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Animal welfare

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Animal welfare

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Animal welfare

  1. 1. Animal welfare By Dr. Rabie Hassan Fayed Prof. of Animal Management & Behaviour
  2. 2. introduction  Science, Ethics and Law  Welfare science considers effects of humans on the animal from the animal’s point of view  Welfare ethics considers human actions towards animals  Welfare legislation considers how humans must treat animals
  3. 3. Concepts in Animal Welfare: Science, ethics and law  All three aspects are important for welfare  The Concepts in Animal Welfare presentations cover different aspects:  Some presentations focus on 1 aspect e.g.:  Science : physiological indicators  Ethics : introduction to ethics  Law : protection legislation  Other presentations cover all 3 aspects e.g.:  Farm animal husbandry  Euthanasia
  4. 4. What is the welfare status of the following dog? During routine vaccination, a vet observes a small but aggressive malignant tumour in the mouth of a dog (the tumour has spread to the local lymph nodes)  Current • Physical status - abnormality • Mental status - fine • Future • Physical status - spread to lungs, etc. • Mental status - pain, discomfort
  5. 5. Two animal welfare concepts MentalPhysical Early tumours Early infections Fear Anxiety Clinical disease Injury
  6. 6. Three animal welfare concepts MentalPhysical Restrict natural behaviour Naturalness
  7. 7. Example of issues affecting physical / mental welfare and naturalness  Restricting sows to stalls  Naturalness:  Restriction of oral and social behaviour  Physical:  Mouth injuries from bar biting  Mental:  Frustration  Pain from mouth injuries
  8. 8. Three welfare definitions • Physical status (fitness) • Mental status (feelings) • “Naturalness” (telos)
  9. 9. Physical status • Welfare defines the state of an animal as regards its attempts to cope with its environment.” (Fraser & Broom, 1990) • “I suggest that an animal is in a poor state of welfare only when physiological systems are disturbed to the point that survival or reproduction are impaired.” (McGlone, 1993)
  10. 10. Mental status • “neither health nor lack of stress nor fitness is necessary and/or sufficient to conclude that an animal has good welfare. • Welfare is dependent upon what animals feel.” (Duncan, 1993)
  11. 11. “Naturalness • “Not only will welfare mean control of pain and suffering, it will also entail nurturing and fulfilment of the animals’ nature, which I call telos.” (Rollin, 1993)
  12. 12. Combined definition  Some definitions combine two or three aspects  For example : Five Freedoms  Freedom from hunger and thirst  Freedom from discomfort  Freedom from pain, injury and disease  Freedom to express normal behaviour  Freedom from fear and distress
  13. 13. The concept of needs  Need: a requirement, fundamental in the biology of the animal, to obtain a particular resource or respond to a particular environmental or bodily stimulus (Broom & Johnson, 1993)  If a need is not provided for then there will be an effect on physiology or behaviour, i.e. observation of a physiological effect that can be linked to the absence of a certain resource is an indication of lack of human
  14. 14. Hierarchy of needs  Some needs may be more important than others  Provision of food and water is a fundamental need  Provision of a comfortable lying area may be less fundamental Life-sustaining > Health-sustaining > Comfort- sustaining
  15. 15. When is death relevant to welfare?  The manner of death is relevant  e.g. method of slaughter is important  High death rates can indicate poor welfare conditions  Poor husbandry conditions can cause disease and death
  16. 16. Welfare assessment and the Five Freedoms
  17. 17. Five Freedoms = Animal welfare The council believes that the welfare of an animal ... should be considered with reference to ‘Five Freedoms’.  Freedom from hunger and thirst  Freedom from discomfort  Freedom from pain, injury and disease  Freedom to express normal behaviour  Freedom from fear and distress
  18. 18. Are all Freedoms equally important In your opinion how much importance should be placed on providing animals with the Five Freedoms?
  19. 19. Five Freedoms conflict  Freedom from disease conflicts with:  Fear from handling during treatment  Freedom to express normal behaviour conflicts with:  Distress during normal social interactions
  20. 20. All farming systems restrict normal behaviour
  21. 21. All farming systems restrict normal behaviour  Examples:  Fences and housing restrict normal ranging behaviour  Controlled breeding restricts normal sexual behaviour.
