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THE
GANGES
The Ganges
Length          : Over 2500 km
Drainage        : Dendritic pattern
Ambala          : Water divide between
                 Indus and Ganga
Length of plains: 1800 km
Fall in slope   : Hardly 300 metres,
                   i.e.one metre for every
                   6 km therefore ,the river
                   develops large meanders
River Indus




          Am
            ba
              la
                   wa
                     ter
                           div
Ri                               ide
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    rG
         an
           ga
The Ganga River System
The Ganges river is one of
   the largest and by far the
most important rivers in India.
  She has been a symbol of
 India’s age long culture and
  civilization, ever changing,
ever flowing, and yet ever the
          same Ganga.
The river Ganges is officially
  and popularly known by it’s
   hindu name,Ganga. The
  Ganges is 1560 miles long
   and flows through China,
India, Nepal and Bangladesh.
  The river flows through 29
  cities and about 48 towns.
RELIGIOUS IMPORTANCE
Hindus, who constitute the
  vast majority of India's
 population, consider the
  Ganges a sacred river:
 Ganga (or Ganges) is the
 daughter of the mountain
god, Himavan or Himalaya.
Every day people bathe in
  the sacred water believing
  that it will wash away their
sins. It is believed that even a
few drops on their tongue will
 clean their bodies. To bathe
   in the Ganga is a lifelong
      ambition for Hindus.
It is believed that any water
 that mixes with the smallest
    amount of Ganges river
  becomes holy with healing
powers. Hindus also cast the
   ashes of their dead in the
river in the belief that this will
      guide the souls of the
    deceased to paradise.
The Ganges has been used
 for irrigation since ancient
 times, the use of irrigation
  canals has increased the
production of cash crops like
   sugarcane, cotton and
           oilseeds.
Floods of the Ganges have
enriched thethe Ganges have
     Floods of soil. This makes
the Ganges Valley amakes the
  enriched the soil. This great
 Ganges Valley a great agricultural
agricultural region in India.
           region in India.
Fishing also is an important
use of the Ganges. The
Ganges is also a burial
ground for the dead.
Drinking- Many cities get their
   drinking water from the
  Ganges, which is a large
problem because the water is
very polluted in some parts of
         the Ganges.
Energy-Only 20% of the
 estimated capacity of dams
has been developed. At the
  upper part of the Ganges
River, electricity is generated
   at the waterfalls of the
        Ganges River.
Gangotri glacier
GANGOTRI GLACIERS
Gnagotri glacier
Melt waters from Gangotri glacier
Source of river Ganga
The source of the river Bhagirathi. Gaumukh ("The mouth of a cow") is
the cave in the glacier, from which the river emerges in full force.
Bhagirathi river in the Himalayas falling down a cliff
in Gangotri, Uttaranchal, India.
Bhagirathi river cutting through rocks
The Bhagirathi River
Source of Alaknanda river
Alkapuri, the origin of Alaknanda river.
The five river confluences of
Alakananda are Vishnu Prayag,
Nandaprayag, Karnaprayag,
Rudraprayag and Devaprayag… All
five along the path of the
Alakananda river, that goes on
assimilating other rivers… Till it
reaches Devaprayag, where
Alakandanda meets Bhagirathi and
thereon, is known as Ganga.
It is the confluence of the
Dhauliganga with the Alaknanda.
Vishnu Prayag




                                  Vishnu Prayag,
It is the confluence of the Dhauliganga with the Alaknanda.
Vishnu Prayag,
(confluence of Alakananda and Nandakini.
(Pindari) river ) Nandaprayag
Nandaprayag
The confluence of Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers. karnaprayag
Alaknanda River
RIVER RAFTING >> GANGA-ALAKNANDA
Stones under water. Beautiful patterns of filtered sunlight on the submerged ...
RUDRAPRAYAG Confluence of Mandakini and Alaknanda river
Neelkanth Parvat & Badrinath Temple
BADRINATH - ALAKNANDA RIVER
Alaknanda River, Garhwal,
The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers.

                               DEVAPRAYAG
Alakananda river


Bagirathi river



                  Devaprayag the confluence
                  of the two rivers
The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers DEVAPRAYAG
River Alakananda & River Bagirathi meet at the river
confluence Of Devaprayag and from here it flows as
River Ganga.
The headwaters of the
Ganga called the ‘Bhagirathi’
is fed by the Gangotri Glacier
 and joined by the Alaknanda
       at Devaprayag in
 Uttaranchal. At Haridwar the
   Ganga emerges from the
  mountains on to the plains.
