SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 18
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS
UNIT-4
TOPICS –
ANIMAL ETHICS
BIOCENTRISM
ECOCENTRISM
ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY
Animal Ethics
Animal ethics is a branch of ethics which
examines human-animal relationships, the
moral consideration of animals and how
nonhuman animals ought to be treated.
The subject matter includes animal
rights, animal welfare, animal
law, speciesism, animal cognition, wildlife
conservation, wild animal suffering,[1] the moral
status of nonhuman animals, the concept of
nonhuman personhood, human
exceptionalism, the history of animal use, and
theories of justice.
Ethics is about a moral contract about
right and wrong. It maintains an order
of the way humans relate to their
surrounding environment, including
nonhuman animals.
ANIMAL RIGHTS:
•Animal rights means that animals
deserve certain kinds of
consideration, which is in their best
interests, regardless of whether they
are useful to humans or an
endangered species and regardless
of whether any human cares about
them at all.
•In 1635, Ireland was the first country
to pass animal protection legislation.
•Animal rights teach us that there are
some things that it is morally wrong to
do to animals
•Accepting the doctrine of animal rights means:
No experiments on animals,
No breeding and killing animals for food or clothes or
medicine,
No use of animals for hard labour,
No selective breeding for any reason other than the
benefit of the animal,
No hunting,
No zoos or use of animals in entertainment.
ANIMAL TESTING :
Animal testing for biomedical research
dates to the writings of the ancient
Greeks and since has evolved
considerably. In 1938, the Food and
Drug Administration (FDA) of US
established the Federal Food, Drug
and Cosmetic Act to ensure the
testing of drugs on animals before
marketing of the product, to confirm
that it would have no harmful
implications on humans.
In 1959, a book called “The Principles of Humane
Experimental technique” proposed 3 Rs –
Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement which
should act as guiding principles for the ethical
treatment of animals used for testing and
experimentation.
Replacement: Avoiding using an animal for testing by
switching out the animal for something non-living, such
as a computer model.
Reduction: Devising a plan to use the fewest animals
possible; a combination of using fewer animals to gain
sufficient data.
Refinement: A decrease in any unnecessary pain
inflicted on the animal and adapting experimental
procedures to minimise suffering.
The Three Rs principles are now widely accepted by
many countries and are used in any practises that
involve the experimentation of animals.
Theoretical understanding of animal
ethics:
There is a wide range of ethical assessments regarding animals used in research. There are
general opinions that animals do have a moral status and how they are treated should be
subjected to ethical consideration. Some of the positions include:
•Animals have intrinsic values that must be respected.
•Animals can feel pain and their interests must be taken into consideration.
•Our treatment of all animals/lab animals reflects on our attitudes and influences us on our
moral beings.
•The ethical theories which deal with them include:
Consequentialism:
Deontology:
Virtue ethics:
Consequentialism:
•It is a collection of ethical theories which judge the rightness or wrongness of an
action on its consequences; if the actions brings more benefit than harm, it is
good, if it brings more harm than benefit, it is bad.
•The most well-known type of consequentialism theory is utilitarianism which is a
highly regarded foundation for animal research.
•It states that “an action is right if and only if it produces a better balance of benefits
and harms than available alternative actions”.
•But the limitations of applying utilitarianism to animal research is that one cannot
measure the pain and benefit of the tests and compare them accurately.
•Therefore, it is estimated that they are being compared when deducing whether a
test is morally right or wrong
Deontology:
•It is a theory that evaluates moral actions based only on doing one’s duty, not
on the consequences of the actions.
•This means that if it is your duty to carry out a task, it is morally right regardless of
the consequences, and if you fail to do your duty, you are morally wrong.
•According to the deontological theory one proposed by Immanuel Kant, a
researcher may think it is their duty to make an animal suffer to find a cure for a
disease that is affecting millions of humans, which is morally correct.
•On the other hand, an animal activist might think that saving these animals being
tested on is their duty, creating a contradiction in this idea.
•This theory opposes utilitarianism in the sense that instead of concerning itself with
the consequence, it focuses on the duty.
Virtue ethics:
•It does not pinpoint on either the consequences or duty of the action,
but from the act of behaving like a virtuous person.
•If the action would stem from someone virtuous, it is said that it is
morally right, and if from a vicious person, immoral behaviour.
•A virtuous person is said to hold qualities such as respect, tolerance,
justice and equality.
One advantage that this theory has over the others, is that it takes
into account human emotions, affecting the moral decision,
which was absent in the previous two. However, a flaw is that
people’s opinions of a virtuous person are very subjective, and thus,
can drastically affect the person’s moral compass.
BIOCENTRISM
Biocentrism: it is the principle that ensures the proper balance of ecology on the planet.
Biocentrism (from Greek words bios, "life" and kentron, "center"), in
