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The Ganga System


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this helps students of IX CBSE to visualise the picturesqueness the Ganga river system from its source to its delta and the role of each individual to preserve the holy river

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The Ganga System

  2. 2. The GangesLength : Over 2500 kmDrainage : Dendritic patternAmbala : Water divide between Indus and GangaLength of plains: 1800 kmFall in slope : Hardly 300 metres, metre for every 6 km therefore ,the river develops large meanders
  3. 3. River Indus Am ba la wa ter divRi ide ve rG an ga
  4. 4. The Ganga River System
  5. 5. The Ganges river is one of the largest and by far themost important rivers in India. She has been a symbol of India’s age long culture and civilization, ever changing,ever flowing, and yet ever the same Ganga.
  6. 6. The river Ganges is officially and popularly known by it’s hindu name,Ganga. The Ganges is 1560 miles long and flows through China,India, Nepal and Bangladesh. The river flows through 29 cities and about 48 towns.
  8. 8. Hindus, who constitute the vast majority of Indias population, consider the Ganges a sacred river: Ganga (or Ganges) is the daughter of the mountaingod, Himavan or Himalaya.
  9. 9. Every day people bathe in the sacred water believing that it will wash away theirsins. It is believed that even afew drops on their tongue will clean their bodies. To bathe in the Ganga is a lifelong ambition for Hindus.
  10. 10. It is believed that any water that mixes with the smallest amount of Ganges river becomes holy with healingpowers. Hindus also cast the ashes of their dead in theriver in the belief that this will guide the souls of the deceased to paradise.
  11. 11. The Ganges has been used for irrigation since ancient times, the use of irrigation canals has increased theproduction of cash crops like sugarcane, cotton and oilseeds.
  12. 12. Floods of the Ganges haveenriched thethe Ganges have Floods of soil. This makesthe Ganges Valley amakes the enriched the soil. This great Ganges Valley a great agriculturalagricultural region in India. region in India.Fishing also is an importantuse of the Ganges. TheGanges is also a burialground for the dead.
  13. 13. Drinking- Many cities get their drinking water from the Ganges, which is a largeproblem because the water isvery polluted in some parts of the Ganges.
  14. 14. Energy-Only 20% of the estimated capacity of damshas been developed. At the upper part of the GangesRiver, electricity is generated at the waterfalls of the Ganges River.
  15. 15. Gangotri glacier
  17. 17. Gnagotri glacier
  18. 18. Melt waters from Gangotri glacier
  19. 19. Source of river Ganga
  20. 20. The source of the river Bhagirathi. Gaumukh ("The mouth of a cow") isthe cave in the glacier, from which the river emerges in full force.
  21. 21. Bhagirathi river in the Himalayas falling down a cliffin Gangotri, Uttaranchal, India.
  22. 22. Bhagirathi river cutting through rocks
  23. 23. The Bhagirathi River
  24. 24. Source of Alaknanda river
  25. 25. Alkapuri, the origin of Alaknanda river.
  26. 26. The five river confluences ofAlakananda are Vishnu Prayag,Nandaprayag, Karnaprayag,Rudraprayag and Devaprayag… Allfive along the path of theAlakananda river, that goes onassimilating other rivers… Till itreaches Devaprayag, whereAlakandanda meets Bhagirathi andthereon, is known as Ganga.
  27. 27. It is the confluence of theDhauliganga with the Alaknanda.Vishnu Prayag Vishnu Prayag,
  28. 28. It is the confluence of the Dhauliganga with the Alaknanda.Vishnu Prayag,
  29. 29. (confluence of Alakananda and Nandakini.(Pindari) river ) Nandaprayag
  30. 30. Nandaprayag
  31. 31. The confluence of Alaknanda and Mandakini rivers. karnaprayag
  32. 32. Alaknanda River
  34. 34. Stones under water. Beautiful patterns of filtered sunlight on the submerged ...