Ganga at Haridwar
Flowing through the valley to flow through
the plains at Rishikesh
fans
        l
       ia
 ll uv
A
Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries at
Haridwar
Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries at
Haridwar
The Ganga is joined by many
      tributaries from the
  Himalayas, a few of them
       being major rivers
  such as the Yamuna, the
Ghaghara, the Ghandak and
 the Kosi. The river Yamuna
   rises from the Yamunotri
  Glacier in the Himalayas.
Ganga Yamuna Sangam
Ganga Yamuna Sangam
Ganga Yamuna Sangam at Allahabad
YAMUNOTRI GLACIER
MAMALLAPURAM
A scene carved into rocks
 near Mamallapuram, India,
  depicts the descent of the
sacred river Ganges from the
   Himalayas. Following a
natural crack in the rock, the
 carving is 6 m (20 ft) high.
It depicts gods, celestial
beings, and animals gathered
  along the river’s (Ganges)
path. The carvings date from
   the 7th century AD. The
        monuments of
 Mamallapuram are excellent
specimen of Dravidian temple
architecture and Pallava art.
THE GANGES AT ROME
The picture shows River
   Ganges as visualised by
Bernini. It symbolises four of
 the world’s great rivers (the
Ganges, the Nile, the Danube
 and the Plata), representing
the four continents known at
           the time.
River yamuna at yamunotri
RIVER YAMUNA
VARANASI
Varanasi is probably one of
the most ancient living cities
 in India. Varanasi is closely
associated with Ganges. The
    temple town has many
 temples along the banks of
         the Ganges.
Varanasi is situated on the
crescent shaped left bank of
 the holy Ganga, it is one of
the ancient seats of learning
    in India, it is said to be
 respectively a compound of
  the names of two streams,
   the Varuna and the Assi,
         which still flow.
Till May 24, 1956, Varanasi
   was known by the name
      Banarus. From time
 immemorial Varanasi, has
been a great religious center
 for Hindus and one of their
     most sacred places of
pilgrimage, visited by millions
          each year.
Himalayan tributaries of
     River Ganga
Yamuna river
Ghaghara river
Gandak river / kali river
Kosi river
Tributaries from the
Peninsular Uplands
River Chambal a Tributary of Yamuna
River Chambal
River Betwa a Tributary of Yamuna
River Betwa
River son
River son a tributary of Ganga
Farakka Dam
Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
After Ganga- Brahmaputra (Padma)has merged the combined
river is known as Meghna River
After Ganga- Brahmaputra has merged the
combined river is known as Meghna River
Meghna River
Meghna river is one of the
 major rivers in Bangladesh,
specially famous for it’s great
 estaury that discharges the
   flow of Ganga-Padma,
 Brahmaputra-Jamuna and
  the Meghna itself. It is a
      flood-prone river.
The downstream of Surma
 river from Ajmiriganj is often
  referred to as the Meghna.
  The Meghna has 2 distinct
parts: the Upper Meghna and
      the Lower Meghna.
The Upper Meghna from
   Kuliarchar to Shatnol is a
   comparatively small river.
  The Lower Meghna below
 Shatnol is one of the largest
rivers in the world because of
 its wide estuary mouth. The
   Lower Meghna is at times
 treated as a separate river.
There are two major dams on
the Ganga. One at Haridwar
      diverts much of the
Himalayan snowmelt into the
Upper Ganges Canal, built by
 the British in 1854 to irrigate
    the surrounding land.
The other dam is a serious
     hydroelectric affair at
  Farakka, close to the point
  where the main flow of the
river enters Bangladesh, and
  the tributary Hooghly (also
     known as Bhagirathi)
   continues in West Bengal
         past Calcutta.
THE SUNDERBAN DELTA
The Sunderbans delta is the
  largest mangrove forest in
the world. It lies at the mouth
 of the Ganges and is spread
 across areas of Bangladesh
 and West Bengal, India. It is
largely a tangled swampland.
The silt deposits of the delta
 covers an area of 23000 sq
miles. The river courses in the
  delta are broad and active,
   carrying a vast amount of
water. The rains from June to
  October cause most of the
 Bangladeshi delta region to
             flood.
On the seaward side of the
 delta are swamplands and
     tidal forests called
  Sunderbans. The delta
experiences strong cyclonic
storms before and after the
monsoon season, which can
       be devastating.
GANGES RIVER DELTA
The Ganges Fan is a large
 submarine accumulation of
sediment at the northern end
  of the Bay of Bengal, and
stretches from India, through
  Bangladesh, to Myanmar
 from west to east, and past
    Sri Lanka to the south.
The sediment is carried
      through a series of
underwater canyons, some of
  which are more than 1500
  miles (2,414km) in length.