a political and ecological sense, as well as literally, is an ethical point of view that
extends inherent value to all living things.
In other words, it argues that all living things have an equal moral standing and deserve
equal moral consideration.
Biocentrism, by definition, requires people to rethink the relationship between humans and nature, suggesting
humans and nature, suggesting that humans are not superior to other living things and nature does not exist to
things and nature does not exist to be consumed by humans.
Instead, it proposes the notion that humans are nothing more than one species among many that are
among many that are interdependent, relying on one another for their survival and growth.
THEORY OF BIOCENTRISM
The theory of biocentrism or a biocentric universe was
proposed by Robert Lanza. The theory establishes around
the concepts of life and biology. The fact which is
emphasized in the theory is that life has created the
universe and not the other way around.
The biocentrism explains that the universe only exists because of an
individual's consciousness of it – essentially life and biology are
central to reality, which has created the universe; the universe itself
has not created life. Biocentrism is based upon the ideas of quantum
physics.
Robert Lanza and astrologist Bob Berman came up with the theory
of Biocentrism in 2007. The theory of Biocentrism is discussed
below:
Only on the basis of the physical rules the creation and operation of the universe
cannot be explained. The theory of biocentrism states that the world exists
because of life. The development and creation of life is the origin of the world.
- Although, all these are the senses of human consciousness, the supporters of
Biocentrism claim that every event of nature seemed to have occurred in human
interest.
- If we take the example of the meteor that fell on the earth millions of years ago
to wipe out dinosaurs. This paved way for rapid evolution of mammals fell in the
interest of mankind.
- The explanation and development of Darwin on the basis of fortuitous incidences
is fine at the children’s level, but is not that easy. Biological evolution cannot be
properly explained without a self-sustained plan.
- The physical theories alternatively believe that life evolved in consonance with
the laws of physics and chemistry. The creation of life was because of various
physical and chemical changes instead of the other way round as in biocentrism.
Ecocentrism
Ecocentrism sees the ecosphere – comprising all Earth's
ecosystems, atmosphere, water and land – as the matrix
which birthed all life and as life's sole source of sustenance.
It is a worldview that recognizes intrinsic value in
ecosystems and the biological and physical elements that
they comprise, as well as in the ecological processes that
spatially and temporally connect them.
So when human wants clash with the health of the Earth as
a whole or any of its ecosystems, the former should,
practically and ethically speaking, give way to the latter:
human needs, like the needs of other species, are
secondary to those of the Earth as the sum of its
ecosystems
Ecocentrism= Ecology at the center
a philosophy or perspective that places intrinsic value on all living organisms
and their natural environment, regardless of their perceived usefulness or
importance to human beings.
ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY
Poverty and environment are closely interrelated.
Poverty among people puts stress on the environment whereas
environmental problems cause severe suffering to the poor.
People, whether they be rich or poor, consume water, food, and
natural resources in order to remain alive.
All economic activities are directly, indirectly or remotely based
on natural resources and any pressure on natural resources can
cause environmental stress.
 Environmental damage can prevent people, especially the poor,
from having good and hygienic living standards.
As poor people rely more directly on the environment than the
rich for their survival, they are mostly on the receiving end of
environmental problems.
Poverty often causes people to put relatively more pressure on the
environment which results in larger families (due to high death rates and
insecurity), improper human waste disposal leading to unhealthy living
conditions, more pressure on fragile land to meet their needs,
overexploitation of natural resources and more deforestation.
Insufficient knowledge about agricultural practices can also lead to a decline
in crop yield and productivity etc.
On the other hand environmental problems add more to the miseries of poor
people.
Environmental problems cause more suffering among them as
environmental damage increases the impact of floods and other
environmental catastrophes.
Soil erosion, land degradation and deforestation lead to a decline in food
production along with a shortage of wood for fuel contribute to inflation.
In short, the worst consequences of environmental deterioration, whether
they be economical, social, or related to mental or physical wellbeing, are
experienced by poor people.
More rigorous efforts should be undertaken by the governments of all countries to eradicate
poverty and in turn, to save deprived people from the dreadful implications of environmental
damage.
There should be more collaborative partnerships among all sections of the society so that
even the people living in poverty are linked to the world through their participation in social,
political, and economical spheres along with their active participation in environmental
regeneration.
there cannot be any environmental solution without alleviating poverty from the world
ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS - Presentation

