Transnational Policy Dialogue for Improved
Water Governance in Brahmaputra River

Water Cooperation for Water Governance

...
Why Water Co-Operation is Needed
Water is a basic human needs
Needs for environment, socio-economic development and
povert...
International Policy Directives for Co-operative Management
 International Conference on Water and the Environment,
Dubli...
International Conference on Water and Environment, Dublin, 1992
 Recommendations for action at local, national and intern...
2nd World Water Forum, Hague, 2000
 Sharing water resources: Promote peaceful co-operation
and develop synergies between ...
International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, 2001


Ministers agreed that ten years after the UN
Conference on Environme...
World Summit on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, 2002



Focus on two themes:
o Green economy in the context of s...
3rd World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, 2003
Debate within the context of the new
commitments of meeting the goals set forth ...
4th World Water Forum, Mexico, 2006
Water management is facing increasing
challenges, including water scarcity, climate
ch...
5th World Water Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, 2009
 Recommendations and commitments for
action on bridging water divides
 By ...
6th World Water Forum, Marseille, France, 2012
The regional & cross-continental coordination:
Asia-Pacific Targets
 Devel...
Ministerial declaration of 6th World Water Forum
 Enhance cooperation across and beyond water, taking
the interests of al...
Water: A Resource Without Borders
 There are 276
transboundary river basins
in the world
 Among them 60 are in Asia
 18...
International Agreements on Water Issues:
Success Stories
Nearly 450 agreements on international
waters were signed betwee...
Basin Information: South Asia
 Ten large Asian river basins systems- Amu
Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Sa...
Major River basins of Asia
Amur

China, Russia

Brahmaputra
Ganges
Indus
Irrawaddy
Mekong

Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, Indi...
Regional Basin Map: South Asia
Challenges of Regional Co-Operation with
Water: South Asia and the Himalayas
• Receding glaciers
• Increased floods
• Inci...
GBM Basins of the Region

India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China

India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China
India, Bangladesh
Catchment areas of Major Rivers
River

Catchment
Area (‘000
Sq. Km)

Brahmaputra

Catchment Area (‘000 Sq. Km)
India

Nepa...
Transboundary River of Bangladesh
Hydrological
Region

No of
Rivers

(%) of total
Trans flow

North West

17

7

North Eas...
Water – Regional Co-Operation Needs
 South Asia region is characterized by numerous
international river basins, many of w...
Regional Water Co-operation: Watershed Management
 To incorporate all of
the physical, political
and economic
characteris...
Cooperation needs for Bangladesh
World Water Forum recommended for building storage reservoir
to store monsoon water which...
Hydro-Power Generation: Regional Co-operation
 Being a lower riparian country it is quite
impossible for Bangladesh to co...
Potential Hydro-power of GBM Basins
Hydro-power : 1,89,000 MW
Ganges Basin
Bangladesh India
17,859 MW (Installed capacity)...
Proposal for Reservoir Construction in Nepal:
Regional Co-operation
 After the devastating floods of 1987 and 1988, a Joi...
Dry season flow augmentation
Ganges Basin
Bangladesh
India
Nepal

Not quantified
1,88,500 Cusec

Brahmaputra and Barak/Meg...
Recent Development for Regional Cooperation
Dialogue is one of the important instruments to initiate
cooperation and build...
Initiative of Abu Dhabi Dialogue
 10-year consensus vision formulated in 2009
of a 'cooperative and knowledge-based
partn...
IUCN Initiative on Bangladesh-India Regional
Co-Operation
16 Situation analysis papers from both countries have
been synth...
What Bangladesh Should Pursue
 Being the lowermost riparian country of the three
mighty Himalayan rivers
 Bangladesh is ...
Way Forward for Water Cooperation
Cooperation is essential to strike a balance between the different needs and priorities
...
Water Cooperation for Water Governance
Thank you
Regional Success Story: Indus Water Treaty
Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was
signed in early 1960 between
India and Pakistan
I...
Mekong River Commission, 1995
 In 1995 Mekong
Agreement, which established
the Mekong River Commission
 Management respo...
Reservoir Locations in Nepal
Proposal of Seven Reservoirs in Nepal by
Bangladesh: Regional Co-Operation
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Pancheswar
Chisapani
Kali...
2013: the Year of Water Co-operation
In designating 2013 as the
UN International Year of
Water Cooperation.
Cooperation is...
Water Governance


Water governance is defined by the
political, social, economic and administrative systems
that are in ...
Water Governance Issues
Decentralization
Multi-stakeholder
Participation
River Basin
Management
Co-Ordination
Gender ...
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Malik Fida A. Khan - Dhaka dialogue, August 21, 2013

