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Anjal Prakash - Dhaka Dialogue, August 21, 2013


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Anjal Prakash - Dhaka Dialogue, August 21, 2013

  1. 1. Workshop on Transnational Policy Dialogue for Improved Water Governance of Brahmaputra River Anjal Prakash and Poulomi Banerjee August 21, 2013 IWFM, BUET, Dhaka, Bangladesh
  2. 2. GBM basin Principal arm of GBM System; Total basin area 651,335 sq km Total 58 tributaries (22 in Tibet, 33 in India and 3 in Bangladesh) China (50%) India (33.6%) Bangladesh (8.1%), Bhutan(7.8%) Unique drainage system that runs diametrically opposite directions Highest specific discharge system in the world , highly braided channels, large flood prone areas, bank erosion, channel migration Seismically unstable zone part of indo-Burma bio diversity hotspots
  3. 3. Arunachal Pradesh(41.95), Assam (36.3%), Meghalaya(6.1%), Nagaland (5.6%), Sikkim (3.8%) west Bengal (6.3%) Accounts 30% of the total water resources and 40 % of the hydel power potential of the country Utilization is much less with <5% in hydropower, 10% in irrigation, 4% groundwater Arunachal Pradesh (69350 sq km ) is the greenest state of the region; it has been called the State with highest hydropower potential of 50,000 MW Assam is the worst flood affected state of the country with 15 major floods (19542012) High dependence on agriculture, widespread practice of traditional farming, low usage of modern farm inputs, inadequate agricultural infrastructure, low productivity, low income
  4. 4. Some facts on Bangladesh part of Brahmaputra basin  Brahmaputra-Jamuna system constitute of Rajshahi, Dhaka and     shyllet divisions of Bangladesh with total catchment area of 5,83,000 sq km Enters at Kurigram district (at the border of Kurigram Sadar and Ulipur upazilas) Brahmaputra-Jamuna is 276 km long, of which Brahmaputra is only 69 km The Teesta is principal tributary inputs, while Old Brahmaputra and the Dhaleswari are major distributaries Experiencing large-scale avulsion, widening and westerly migration and rapid bank erosion in response to large floods
  5. 5. Some facts on Bangladesh part of Brahmaputra basin  Home of over 10 million people  Cultivable area under irrigation is about 0.7 million ha  Major dams/barrages is Jamuna Multipurpose Bridge  Bangladesh Water Development Board (BWDB) and Local Government Engineering Development (LGED) are key actors  National Water Management Plan (NWMP,2004), National Water Policy, 1999
  6. 6. Major issues and concerns Unstable physiography Climate change Water sharing Basin management Rights , acts and policies
  7. 7. Unstable physiographic conditions aggravated by climate change  Rising temperatures, recession of glaciers, intense rainfall triggered by cloud burst impacting the entire eco and human system  Districts of north east India ranked high in agricultural, water and forest vulnerability index  High sesmicity and sedimentation impacting the hydrologic characteristics and morphology of the river  Extreme soil moisture leading to extreme drought condition  Salt water ingression and sea level rise impacting the hydrology of the system
  8. 8. Water sharing and water rights  1977 marked the beginning of official discussion between two countries  On 12 December 1996, Bangladesh and India signed 30 years Ganges, and no further treaty after that  Contentions in water sharing of teesta, Feni (interim agreement of 2011 on sharing of Teesta water for 15 years) rivers  Large scale hydroelectric projects in India and diversion of water to Ganga erupting tensions at different levels  4 hydro power projects (1297MW) on teesta in India have potential conflict
  9. 9. Water Act and Basin Management  Lack of bilateral/multilateral agreements, treaties(none of the riparian countries signed the UN water convention 1997)  Lack of apathy of the government to understand the fragility of the system, widespread corruption, deteriorating law and order and lack of transparency  Technological biasness (India largely focusing on hydro-power ) and its slow reach of leading to poor adaption  Lack of sharing of scientific information  Modification of river flow due to barrage, sluice gate and water retention structures affecting connectivity and river depth
  10. 10. What is required?  Adequate regional and international cooperation  Technical information needs to be strengthened based on the need of the society, ecology and economy  Sharing hydro-meteriological, physical and environmental data across riparian countries  Instead of un fare race of constructing dams proper assessment and reduction of vulnerabilities, empowering local populace are imperative  Basin management should cater to benefits to the river, benefits from the river, reduced cost and benefits beyond the river
  11. 11. Thank You
  12. 12. Actor and Stakeholders’ mapping for Organisationsinstitutions that influence the management of Brahmaputra River Key actors Policy Makers Executors Users Experts What is their mandate? How interested they are in the managemen t? (High, Med, Low) How much power do they have? (High, Med, Low) Degree of Key means to involvement influence (Active, them? Passive, Fence sitter)