  35. 35. RUDRAPRAYAG Confluence of Mandakini and Alaknanda river
  36. 36. Neelkanth Parvat & Badrinath Temple
  38. 38. Alaknanda River, Garhwal,
  39. 39. The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers. DEVAPRAYAG
  40. 40. Alakananda riverBagirathi river Devaprayag the confluence of the two rivers
  41. 41. The confluence of Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers DEVAPRAYAG
  42. 42. River Alakananda & River Bagirathi meet at the riverconfluence Of Devaprayag and from here it flows asRiver Ganga.
  43. 43. The headwaters of theGanga called the ‘Bhagirathi’is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttaranchal. At Haridwar the Ganga emerges from the mountains on to the plains.
  44. 44. Ganga at Haridwar
  45. 45. Flowing through the valley to flow throughthe plains at Rishikesh
  46. 46. fans l ia ll uvA
  47. 47. Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries atHaridwar
  48. 48. Gnaga leaves the mountains and joins its tributaries atHaridwar
  49. 49. The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers such as the Yamuna, theGhaghara, the Ghandak and the Kosi. The river Yamuna rises from the Yamunotri Glacier in the Himalayas.
  50. 50. Ganga Yamuna Sangam
  51. 51. Ganga Yamuna Sangam
  52. 52. Ganga Yamuna Sangam at Allahabad
  55. 55. A scene carved into rocks near Mamallapuram, India, depicts the descent of thesacred river Ganges from the Himalayas. Following anatural crack in the rock, the carving is 6 m (20 ft) high.
  56. 56. It depicts gods, celestialbeings, and animals gathered along the river’s (Ganges)path. The carvings date from the 7th century AD. The monuments of Mamallapuram are excellentspecimen of Dravidian templearchitecture and Pallava art.
  58. 58. The picture shows River Ganges as visualised byBernini. It symbolises four of the world’s great rivers (theGanges, the Nile, the Danube and the Plata), representingthe four continents known at the time.
  59. 59. River yamuna at yamunotri
  60. 60. RIVER YAMUNA
  61. 61. VARANASI
  62. 62. Varanasi is probably one ofthe most ancient living cities in India. Varanasi is closelyassociated with Ganges. The temple town has many temples along the banks of the Ganges.
  63. 63. Varanasi is situated on thecrescent shaped left bank of the holy Ganga, it is one ofthe ancient seats of learning in India, it is said to be respectively a compound of the names of two streams, the Varuna and the Assi, which still flow.
  64. 64. Till May 24, 1956, Varanasi was known by the name Banarus. From time immemorial Varanasi, hasbeen a great religious center for Hindus and one of their most sacred places ofpilgrimage, visited by millions each year.
  65. 65. Himalayan tributaries of River Ganga
  66. 66. Yamuna river
  67. 67. Ghaghara river
  68. 68. Gandak river / kali river
  69. 69. Kosi river
  70. 70. Tributaries from thePeninsular Uplands
  71. 71. River Chambal a Tributary of Yamuna
  72. 72. River Chambal
  73. 73. River Betwa a Tributary of Yamuna
  74. 74. River Betwa
  75. 75. River son
  76. 76. River son a tributary of Ganga
  77. 77. Farakka Dam
  78. 78. Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
  79. 79. Bhagirathi – Hoogly a distributary of Ganga
  80. 80. After Ganga- Brahmaputra (Padma)has merged the combinedriver is known as Meghna River
  81. 81. After Ganga- Brahmaputra has merged thecombined river is known as Meghna River
  82. 82. Meghna River
  83. 83. Meghna river is one of the major rivers in Bangladesh,specially famous for it’s great estaury that discharges the flow of Ganga-Padma, Brahmaputra-Jamuna and the Meghna itself. It is a flood-prone river.
  84. 84. The downstream of Surma river from Ajmiriganj is often referred to as the Meghna. The Meghna has 2 distinctparts: the Upper Meghna and the Lower Meghna.
  85. 85. The Upper Meghna from Kuliarchar to Shatnol is a comparatively small river. The Lower Meghna below Shatnol is one of the largestrivers in the world because of its wide estuary mouth. The Lower Meghna is at times treated as a separate river.
  86. 86. There are two major dams onthe Ganga. One at Haridwar diverts much of theHimalayan snowmelt into theUpper Ganges Canal, built by the British in 1854 to irrigate the surrounding land.