(the Ganges Fan is not to be
  confused with the Ganges
            Delta.)
GANGES CANAL
Ganges Canal was dug from
 Haridwar to Kanpur in later
  half of 19th century and a
 very wide network of small
     tributary canals were
 constructed from the main
  canal to act as source of
irrigation in the fertile plains
 of Western Uttar Pradesh .
This canal is still supplying
water to thousands of villages
in western Uttar Pradesh and
  water of Ganga, flowing in
this canal, is in true sense the
    life line of western Uttar
     Pradesh an area which
  played a central role in the
  Green revolution of India.
HOW CLEAN ARE OUR
   WATERS???
Pollution of the Ganges has
  become so serious that
 bathing in and drinking it’s
  water has become very
   dangerous. The major
polluting industry along the
   Ganges is the leather
  industry especially near
           Kanpur.
In Kanpur, hides of goats,
horses and cows are bought
   in for tanning. The large
amount of water used in this
    process, mixed in with
 chemicals are dumped into
          the Ganges.
A recent study has proved
 that the amount of sewage
   flowing in Ganges has
doubled since 1985. Nearly 1
    billion liters of mostly
 untreated raw sewage that
enters the sewage everyday.
Also, inadequate cremation
 procedures contributes to a
   large number of partially
   burnt or unburnt corpses
floating down the Ganga, not
to mention livestock corpses.
There has been many clean
   up acts, such as GAP
(Ganges Action Plan) and the
 Oswald Plan. The GAP act
       began in 1985.
The GAP act was meant to
   clean up India’s most
  important river, but after
 twelve years of work and
 $300 million funding, the
GAP has achieved very few
      of it’s objectives.
The Oswald plan was to
release thousands of turtles,
 which were supposed to eat
the rotting corpses floating in
   the water. Some people
thought that the turtles would
        leave the area.
In November 1991 a survey
that was conducted showed
   that 60% of the turtles
 remained in Varanasi area
 and were seen nibbling on
        human flesh.
Hopefully, in the future the
river Ganges will be as clean
   as the Hindu pilgrimages
  believe it to be. It maybe a
      while but with more
coordinated effort the waters
 of the Ganges will be clean.
Can we help???
Central government approves Rs 7K crore for cleaning Ganga
The Ganga will flow clean and free from pollution
by 2020, ...???
The Ganges River, considered to be sacred in
India is getting a $1 billion clean up loan from
the World Bank.
The Ganges River (or Ganga as it also called)
is 2500 km long and has incredibley high
pollution, everything from industrial
chemicals to raw sewage. The $1billion World
Bank Ganga River Loan will support the clean
up efforts launched by the Indian government.
Clean up efforts that inlcude building water
treatment plants, fixing dams and other water
quality improvement measures.
“ Environmentalists say
the river supports over
400 million people, and
if the unabated pollution
is not controlled, it will
be the end of communities
“Let each one of us be
responsible and ensure
we are not contributors
  to pollution of our
    environment.”

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The Ganga System

  • 2. The Ganges Length : Over 2500 km Drainage : Dendritic pattern Ambala : Water divide between Indus and Ganga Length of plains: 1800 km Fall in slope : Hardly 300 metres, i.e.one metre for every 6 km therefore ,the river develops large meanders
  • 3. River Indus Am ba la wa ter div Ri ide ve rG an ga
  • 5. The Ganges river is one of the largest and by far the most important rivers in India. She has been a symbol of India’s age long culture and civilization, ever changing, ever flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga.
  • 6. The river Ganges is officially and popularly known by it’s hindu name,Ganga. The Ganges is 1560 miles long and flows through China, India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The river flows through 29 cities and about 48 towns.
  • 7.
  • 8.
  • 10.
  • 11. Hindus, who constitute the vast majority of India's population, consider the Ganges a sacred river: Ganga (or Ganges) is the daughter of the mountain god, Himavan or Himalaya.
  • 12. Every day people bathe in the sacred water believing that it will wash away their sins. It is believed that even a few drops on their tongue will clean their bodies. To bathe in the Ganga is a lifelong ambition for Hindus.
  • 13. It is believed that any water that mixes with the smallest amount of Ganges river becomes holy with healing powers. Hindus also cast the ashes of their dead in the river in the belief that this will guide the souls of the deceased to paradise.
  • 14.
  • 15. The Ganges has been used for irrigation since ancient times, the use of irrigation canals has increased the production of cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds.
  • 16. Floods of the Ganges have enriched thethe Ganges have Floods of soil. This makes the Ganges Valley amakes the enriched the soil. This great Ganges Valley a great agricultural agricultural region in India. region in India. Fishing also is an important use of the Ganges. The Ganges is also a burial ground for the dead.