  22. 22. Significance of Freedoms  The Five Freedoms do not give a detailed account of what should be measured in a scientific study , Consensus amongst scientists and politicians in many countries – welfare should be considered in terms of the Five Freedoms  The Freedoms give an initial indication of what should be assessed and what should be provided to animals
  23. 23. Five Freedoms & welfare inputs / factors  It does not define the minimum standards as it is extremely difficult to always provide all the Freedoms  Freedom from hunger & thirst by ready access to fresh water and a diet to maintain full health and vigour  Freedom from discomfort by providing an appropriate environment including shelter and a comfortable resting area
  24. 24. Five Freedoms & welfare inputs / factors  Freedom from pain, injury and disease by prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment  Freedom to express normal behaviour by providing sufficient space, proper facilities and company of the animal’s own kind  Freedom from fear and distress by ensuring conditions and treatment which avoid mental suffering
  25. 25. Welfare inputs / factors Stockman Environment Animal
  26. 26. Examples of welfare factors  Stockman  Empathy, Knowledge, Observation skills  Environment  Housing, Bedding, Feed quality, Water provision  Animal  Suitable breed, Age and Sex for the system
  27. 27. Common framework for quantifying problem  Severity  Duration  Number affected
  28. 28. Common framework for quantifying problem  Once you have identified which aspects of the Five Freedoms have potentially been compromised you also need to consider:  The severity of any welfare compromises  The duration that the compromise has existed  The number of animals affected.
  29. 29. Quantifying severity  Behaviour  e.g. fearfulness  Disease  e.g. lameness, pneumonia  Production performance  e.g. growth rates  Physiology  e.g. heart rate, cortisol
  30. 30. Severity example How severe is the social isolation of sheep?
  31. 31. Duration example For how long are sheep sensitive to pain after a lameness episode?
  32. 32. Number affected • Example: • At any one time, how many animals are lame ? 15%15%** 22%22% **
  33. 33. SDN example: Cattle in poor condition  Severity:  How thin are the cows (e.g. Body condition score)?  Duration:  How long have the cows been thin?  Number affected:  How many cattle are thin?
  34. 34. Behavioural indicators  Behaviour is useful in a study of animal welfare because it gives us an indication of how animals feel:  Choices that the animal makes  Reaction to a variety of stimuli  Behaviour assessments are, therefore, often used as indicators of welfare
  35. 35. Behavioural indicators  Animal welfare scientists use behavioural indicators to identify factors that are important to animals  We can use behavioural indicators to recognise poor welfare or good welfare
  36. 36. What is animal behaviour? The choices that an animal makes as a result of analysis of environmental stimuli (often many) These choices are influenced by:  experience  physiological status (e.g. age, pregnancy)  innate responses (e.g. species, breed)
  37. 37. Behavioural indicators in welfare science 1. Behaviour observation 2. Choices 3. Work that an animal will do to gain what it wants or needs 4. Work that an animal will do to escape unpleasant stimuli 5. Deviations from normal behaviour
  38. 38. 1.Behaviour observation  Observe how animals allocate their time in a natural environment  Record animal behaviour in a restricted environment
  39. 39. Behaviour observation: example
  40. 40. 2.Choices Offer the animal a variety of options and allow it to choose
  41. 41. Choices Hens have access to both bean bag (BB) and flat floor (FF) nests The number of times they chose each kind of nest was recorded for 16 egg-laying Result: Hens prefer to lay eggs in nests containing loose material that can be manipulated by their bodies and feet Conclusion: Animals choose plenty of space, a comfortable bed, the opportunity to control their environment and to interact with others
  42. 42. Choices  This method gives the scientist information about an animal’s choices or preferences  However, it does not answer the question of whether the animal’s welfare suffers if cannot get what it prefers
  43. 43. 3.Work that an animal will do to gain what it needs  Ask the animal to work for rewards - such as food or a dust bath  The amount of work the animal will perform indicates the importance of the reward to the animal
  44. 44. 4.Work that an animal will do to escape unpleasant stimuli Measure how hard an animal will work to avoid a stressful or painful situation
  45. 45. 5.Deviations from normal behaviour
  46. 46. Deviations from normal behaviour  However, abnormal patterns of behaviour are most frequent in restricted environments, and may be the result of frustration. Most people agree that they indicate poor welfare.  Animals may develop abnormal behaviour patterns such as tail-biting (pigs), feather-pecking or stereotypies.
  47. 47. Deviations from normal behaviour  (Stereotypies are repeated patterns of behaviour that have no purpose, for example, the calf in the picture repeatedly bites the cage bars.)  It can be difficult to interpret abnormal behaviour.
  48. 48. Deviations from normal behaviour  The examples of tail-biting and feather- pecking both cause immediate suffering in the victims, but also suggest that the tail- biters’ and feather-peckers’ welfare is compromised.  These abnormal behaviours may not disappear even after the factors that caused restriction or frustration have been removed.
