Research Methods: Ethics II (Animal Research)


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lecture 3 from a college level research methods in psychology course taught in the spring 2012 semester by Brian J. Piper, Ph.D. ( at Linfield College, includes IACUC, animal welfare act, refinement, reduction, replacement

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  • Animal Use is a PRIVLEDGE
  • Institutions must be registered with the USDA if they use animals for teaching or research. Includes animal care program oversight, animal care and use committee membership, authority, functioning and responsibilities, attending vet’s authority and responsibilities, feeding, caging, housing, sanitation, transportation of animals.
  • Mice and rats make up 95% of all animals used in US labs. They are not listed on this graph which depicts only animals covered by AWA
  • These figures include use of mice, rats and birds. Most are used in biomedical research.
  • Inspects all facilities, relevant records and documentation
  • What does IACUC stand for? What does the IACUC do? All animal use by individuals on UMASS campus must be reviewed by the IACUC All animal facilities must be reviewed twice per year by the IACUC Concerns and questions about animal care at UMASS are handled by the IACUC IACUC has the authority to suspend animal use
  • Who is on the IACUC and why? The Anima Welfare Act, which we will talk about in a minute dictates that there must be at least three members of IACUC, including…
  • Animal care protocols, once approved are valid for 3 years. Any changes to an animal protocol MUST be preceded by an addendum to the protocol. The addendum must be approved by the IACUC and is valid only for the remainder of the protocol. IACUC Animal Use Protocols consist of several sections and each of these must be reviewed by the IACUC
  • The applicant must address whether there any alternatives to the use of animals.
  • IACUC protocol, section II B, questions 1, 2, 3
  • Animal care workers (veterinarians, animal care technicians) can be certified by AAALAC.
  • There are many non-government run organizations that are involved in education, training, journal publications, and involved in accreditation of animal care workers. Don’t have to know all of these. Do know AAALAC, which I will describe on the next slide
  • This booklet, published by the National Research Council outlines the standards of the PHS policy.
  • Research Methods: Ethics II (Animal Research)

    1. 1. Ethics of Animal Use in Research and Teaching
    2. 2. Rules and RegulationsThe primaryresponsibility whenworking withanimals is to treatthem humanely.
    3. 3. Questionable Animal Research 1: Foot shock induced aggression• Mild footshock to paired rats results in fighting• Used to study effects of hormones, temperature, drugs.• Justified?
    4. 4. Questionable Animal Research 2: Parabiosis• Surgical means to create conjoined twins• Used for behavioral endocrinology
    5. 5. Questionable Animal Research 3: Harry Harlow & monkey love • Tested food versus contact comfort • Important for adopted children • Animal rights movement is a reaction to his research1905-1981 2 min:
    6. 6. AWA Animal Welfare Act• 1966, amended in most recently in 2007• Regulates use of dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea pigs, rabbits, farm animals, marine mammals, and non-human primates in research and teaching (rats, mice, and birds are currently not regulated, but probably will be in the near future).• The regulations cover the procurement, handling, treatment, and transportation of these animals.
    7. 7. rabb i ts guin e pigs a ham st e r s pigs dogs prim a tes sh e e pOt h ca ts er f a rm a nim als othe r ve rteb ra te s
    8. 8. AWA enforcement• Enforced by the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Unannounced annual on-site inspections – Inspects all facilities, relevant records, and documentation – Progressive series of disciplinary actions for non-compliance, including citations, warning, fines, court orders, loss of registration
    9. 9. IACUCInstitutional Animal Care and Use Committee • Reviews animal use proposals • Conducts semi-annual inspections of animal facilities • Investigates concerns about animal care and use • Can suspend research or teaching activities when a major violation has occurred
    10. 10. IACUC membership• A veterinarian who is certified in laboratory animal medicine.• At least one practicing scientist who is experienced with research and training involving animals.• A least one member of the public to represent general community interests in the proper care and use of animals.
    11. 11. Role of IACUC• To protect animal welfare.• To protect the University.• To assist in maintenance of a productive research environment.• To utilize peer review in evaluation of protocols and inspection of animal facilities.
    12. 12. Animal Care and Use Protocols• Rationale and purpose of the proposed use of animals.• Justification of the need to use animals, the species of animal chosen and the number of animals requested.• Adequacy of training and experience of personnel.• Housing and care of animals.• Pain and distress• Method of disposition of the animals at the end of the study.
    13. 13. Justification and Use of Animals
    14. 14. The Three R’s• Legislated by the AWA• Replacement – Substitution of other models for animals (or substitution of a less sentient species for a more sentient one) • Can the hypothesis be tested or the training be done with cell cultures, computer simulations, or other non-animal system?• Reduction – What is the minimum number of animals that can still yield statistically valid outcomes? • Can you work with a statistician to determine this?• Refinement – What efforts are being made to eliminate or minimize animal pain and distress? • Anesthesia, analgesia and alternate experimental design must
    15. 15. Societal Decision (Pros) Benefits to Humans • Vaccines • Antibiotics • Medical procedures • Space travel• Benefits to Animals
    16. 16. Hair Analysis• Some rhesus monkeys exhibit self-abusive behavior (SIB)• Cortisol, a stress hormone, levels were examined in monkeys Davenport et al. (2008). Biological Psychiatry, 63, 990-996.
    17. 17. Societal Decision (Cons)• Similarity to Humans – Chemistry – Anatomy – Pain?
    18. 18. • Association for the Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care – This is a volunteer organization that works with research organizations to ensure the highest standards of animal care and use. – They emphasize appropriate veterinary care, in-depth oversight by IACUC, protection of the health of animals. – Full accreditation by AAALAC considered one of the best professional achievements in the field of lab animal care
    19. 19. Non-government Organizations• AALAS • NABR – American Assoc. for Lab – National Assoc for Biomedical Animal Science Research• AAALAC • FBR – Association for the Assessment – Foundation for Biomedical and Accreditation of Research Laboratory Animal Care • ILAR• ASLAP – Institute of Lab Animal – American Society of Lab Resources Animal Practitioners • AWIC• ACLAM – Animal Welfare Info Center – American College of Lab • ARENA Animal Medicine – Applied Research Ethics• SCAW National Association – Scientists Center for Animal • CAAT Welfare – Center for Alternatives to• PRIMR Animal Testing – Public Responsibility In Medicine and Research
    20. 20. The Guide for the Care andUse of Laboratory Animals • Describes institutional responsibilities for animal care and use • Provides guidelines for designing and operating an animal care program
    21. 21. Summary• AWA (R-R-R)