  • 17.
  • 18.
  • 19. Drinking- Many cities get their drinking water from the Ganges, which is a large problem because the water is very polluted in some parts of the Ganges.
  • 20. Energy-Only 20% of the estimated capacity of dams has been developed. At the upper part of the Ganges River, electricity is generated at the waterfalls of the Ganges River.
  • 24. Melt waters from Gangotri glacier
  • 26.
  • 27.
  • 28. The source of the river Bhagirathi. Gaumukh ("The mouth of a cow") is the cave in the glacier, from which the river emerges in full force.
  • 29. Bhagirathi river in the Himalayas falling down a cliff in Gangotri, Uttaranchal, India.
  • 30. Bhagirathi river cutting through rocks
  • 33. Alkapuri, the origin of Alaknanda river.
  • 34. The five river confluences of Alakananda are Vishnu Prayag, Nandaprayag, Karnaprayag, Rudraprayag and Devaprayag… All five along the path of the Alakananda river, that goes on assimilating other rivers… Till it reaches Devaprayag, where Alakandanda meets Bhagirathi and thereon, is known as Ganga.
  • 35. It is the confluence of the Dhauliganga with the Alaknanda. Vishnu Prayag Vishnu Prayag,
  • 36. It is the confluence of the Dhauliganga with the Alaknanda. Vishnu Prayag,
  • 37. (confluence of Alakananda and Nandakini. (Pindari) river ) Nandaprayag
  • 39. The confluence of Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers. karnaprayag
  • 40.
  • 41.
  • 43. RIVER RAFTING >> GANGA-ALAKNANDA
  • 44. Stones under water. Beautiful patterns of filtered sunlight on the submerged ...
  • 45. RUDRAPRAYAG Confluence of Mandakini and Alaknanda river
  • 46. Neelkanth Parvat & Badrinath Temple
  • 49.
  • 50. The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers. DEVAPRAYAG
  • 51. Alakananda river Bagirathi river Devaprayag the confluence of the two rivers
  • 52. The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers DEVAPRAYAG
  • 53. River Alakananda & River Bagirathi meet at the river confluence Of Devaprayag and from here it flows as River Ganga.
  • 54.
  • 55. The headwaters of the Ganga called the ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttaranchal. At Haridwar the Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains.
  • 57. Flowing through the valley to flow through the plains at Rishikesh
  • 58. fans l ia ll uv A
  • 59.
  • 60. Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries at Haridwar
  • 61.
  • 62. Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries at Haridwar
  • 63. The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Ghandak and the Kosi. The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas.
  • 66.
  • 67. Ganga Yamuna Sangam at Allahabad
  • 70. A scene carved into rocks near Mamallapuram, India, depicts the descent of the sacred river Ganges from the Himalayas. Following a natural crack in the rock, the carving is 6 m (20 ft) high.
  • 71. It depicts gods, celestial beings, and animals gathered along the river’s (Ganges) path. The carvings date from the 7th century AD. The monuments of Mamallapuram are excellent specimen of Dravidian temple architecture and Pallava art.
  • 73. The picture shows River Ganges as visualised by Bernini. It symbolises four of the world’s great rivers (the Ganges, the Nile, the Danube and the Plata), representing the four continents known at the time.
  • 74. River yamuna at yamunotri
  • 77.
  • 78. Varanasi is probably one of the most ancient living cities in India. Varanasi is closely associated with Ganges. The temple town has many temples along the banks of the Ganges.
  • 79.
  • 80. Varanasi is situated on the crescent shaped left bank of the holy Ganga, it is one of the ancient seats of learning in India, it is said to be respectively a compound of the names of two streams, the Varuna and the Assi, which still flow.
  • 81. Till May 24, 1956, Varanasi was known by the name Banarus. From time immemorial Varanasi, has been a great religious center for Hindus and one of their most sacred places of pilgrimage, visited by millions each year.
  • 85. Gandak river / kali river
  • 88. River Chambal a Tributary of Yamuna
  • 90. River Betwa a Tributary of Yamuna
  • 93. River son a tributary of Ganga
  • 95. Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
  • 96. Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
  • 97. After Ganga- Brahmaputra (Padma)has merged the combined river is known as Meghna River
  • 98. After Ganga- Brahmaputra has merged the combined river is known as Meghna River
  • 100. Meghna river is one of the major rivers in Bangladesh, specially famous for it’s great estaury that discharges the flow of Ganga-Padma, Brahmaputra-Jamuna and the Meghna itself. It is a flood-prone river.
