care • ILAR• ASLAP – Institute of Lab Animal – American Society of Lab Resources Animal Practitioners • AWIC• ACLAM – Animal Welfare Info Center – American College of Lab • ARENA Animal Medicine – Applied Research Ethics• SCAW National Association – Scientists Center for Animal • CAAT Welfare – Center for Alternatives to• PRIMR Animal Testing – Public Responsibility In Medicine and Research
  20. 20. The Guide for the Care andUse of Laboratory Animals • Describes institutional responsibilities for animal care and use • Provides guidelines for designing and operating an animal care program
  21. 21. Summary• AWA (R-R-R)

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