  49. 49. 6.Interaction with humans  Animals learn by experience  Their experience with people enables them to associate humans either with pleasure or with pain and fear  This has been explored in animal welfare science
  50. 50. Behavioural indicators in welfare in comparison with physiological measures Advantages  Easier/less invasive  Requires less equipment  Can be done away from the lab Disadvantages  Interpretation is difficult  Some consider less rigorous
  51. 51. Behavioural indicators for ‘normal’ animal  Alertness  Curiosity  Range of activities  Interaction with other members of the herd/flock  Interaction with humans/Aversion to humans  Play
  52. 52. The ‘normal’ animal: Alertness
  53. 53. The ‘normal’ animal: Curiosity
  54. 54. The ‘normal’ animal: Range of activities
  55. 55. The ‘normal’ animal: Range of activities  Many factors affect the range of activities seen:  Species (for example, a dog has very different activities from a chicken).  Breed.  Age - young animals are more active, more likely to play, and spend more time sleeping.
  56. 56. The ‘normal’ animal: Range of activities  Environment - may be limited to what is available within a pen. Animals in the wild may have adapted to new urban environments.  Group size and interaction (e.g. presence of dominant male and young males).  Season (e.g. breeding, migration).
  57. 57. The ‘normal’ animal: Interaction with other members of group/herd/flock
  58. 58. The ‘normal’ animal: Interaction with other members of group/herd/flock  A number of factors influence interaction between members of the group.  Species: Some are solitary or form small family groups. Others, such as wild dogs, sheep and cattle, live in groups.  Breed.  Size of group: On the farm, group size may be very large (e.g. broiler chickens, dairy herds). Animals get to know individuals in small groups, not in very large groups. Hierarchy can be much better established in small groups.
  59. 59. Interaction with other members of group/herd/flock  Presence or absence of breeding males or dominant adult female to take the lead.  Age range: There may be competition between animals of different ages in a group. For example, older cows may bully heifers when they join the dairy herd and prevent them from feeding.
  60. 60. The ‘normal’ animal: Interaction with humans
  61. 61. The ‘normal’ animal: Interaction with humans  The behaviour of a ‘normal’ animal varies with its previous experience: 1. If never handled or wild, it is likely to be fearful, and may show aggression when cornered. 2. If previous experience with humans has been positive, the animal is likely to be friendly, curious, and will approach a stationary human after a period. 3. If previous experience with humans has been negative, the animal may be fearful and restless or aggressive.
  62. 62. The ‘normal’ animal: Play
  63. 63. The ‘normal’ animal: Play  Young animals tend to play more than adults, and we associate play with a feeling of well- being.  Potential reasons for play include:  To develop activities they will need when older; e.g. young cats learn to hunt by stalking other members of the group or the mother’s tail.  To develop and strengthen muscles (needed for flight, hunting, fighting, etc.).  To strengthen bonds with other members of the group.
  64. 64. Behavioural indicators of poor welfare 1. Limited range of activity 2. Panting and/or sweating 3. Huddling or shivering 4. Depression 5. Abnormal fear or aggression towards humans 6. Stereotypies and other behavioural abnormalities
  65. 65. 1a) Limited range of activity May affect individuals or a whole group, and includes:  Restricted space in intensive farming systems or laboratory housing  Close tethering  Lameness  Increased lying time (due to lameness, disease, obesity or weakness)
  66. 66. 1b) Limited range of activity due to confined housing
  67. 67. Limited range of activity due to confined housing  An animal such as an orang-utan should perform a vast range of activities. A lot of time would be spent travelling through the forest and foraging for suitable feed. When confined to a small cage the animal has few behavioural options.  We intuitively can assume that animals that are prevented from carrying out most of their normal activities will suffer.
  68. 68. Limited range of activity due to confined housing  However, as discussed in module 6 (Behavioural indicators 1), we cannot be sure, and other behavioural and physiological assessment techniques have been used to explore the welfare implications of factors such as confined housing. Animal welfarists would probably all agree that animals should be given the benefit of the doubt and  ‘Freedom to express normal behaviour’ is one of the Five Freedoms revised by FAWC in 1993.
  69. 69. 1c) Limited range of activity due to close tethering
  70. 70. Limited range of activity due to close tethering  Close tethering similarly prevents animals from expressing many forms of natural behaviour. Tethering sows is now banned in countries in the European Union (to come into force in 2006).  The animal in the picture is perhaps showing signs of ‘learned helplessness’ as a result of close tethering. This is a condition where animals lose responsiveness to stimuli, as a result of a prolonged period of being prevented from performing normal activities.