  87. 87. The other dam is a serious hydroelectric affair at Farakka, close to the point where the main flow of theriver enters Bangladesh, and the tributary Hooghly (also known as Bhagirathi) continues in West Bengal past Calcutta.
  89. 89. The Sunderbans delta is the largest mangrove forest inthe world. It lies at the mouth of the Ganges and is spread across areas of Bangladesh and West Bengal, India. It islargely a tangled swampland.
  90. 90. The silt deposits of the delta covers an area of 23000 sqmiles. The river courses in the delta are broad and active, carrying a vast amount ofwater. The rains from June to October cause most of the Bangladeshi delta region to flood.
  91. 91. On the seaward side of the delta are swamplands and tidal forests called Sunderbans. The deltaexperiences strong cyclonicstorms before and after themonsoon season, which can be devastating.
  93. 93. The Ganges Fan is a large submarine accumulation ofsediment at the northern end of the Bay of Bengal, andstretches from India, through Bangladesh, to Myanmar from west to east, and past Sri Lanka to the south.
  94. 94. The sediment is carried through a series ofunderwater canyons, some of which are more than 1500 miles (2,414km) in length.(the Ganges Fan is not to be confused with the Ganges Delta.)
  95. 95. GANGES CANAL
  96. 96. Ganges Canal was dug from Haridwar to Kanpur in later half of 19th century and a very wide network of small tributary canals were constructed from the main canal to act as source ofirrigation in the fertile plains of Western Uttar Pradesh .
  97. 97. This canal is still supplyingwater to thousands of villagesin western Uttar Pradesh and water of Ganga, flowing inthis canal, is in true sense the life line of western Uttar Pradesh an area which played a central role in the Green revolution of India.
  99. 99. Pollution of the Ganges has become so serious that bathing in and drinking it’s water has become very dangerous. The majorpolluting industry along the Ganges is the leather industry especially near Kanpur.
  100. 100. In Kanpur, hides of goats,horses and cows are bought in for tanning. The largeamount of water used in this process, mixed in with chemicals are dumped into the Ganges.
  101. 101. A recent study has proved that the amount of sewage flowing in Ganges hasdoubled since 1985. Nearly 1 billion liters of mostly untreated raw sewage thatenters the sewage everyday.
  102. 102. Also, inadequate cremation procedures contributes to a large number of partially burnt or unburnt corpsesfloating down the Ganga, notto mention livestock corpses.
  103. 103. There has been many clean up acts, such as GAP(Ganges Action Plan) and the Oswald Plan. The GAP act began in 1985.
  104. 104. The GAP act was meant to clean up India’s most important river, but after twelve years of work and $300 million funding, theGAP has achieved very few of it’s objectives.
  105. 105. The Oswald plan was torelease thousands of turtles, which were supposed to eatthe rotting corpses floating in the water. Some peoplethought that the turtles would leave the area.
  106. 106. In November 1991 a surveythat was conducted showed that 60% of the turtles remained in Varanasi area and were seen nibbling on human flesh.
  107. 107. Hopefully, in the future theriver Ganges will be as clean as the Hindu pilgrimages believe it to be. It maybe a while but with morecoordinated effort the waters of the Ganges will be clean.
  108. 108. Can we help???
  109. 109. Central government approves Rs 7K crore for cleaning Ganga
  110. 110. The Ganga will flow clean and free from pollutionby 2020, ...???
  111. 111. The Ganges River, considered to be sacred inIndia is getting a $1 billion clean up loan fromthe World Bank.The Ganges River (or Ganga as it also called)is 2500 km long and has incredibley highpollution, everything from industrialchemicals to raw sewage. The $1billion WorldBank Ganga River Loan will support the cleanup efforts launched by the Indian government.Clean up efforts that inlcude building watertreatment plants, fixing dams and other waterquality improvement measures.
  112. 112. “ Environmentalists saythe river supports over400 million people, andif the unabated pollutionis not controlled, it willbe the end of communities
  113. 113. “Let each one of us beresponsible and ensurewe are not contributors to pollution of our environment.”