More Related Content

Similar to ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS - Presentation

Bw essential ch01lecture
Bw essential ch01lectureBw essential ch01lecture
Bw essential ch01lecture
Agam Arora
 
Environmental Ethics ..ssss
Environmental Ethics ..ssssEnvironmental Ethics ..ssss
Environmental Ethics ..ssss
Salah Belkher
 
Values and ethics
Values and ethicsValues and ethics
Values and ethics
jeremymagee
 
Enviornmental Ethics
Enviornmental EthicsEnviornmental Ethics
Enviornmental Ethics
Ali Kamran
 
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theoriesChapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
stanbridge
 
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docxRunning head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
SUBHI7
 

Similar to ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS - Presentation (20)

BW_EssentialCh01Lecture.ppt
BW_EssentialCh01Lecture.pptBW_EssentialCh01Lecture.ppt
BW_EssentialCh01Lecture.ppt
 
Bw essential ch01lecture
Bw essential ch01lectureBw essential ch01lecture
Bw essential ch01lecture
 
292021 essay 4 self reflectionhttpscanvas.pasadena.e
292021 essay 4 self reflectionhttpscanvas.pasadena.e292021 essay 4 self reflectionhttpscanvas.pasadena.e
292021 essay 4 self reflectionhttpscanvas.pasadena.e
 
environmental ethics approaches and theories.pptx
environmental ethics approaches and theories.pptxenvironmental ethics approaches and theories.pptx
environmental ethics approaches and theories.pptx
 
Environmental Ethics ..ssss
Environmental Ethics ..ssssEnvironmental Ethics ..ssss
Environmental Ethics ..ssss
 
BIOETHICS.pptx
BIOETHICS.pptxBIOETHICS.pptx
BIOETHICS.pptx
 
Values and ethics
Values and ethicsValues and ethics
Values and ethics
 
Enviornmental Ethics
Enviornmental EthicsEnviornmental Ethics
Enviornmental Ethics
 
Environmental ethics ,types, approaches and issues pptx
Environmental ethics ,types, approaches and issues pptxEnvironmental ethics ,types, approaches and issues pptx
Environmental ethics ,types, approaches and issues pptx
 
cddrrm.pptx
cddrrm.pptxcddrrm.pptx
cddrrm.pptx
 
Environmental ethics
Environmental ethicsEnvironmental ethics
Environmental ethics
 
1 Environmental Ethics
1 Environmental Ethics1 Environmental Ethics
1 Environmental Ethics
 
Bioethics
Bioethics Bioethics
Bioethics
 
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theoriesChapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
Chapter 13 environmental philosophy and theories
 
Introduction to Biology and Chemistry.pdf
Introduction to Biology and Chemistry.pdfIntroduction to Biology and Chemistry.pdf
Introduction to Biology and Chemistry.pdf
 
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docxRunning head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
Running head ANIMAL RIGHTS LITERATURE REVIEWANIMAL RIGHTS LITER.docx
 
Essay About Ethics
Essay About EthicsEssay About Ethics
Essay About Ethics
 
Essay About Ethics
Essay About EthicsEssay About Ethics
Essay About Ethics
 
Environmental Ethics
Environmental EthicsEnvironmental Ethics
Environmental Ethics
 
Environmental ethics
Environmental ethicsEnvironmental ethics
Environmental ethics
 

Recently uploaded

LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjxLaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
joshuaclack73
 
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
The Hebrew University of Jerusalem
 

Recently uploaded (20)

slidesgo-maximizing-sustainability-the-case-for-plastic-reuse
slidesgo-maximizing-sustainability-the-case-for-plastic-reuseslidesgo-maximizing-sustainability-the-case-for-plastic-reuse
slidesgo-maximizing-sustainability-the-case-for-plastic-reuse
 
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with MangrovesA Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
A Wide Range of Eco System Services with Mangroves
 
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG LonderangPeat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
Peat land Restoration Project in HLG Londerang
 
Palynology: History, branches, basic principles and application, collection o...
Palynology: History, branches, basic principles and application, collection o...Palynology: History, branches, basic principles and application, collection o...
Palynology: History, branches, basic principles and application, collection o...
 
LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjxLaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
LaPlace Transform Questions.pptjjjjjjjjjx
 
Data analysis and findings
Data analysis and findingsData analysis and findings
Data analysis and findings
 
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnershipsIntroducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
Introducing Blue Carbon Deck seeking for actionable partnerships
 
Production, dispersal, sedimentation and taphonomy of spores/pollen
Production, dispersal, sedimentation and taphonomy of spores/pollenProduction, dispersal, sedimentation and taphonomy of spores/pollen
Production, dispersal, sedimentation and taphonomy of spores/pollen
 
2024-05-16 Composting at Home 101 without link to voucher
2024-05-16 Composting at Home 101 without link to voucher2024-05-16 Composting at Home 101 without link to voucher
2024-05-16 Composting at Home 101 without link to voucher
 
Lab Investigation.pptxjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Lab Investigation.pptxjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjLab Investigation.pptxjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
Lab Investigation.pptxjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjjj
 
Laplace Transforms.pptxhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
Laplace Transforms.pptxhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhLaplace Transforms.pptxhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
Laplace Transforms.pptxhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhhh
 
Rosen 2017 Isranalytica Mg in Tap Water.pdf
Rosen  2017 Isranalytica Mg in Tap Water.pdfRosen  2017 Isranalytica Mg in Tap Water.pdf
Rosen 2017 Isranalytica Mg in Tap Water.pdf
 
National Tree Planting Day May 2024 Nairobi
National Tree Planting Day May 2024 NairobiNational Tree Planting Day May 2024 Nairobi
National Tree Planting Day May 2024 Nairobi
 
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
Determination of Total Iodine using ICP-MS in Israeli Bottled and Tap Water: ...
 
BIG DEVELOPMENT SHAPING' LESOTHO FUTURE.
BIG DEVELOPMENT SHAPING' LESOTHO FUTURE.BIG DEVELOPMENT SHAPING' LESOTHO FUTURE.
BIG DEVELOPMENT SHAPING' LESOTHO FUTURE.
 
Rising temperatures also mean that more plant pests are appearing earlier and...
Rising temperatures also mean that more plant pests are appearing earlier and...Rising temperatures also mean that more plant pests are appearing earlier and...
Rising temperatures also mean that more plant pests are appearing earlier and...
 
Presentation on GLOBALISATION IN MBA sem
Presentation on GLOBALISATION IN MBA semPresentation on GLOBALISATION IN MBA sem
Presentation on GLOBALISATION IN MBA sem
 
Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, ...
Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, ...Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, ...
Coastal and mangrove vulnerability assessment In the Northern Coast of Java, ...
 
Elemental Analysis of Plants using ICP-OES(2023)
Elemental Analysis of Plants using ICP-OES(2023)Elemental Analysis of Plants using ICP-OES(2023)
Elemental Analysis of Plants using ICP-OES(2023)
 
The Key to Sustainable Energy Optimization: A Data-Driven Approach for Manufa...
The Key to Sustainable Energy Optimization: A Data-Driven Approach for Manufa...The Key to Sustainable Energy Optimization: A Data-Driven Approach for Manufa...
The Key to Sustainable Energy Optimization: A Data-Driven Approach for Manufa...
 

ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS - Presentation

  • 1. ENVIRONMENTAL ISSUES AND AWARENESS UNIT-4 TOPICS – ANIMAL ETHICS BIOCENTRISM ECOCENTRISM ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY
  • 2. Animal Ethics Animal ethics is a branch of ethics which examines human-animal relationships, the moral consideration of animals and how nonhuman animals ought to be treated. The subject matter includes animal rights, animal welfare, animal law, speciesism, animal cognition, wildlife conservation, wild animal suffering,[1] the moral status of nonhuman animals, the concept of nonhuman personhood, human exceptionalism, the history of animal use, and theories of justice. Ethics is about a moral contract about right and wrong. It maintains an order of the way humans relate to their surrounding environment, including nonhuman animals.
  • 3. ANIMAL RIGHTS: •Animal rights means that animals deserve certain kinds of consideration, which is in their best interests, regardless of whether they are useful to humans or an endangered species and regardless of whether any human cares about them at all. •In 1635, Ireland was the first country to pass animal protection legislation. •Animal rights teach us that there are some things that it is morally wrong to do to animals •Accepting the doctrine of animal rights means: No experiments on animals, No breeding and killing animals for food or clothes or medicine, No use of animals for hard labour, No selective breeding for any reason other than the benefit of the animal, No hunting, No zoos or use of animals in entertainment.
  • 4. ANIMAL TESTING : Animal testing for biomedical research dates to the writings of the ancient Greeks and since has evolved considerably. In 1938, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of US established the Federal Food, Drug and Cosmetic Act to ensure the testing of drugs on animals before marketing of the product, to confirm that it would have no harmful implications on humans.
  • 5. In 1959, a book called “The Principles of Humane Experimental technique” proposed 3 Rs – Replacement, Reduction, and Refinement which should act as guiding principles for the ethical treatment of animals used for testing and experimentation. Replacement: Avoiding using an animal for testing by switching out the animal for something non-living, such as a computer model. Reduction: Devising a plan to use the fewest animals possible; a combination of using fewer animals to gain sufficient data. Refinement: A decrease in any unnecessary pain inflicted on the animal and adapting experimental procedures to minimise suffering. The Three Rs principles are now widely accepted by many countries and are used in any practises that involve the experimentation of animals.
  • 6. Theoretical understanding of animal ethics: There is a wide range of ethical assessments regarding animals used in research. There are general opinions that animals do have a moral status and how they are treated should be subjected to ethical consideration. Some of the positions include: •Animals have intrinsic values that must be respected. •Animals can feel pain and their interests must be taken into consideration. •Our treatment of all animals/lab animals reflects on our attitudes and influences us on our moral beings. •The ethical theories which deal with them include: Consequentialism: Deontology: Virtue ethics:
  • 7. Consequentialism: •It is a collection of ethical theories which judge the rightness or wrongness of an action on its consequences; if the actions brings more benefit than harm, it is good, if it brings more harm than benefit, it is bad. •The most well-known type of consequentialism theory is utilitarianism which is a highly regarded foundation for animal research. •It states that “an action is right if and only if it produces a better balance of benefits and harms than available alternative actions”. •But the limitations of applying utilitarianism to animal research is that one cannot measure the pain and benefit of the tests and compare them accurately. •Therefore, it is estimated that they are being compared when deducing whether a test is morally right or wrong
  • 8. Deontology: •It is a theory that evaluates moral actions based only on doing one’s duty, not on the consequences of the actions. •This means that if it is your duty to carry out a task, it is morally right regardless of the consequences, and if you fail to do your duty, you are morally wrong. •According to the deontological theory one proposed by Immanuel Kant, a researcher may think it is their duty to make an animal suffer to find a cure for a disease that is affecting millions of humans, which is morally correct. •On the other hand, an animal activist might think that saving these animals being tested on is their duty, creating a contradiction in this idea. •This theory opposes utilitarianism in the sense that instead of concerning itself with the consequence, it focuses on the duty.
  • 9. Virtue ethics: •It does not pinpoint on either the consequences or duty of the action, but from the act of behaving like a virtuous person. •If the action would stem from someone virtuous, it is said that it is morally right, and if from a vicious person, immoral behaviour. •A virtuous person is said to hold qualities such as respect, tolerance, justice and equality. One advantage that this theory has over the others, is that it takes into account human emotions, affecting the moral decision, which was absent in the previous two. However, a flaw is that people’s opinions of a virtuous person are very subjective, and thus, can drastically affect the person’s moral compass.