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Malik Fida A. Khan - Dhaka dialogue, August 21, 2013

  1. 1. Transnational Policy Dialogue for Improved Water Governance in Brahmaputra River Water Cooperation for Water Governance By Malik Fida A. Khan Director, Climate Change Study Division Center for Environmental and Geographic Information Services
  2. 2. Why Water Co-Operation is Needed Water is a basic human needs Needs for environment, socio-economic development and poverty reduction demands for water are increasing to satisfy the needs of a growing world population Rapid urbanization, pollution and climate change threaten the resource Water is unevenly distributed in time and space Water is a shared resource and its management needs to take a wide variety of conflicting interests
  3. 3. International Policy Directives for Co-operative Management  International Conference on Water and the Environment, Dublin, 1992  1st World Water Forum, Marrakech, Morocco, 1997  2nd World Water Forum, Hague, Netherlands, 2000  International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, 2001  World Summit on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, 2002  3rd World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, 2003  4th World Water Forum, Mexico City, Mexico, 2006  5th World Water Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, 2009  6th World Water Forum, Marseille, France, 2012
  4. 4. International Conference on Water and Environment, Dublin, 1992  Recommendations for action at local, national and international levels to reduce the scarcity, through four guiding principles: o Fresh water is a finite and vulnerable resource, essential to sustain life, development and the environment o Water development and management should be based on a participatory approach, involving users, planners and policy-makers at all levels o Women play a central part in the provision, management and safeguarding of water o Water has an economic value in all its competing uses and should be recognized as an economic good  Major benefits to come from the Dublin recommendations will be: o Water conservation and reuse o Agricultural production and rural water supply o Protecting aquatic ecosystems o Resolving water conflicts
  5. 5. 2nd World Water Forum, Hague, 2000  Sharing water resources: Promote peaceful co-operation and develop synergies between different uses of water at all levels through o Sustainable River Basin Management or other appropriate approaches  Integrated Water Resources Management the forum concluded that: o To achieve IWRM a need for coherent national and, where appropriate, regional and international policies to overcome fragmentation, and for transparent and accountable institutions at all levels
  6. 6. International Conference on Freshwater, Bonn, 2001  Ministers agreed that ten years after the UN Conference on Environment and Development and the Dublin Conference, and  Several years after the global water conferences in Paris and The Hague, there is still o Need for greater commitment to implement commonly agreed principles on water resources management
  7. 7. World Summit on Sustainable Development, Rio de Janeiro, 2002  Focus on two themes: o Green economy in the context of sustainable development and poverty eradication; and o Institutional framework for sustainable development.  Water providing a basic reference relating to international time-bound commitments in the area of water, with a view to facilitating discussion around water resources, management and quality
  8. 8. 3rd World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, 2003 Debate within the context of the new commitments of meeting the goals set forth at    The Millennium Summit of the United Nations in New York (2000) The International Freshwater Conference in Bonn (2001) and The World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg (2002).
  9. 9. 4th World Water Forum, Mexico, 2006 Water management is facing increasing challenges, including water scarcity, climate change, urbanization and decentralization Challenges require more capabilities of people and institutions strengthened at all levels Two major reports were released by the WWC and its partners in 4th WWF-    o o The right to water: from concept to implementation Enhancing access to finance for local governments and financing water for agriculture
  10. 10. 5th World Water Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, 2009  Recommendations and commitments for action on bridging water divides  By the means of oGovernance and Management oFinance oEducation, Knowledge and Capacity Building
  11. 11. 6th World Water Forum, Marseille, France, 2012 The regional & cross-continental coordination: Asia-Pacific Targets  Develop a strategic flood risk-management framework through appropriate policies and practices in the Himalayan region.  Enhance capacity of River Basin Organizations to implement IWRM including adaptation to climate change.
  12. 12. Ministerial declaration of 6th World Water Forum  Enhance cooperation across and beyond water, taking the interests of all riparian States to foster peace and stability.  Cooperative efforts in the field of transboundary waters  Promote and encourage coordinated, equitable, reasonable and optimal water utilization in transboundary basins  Deepening mutual trust among riparian countries and achieve sound cooperation.  Principles of the relevant international Conventions on water can be useful in this regard