  • 101. The downstream of Surma river from Ajmiriganj is often referred to as the Meghna. The Meghna has 2 distinct parts: the Upper Meghna and the Lower Meghna.
  • 102. The Upper Meghna from Kuliarchar to Shatnol is a comparatively small river. The Lower Meghna below Shatnol is one of the largest rivers in the world because of its wide estuary mouth. The Lower Meghna is at times treated as a separate river.
  • 103. There are two major dams on the Ganga. One at Haridwar diverts much of the Himalayan snowmelt into the Upper Ganges Canal, built by the British in 1854 to irrigate the surrounding land.
  • 104. The other dam is a serious hydroelectric affair at Farakka, close to the point where the main flow of the river enters Bangladesh, and the tributary Hooghly (also known as Bhagirathi) continues in West Bengal past Calcutta.
  • 106.
  • 107. The Sunderbans delta is the largest mangrove forest in the world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and is spread across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. It is largely a tangled swampland.
  • 108. The silt deposits of the delta covers an area of 23000 sq miles. The river courses in the delta are broad and active, carrying a vast amount of water. The rains from June to October cause most of the Bangladeshi delta region to flood.
  • 109. On the seaward side of the delta are swamplands and tidal forests called Sunderbans. The delta experiences strong cyclonic storms before and after the monsoon season, which can be devastating.
  • 111. The Ganges Fan is a large submarine accumulation of sediment at the northern end of the Bay of Bengal, and stretches from India, through Bangladesh, to Myanmar from west to east, and past Sri Lanka to the south.
  • 112. The sediment is carried through a series of underwater canyons, some of which are more than 1500 miles (2,414km) in length. (the Ganges Fan is not to be confused with the Ganges Delta.)
  • 114. Ganges Canal was dug from Haridwar to Kanpur in later half of 19th century and a very wide network of small tributary canals were constructed from the main canal to act as source of irrigation in the fertile plains of Western Uttar Pradesh .
  • 115.
  • 116. This canal is still supplying water to thousands of villages in western Uttar Pradesh and water of Ganga, flowing in this canal, is in true sense the life line of western Uttar Pradesh an area which played a central role in the Green revolution of India.
  • 117. HOW CLEAN ARE OUR WATERS???
  • 118. Pollution of the Ganges has become so serious that bathing in and drinking it’s water has become very dangerous. The major polluting industry along the Ganges is the leather industry especially near Kanpur.
  • 119. In Kanpur, hides of goats, horses and cows are bought in for tanning. The large amount of water used in this process, mixed in with chemicals are dumped into the Ganges.
  • 120.
  • 121. A recent study has proved that the amount of sewage flowing in Ganges has doubled since 1985. Nearly 1 billion liters of mostly untreated raw sewage that enters the sewage everyday.
  • 122.
  • 123. Also, inadequate cremation procedures contributes to a large number of partially burnt or unburnt corpses floating down the Ganga, not to mention livestock corpses.
  • 124.
  • 125.
  • 126. There has been many clean up acts, such as GAP (Ganges Action Plan) and the Oswald Plan. The GAP act began in 1985.
  • 127. The GAP act was meant to clean up India’s most important river, but after twelve years of work and $300 million funding, the GAP has achieved very few of it’s objectives.
  • 128. The Oswald plan was to release thousands of turtles, which were supposed to eat the rotting corpses floating in the water. Some people thought that the turtles would leave the area.
  • 129. In November 1991 a survey that was conducted showed that 60% of the turtles remained in Varanasi area and were seen nibbling on human flesh.
  • 130. Hopefully, in the future the river Ganges will be as clean as the Hindu pilgrimages believe it to be. It maybe a while but with more coordinated effort the waters of the Ganges will be clean.
  • 131.
  • 132.
  • 133.
  • 134.
  • 135.
  • 136.
  • 137.
  • 138.
  • 139.
  • 140.
  • 141.
  • 142.
  • 143.
  • 145.
  • 146. Central government approves Rs 7K crore for cleaning Ganga
  • 147. The Ganga will flow clean and free from pollution by 2020, ...???
  • 148. The Ganges River, considered to be sacred in India is getting a $1 billion clean up loan from the World Bank. The Ganges River (or Ganga as it also called) is 2500 km long and has incredibley high pollution, everything from industrial chemicals to raw sewage. The $1billion World Bank Ganga River Loan will support the clean up efforts launched by the Indian government. Clean up efforts that inlcude building water treatment plants, fixing dams and other water quality improvement measures.
  • 149. “ Environmentalists say the river supports over 400 million people, and if the unabated pollution is not controlled, it will be the end of communities
  • 150. “Let each one of us be responsible and ensure we are not contributors to pollution of our environment.”