  • 10. BIOCENTRISM Biocentrism: it is the principle that ensures the proper balance of ecology on the planet. Biocentrism (from Greek words bios, "life" and kentron, "center"), in a political and ecological sense, as well as literally, is an ethical point of view that extends inherent value to all living things. In other words, it argues that all living things have an equal moral standing and deserve equal moral consideration. Biocentrism, by definition, requires people to rethink the relationship between humans and nature, suggesting humans and nature, suggesting that humans are not superior to other living things and nature does not exist to things and nature does not exist to be consumed by humans. Instead, it proposes the notion that humans are nothing more than one species among many that are among many that are interdependent, relying on one another for their survival and growth.
  • 11. THEORY OF BIOCENTRISM The theory of biocentrism or a biocentric universe was proposed by Robert Lanza. The theory establishes around the concepts of life and biology. The fact which is emphasized in the theory is that life has created the universe and not the other way around. The biocentrism explains that the universe only exists because of an individual's consciousness of it – essentially life and biology are central to reality, which has created the universe; the universe itself has not created life. Biocentrism is based upon the ideas of quantum physics.
  • 12. Robert Lanza and astrologist Bob Berman came up with the theory of Biocentrism in 2007. The theory of Biocentrism is discussed below: Only on the basis of the physical rules the creation and operation of the universe cannot be explained. The theory of biocentrism states that the world exists because of life. The development and creation of life is the origin of the world. - Although, all these are the senses of human consciousness, the supporters of Biocentrism claim that every event of nature seemed to have occurred in human interest. - If we take the example of the meteor that fell on the earth millions of years ago to wipe out dinosaurs. This paved way for rapid evolution of mammals fell in the interest of mankind. - The explanation and development of Darwin on the basis of fortuitous incidences is fine at the children’s level, but is not that easy. Biological evolution cannot be properly explained without a self-sustained plan. - The physical theories alternatively believe that life evolved in consonance with the laws of physics and chemistry. The creation of life was because of various physical and chemical changes instead of the other way round as in biocentrism.
  • 13. Ecocentrism Ecocentrism sees the ecosphere – comprising all Earth's ecosystems, atmosphere, water and land – as the matrix which birthed all life and as life's sole source of sustenance. It is a worldview that recognizes intrinsic value in ecosystems and the biological and physical elements that they comprise, as well as in the ecological processes that spatially and temporally connect them. So when human wants clash with the health of the Earth as a whole or any of its ecosystems, the former should, practically and ethically speaking, give way to the latter: human needs, like the needs of other species, are secondary to those of the Earth as the sum of its ecosystems
  • 14. Ecocentrism= Ecology at the center a philosophy or perspective that places intrinsic value on all living organisms and their natural environment, regardless of their perceived usefulness or importance to human beings.
  • 15. ENVIRONMENT AND POVERTY Poverty and environment are closely interrelated. Poverty among people puts stress on the environment whereas environmental problems cause severe suffering to the poor. People, whether they be rich or poor, consume water, food, and natural resources in order to remain alive. All economic activities are directly, indirectly or remotely based on natural resources and any pressure on natural resources can cause environmental stress.  Environmental damage can prevent people, especially the poor, from having good and hygienic living standards. As poor people rely more directly on the environment than the rich for their survival, they are mostly on the receiving end of environmental problems.
  • 16. Poverty often causes people to put relatively more pressure on the environment which results in larger families (due to high death rates and insecurity), improper human waste disposal leading to unhealthy living conditions, more pressure on fragile land to meet their needs, overexploitation of natural resources and more deforestation. Insufficient knowledge about agricultural practices can also lead to a decline in crop yield and productivity etc. On the other hand environmental problems add more to the miseries of poor people. Environmental problems cause more suffering among them as environmental damage increases the impact of floods and other environmental catastrophes. Soil erosion, land degradation and deforestation lead to a decline in food production along with a shortage of wood for fuel contribute to inflation. In short, the worst consequences of environmental deterioration, whether they be economical, social, or related to mental or physical wellbeing, are experienced by poor people.
  • 17. More rigorous efforts should be undertaken by the governments of all countries to eradicate poverty and in turn, to save deprived people from the dreadful implications of environmental damage. There should be more collaborative partnerships among all sections of the society so that even the people living in poverty are linked to the world through their participation in social, political, and economical spheres along with their active participation in environmental regeneration. there cannot be any environmental solution without alleviating poverty from the world