  13. 13. Water: A Resource Without Borders  There are 276 transboundary river basins in the world  Among them 60 are in Asia  185 out of the 276 transboundary river basins, about twothirds, are shared by two countries  46% of the globe’s terrestrial surface is covered by transboundary river basins  148 countries include territory within one or more transboundary river basins No of Transboundary River Basin 64 Africa 60 Asia 68 46 38 Europe North South America America
  14. 14. International Agreements on Water Issues: Success Stories Nearly 450 agreements on international waters were signed between 1820 and 2007 (OSU, 2007) Over 90 international water agreements were drawn up to help manage shared water basins on the African continent (UNEP, 2010)
  15. 15. Basin Information: South Asia  Ten large Asian river basins systems- Amu Darya, Indus, Ganges, Brahmaputra, Irrawaddy, Salween, Mekong, Yangtse, Yellow, and Tarim  These basins spread over the countriesAfghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal Myanmar and Pakistan  The river basins cover an area of about 9 million km2  Provides water, ecosystem services, and the basis for livelihoods to a population of around 211 million people in the region  Basins of these rivers provide water to 1.3 billion people, a fifth of the world’s population
  16. 16. Major River basins of Asia Amur China, Russia Brahmaputra Ganges Indus Irrawaddy Mekong Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Nepal Bangladesh, China, India, Nepal India, Pakistan, China China, India, Myanmar Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, Vietnam Salwen Tarim Yangtze Yellow China, Myanmar, Thailand China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan China China
  17. 17. Regional Basin Map: South Asia
  18. 18. Challenges of Regional Co-Operation with Water: South Asia and the Himalayas • Receding glaciers • Increased floods • Incidents of glacial lake bursts over the coming decades climate change • Much less water availability • Occurrence of climatic extremity and variability • Irrigation needs for food security • Supply and sanitation needs • Needs for urbanization and development • Power generation needs • Competing national priorities Socio-Economic Developments • Management mechanisms • Economic Issues • Poverty Reduction Political Dimensions • Political willingness • Conflicts
  19. 19. GBM Basins of the Region India, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China India, Bangladesh, Nepal, China India, Bangladesh
  20. 20. Catchment areas of Major Rivers River Catchment Area (‘000 Sq. Km) Brahmaputra Catchment Area (‘000 Sq. Km) India Nepal Bhutan China Bangladesh 552 195 (35%) - 47 (9%) 271 (49%) 39 (7%) Ganges 1087 860 (79%) 147 (14%) - 34 (3%) 46 (4%) Meghna 82 47 (57%) - - - 35 (43%) 1721 1102 (64%) 147 (9%) 47 (3%) 304 (18%) 120 (7%) Total
  21. 21. Transboundary River of Bangladesh Hydrological Region No of Rivers (%) of total Trans flow North West 17 7 North East 20 6 South West 5 0.1 South East 9 1 Eastern Hill 3 0.5 River and Estuary 2 86 North Central 1 South Central -
  22. 22. Water – Regional Co-Operation Needs  South Asia region is characterized by numerous international river basins, many of which are shared with countries beyond the region  Several countries have almost 100% of their territory and population within international basins (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Pakistan)  Seven countries share rivers in the Himalayas  As the populations and economies of countries grow, they will undoubtedly intensify.
  23. 23. Regional Water Co-operation: Watershed Management  To incorporate all of the physical, political and economic characteristics for a river basin, a process for co-operative watershed management is vital.  For this, water should be managed based on river basins, not only on administrative boundaries. Integrated Water Resources Management Co-operative basin based management Equitable Sharing of Water in transboundary issues
  24. 24. Cooperation needs for Bangladesh World Water Forum recommended for building storage reservoir to store monsoon water which would help to       Moderate floods Augment dry season flows Generate hydro-power Improve navigation facilities Increase fish production Improve environment etc. Bangladesh is holding discussion with the co-riparian countries with a view to jointly develop water storage projects at suitable locations in the upstream regions to get the above benefits on an equity basis.
  25. 25. Hydro-Power Generation: Regional Co-operation  Being a lower riparian country it is quite impossible for Bangladesh to construct a hydro power plant in the flat topography  Bangladesh can purchase electricity generated by Nepali and Indian hydro power plants  Bangladesh has already started negotiation with India and Bangladesh for hydro power market  The negotiation need to be done at basin level as common rivers are shared by the countries
  26. 26. Potential Hydro-power of GBM Basins Hydro-power : 1,89,000 MW Ganges Basin Bangladesh India 17,859 MW (Installed capacity) Nepal 83,000 MW (Maximum potential) 42,000 MW (Project so far identified) Brahmaputra and Barak/Meghna Basins Bangladesh India 58,200 MW (Installed capacity) Bhutan 30,000 MW (Potential) 23,760 MW (Technically & Economically feasible for immediate development)