  71. 71. Limited range of activity due to close tethering  Webster (1994) suggests that learned helplessness describes “the state of mind in an animal that has given up” and calls it ‘hopelessness’.  Others have suggested that there may be some adaptive benefit from the state (so that the animal no longer notices its state of deprivation), although this is a contentious viewpoint.
  72. 72. 1d) Limited range of activity due to lameness Lame animals suffer as:  They are in pain  They do not interact normally with other herd members  They are often thin because they cannot move easily to feed  They may suffer urine scalding or develop sores from lying down for long periods
  73. 73. 1e) Increased lying time due to weakness, disease, obesity  Weakness may be the result of chronic starvation  Many diseases cause exhaustion or collapse  Obesity is an important issue among pet animals
  74. 74. 2.Panting and/or sweating  Heat stress  Fever  Overcrowding  Fear Identify the cause by measuring ambient temperature, stocking density, and by clinical examination for other signs of disease
  75. 75. Panting and/or sweating  Identify the causes of panting and/or sweating:  Measure ambient temperature and ventilation.  Measure stocking density (area available for stock divided by number of animals housed).  Measure body temperature of affected animals to check for fever.  Make thorough clinical examination to identify disease (for example respiratory or cardiac problem that may cause panting) or focus of pain. 
  76. 76. 3.Huddling or shivering  Cold  Does not usually affect most animals except in extreme environments  Often affects very young animals  More likely where animals are wet and chilled by wind  More likely if young animals have not been fed  Fear
  77. 77. 4.Depression
  78. 78. Depression  It is not difficult to recognise that animals showing these signs are suffering.  The donkey in the picture is very thin, its coat is in poor condition (perhaps a sign of tick infestation or other disease) and it appears to be lame (right foreleg). It may also be exhausted.
  79. 79. Depression  It shows no interest in the group of people behind it, nor in other donkeys (in the background of the picture).  The ears are not pricked up, nor are they actively following sounds (signs of an alert animal). The eyes are dull. It shows many signs consistent with depression.
  80. 80. Depression signs  Depression can be a clinical sign of disease due to fever, pain, toxaemia or starvation. It demonstrates the following:  Drooping ears  Head down  Standing in hunched posture or collapsed
  81. 81. Depression signs  Listless, not interested in surroundings  Separate from others in group  Does not feed  These generalised clinical signs do not allow the veterinarian to identify the cause of disease.
  82. 82. 5.Abnormal fear or aggression towards humans Normal’ depends upon species, breed and previous contact with humans Animals learn from experience: abnormal fear or aggression may indicate previous cruelty
  83. 83. Negative tactile interactions  Negative interactions for 15 - 30 seconds daily cause pigs to be less willing to approach stationary humans  Positive interactions cause pigs to be more willing to approach stationary humans
  84. 84. 5.Abnormal fear or aggression towards humans ‘Normal’ depends upon species, breed and previous contact with humans. Dairy cows who are frequently handled should not be afraid of people
  85. 85. 6.Stereotypies and other behavioural abnormalities  Stereotypic behaviour are repeated patterns of behaviour that have no apparent purpose. Other behavioural abnormalities include self-mutilation in pets, feather-pecking (chickens) and tail-biting (pigs).
  86. 86. Stereotypies and other behavioural abnormalities  These are complex behaviours whose causes are not fully understood. Tail-biting in pigs, for example, may occur even in rich outdoor environments. Self-mutilation in pets may begin as a response to a genuine irritation, but continues once the irritation is removed (or heals).
  87. 87. Stereotypies and other behavioural abnormalities  Horses display a variety of stereotypies including weaving, crib-biting, and wind- sucking.  These are often associated with loss of body condition and greatly reduce the economic value of affected horses.  Many methods have been tried to control these behaviours – most not completely effective.
  88. 88. Stereotypies and other behavioural abnormalities  Some consider that affected horses derive some satisfaction from these behaviours so should not be stopped from performing them.  at least in part, a sign of frustration or boredom, some are associated directly with suffering (e.g. victims of tail-biting and feather-pecking, self-mutilated pets).  Even young animals may develop stereotypic behaviour if kept in a barren environment. The behaviour may persist even when the animals are moved to an enriched environment (for example, zoo elephants may continue to rock even when offered access to plenty of space and a stimulating environment).
  89. 89. Crib-biting in horse
  90. 90. Conclusion  The behaviour of animals can tell us a great deal about their welfare  If animal behaviour indicates poor welfare, we need to investigate its causes and then identify potential solutions
  91. 91. ‫أبريل‬2007

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