  27. 27. Proposal for Reservoir Construction in Nepal: Regional Co-operation  After the devastating floods of 1987 and 1988, a Joint Nepal – Bangladesh Study was conducted on flood Mitigation Measures and multipurpose use of Water Resources. The Joint Study Report was accepted by the two Governments.  The Study recommended 30 potential reservoir sites in Nepal foro Moderation of floods o Augmentation of dry season flows o Generation of hydro power
  28. 28. Dry season flow augmentation Ganges Basin Bangladesh India Nepal Not quantified 1,88,500 Cusec Brahmaputra and Barak/Meghna basin Bangladesh India 1,45,000 cusec Bhutan Not available
  29. 29. Recent Development for Regional Cooperation Dialogue is one of the important instruments to initiate cooperation and building trust Track I: Formal and informal processes of governments (Official) Track II: Interactive forums but led by an actor closely aligned with States (Semi official) Track III: Research, dial ogue and advocacy efforts led by civil society (unofficial) Track IV: Civil society organisations supporting locally-led governance processes (Unofficial)
  30. 30. Initiative of Abu Dhabi Dialogue  10-year consensus vision formulated in 2009 of a 'cooperative and knowledge-based partnership of states fairly managing and developing the Himalayan River systems'  Agreements on specific actions to advance the water cooperation agenda are also included
  31. 31. IUCN Initiative on Bangladesh-India Regional Co-Operation 16 Situation analysis papers from both countries have been synthesized to produce on five thematic area 1. Water productivity and poverty 2. Climate change 3. Inland navigation 4. Environmental security 5. Biodiversity conservation
  32. 32. What Bangladesh Should Pursue  Being the lowermost riparian country of the three mighty Himalayan rivers  Bangladesh is pursuing since long time to form o River Basin Commission or o River Basin Organization or o River Basin Institute  Bangladesh and India have signed a Framework Agreement on Cooperation for Development in September 2011
  33. 33. Way Forward for Water Cooperation Cooperation is essential to strike a balance between the different needs and priorities and share this precious resource equitably, using water as an instrument of peace Promotion of scientific research among the transboundary countries which evolve the mutual trust for water cooperation Dialogue should act as triggering instrument for initiation and building up consensus for water cooperation of transboundary rivers Water sharing should not be limited between the tranboundary countries, a reasonable quantum of water should also be allocated to the river as “share of the river”. Signed agreement/treaties should by revisited to revise the treaties as per changed environment. Formulation of Win-Win Situation by all the countries by agreement of the political level on a common agenda To achieve a realistic regional cooperation for long term and sustainable water resources management regional empathy and co-operation is necessary
  34. 34. Water Cooperation for Water Governance
  35. 35. Thank you
  36. 36. Regional Success Story: Indus Water Treaty Indus Waters Treaty (IWT) was signed in early 1960 between India and Pakistan IWT allocated exclusive use of three eastern rivers (Ravi, Sutlej and Beas) to India and three western rivers (Indus, Jhelum, Chenab) to Pakistan
  37. 37. Mekong River Commission, 1995  In 1995 Mekong Agreement, which established the Mekong River Commission  Management responsibility to its four member CountriesCambodia, Lao PDR, Thailand and Viet Nam  MRC shifted the focus from development of large-scale projects to sustainable development and management of natural resources
  38. 38. Reservoir Locations in Nepal
  39. 39. Proposal of Seven Reservoirs in Nepal by Bangladesh: Regional Co-Operation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Pancheswar Chisapani Kaligandhaki-1 Kaligandhaki-1 Seti Trisulganga Saptikosi
  40. 40. 2013: the Year of Water Co-operation In designating 2013 as the UN International Year of Water Cooperation. Cooperation is essential to strike a balance between the different needs and priorities and share this precious resource equitably, using water as an instrument of peace Needs and Priorities Peace Equitable Sharing
  41. 41. Water Governance  Water governance is defined by the political, social, economic and administrative systems that are in place, and which directly or indirectly affect the use, development and management of water resources  Water sector is a part of broader social, political and economic developments and is also affected by decisions outside of the water sector  It can be done at local, national, regional, basin and international level.
  42. 42. Water Governance Issues Decentralization Multi-stakeholder Participation River Basin Management Co-Ordination Gender Equity Reduce mismanagement and corruption between and among Government Civil society Private companies Policy Development and implementation Knowledge Development and Capacity Building Integrity, Transparency and Accountability Assessment and Monitoring Develop, dissemin ate, promote application of tools, methodologie s and knowledge; Build knowledge platform to share experience Document and distribute good practice Through practical tools, applied research, capacity development

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