<ul><li>Text category  __ the most important organising principle in corpora. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the earliest elec...
<ul><li>“ Brown”:  Informative prose in the Brown Corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>“ LOB”  </li></ul><ul><li>“ London-Lund”:  fac...
<ul><li>PRESENT DAY:   “MICASE”  (Spoken English). Includes lectures, labs and disertation defences.  </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...
<ul><li>TWO CATEGORIES:  REGISTER and GENRE </li></ul><ul><li>GENRE PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on linguistics cha...
<ul><li>REGISTER PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on words and grammatical features that are frequent and pervasive. </...
<ul><li>Most corpus-based studies have taken register perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Corpora much better designed for the ...
<ul><li>Two major types </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic variants associated with a feature in different registers </li></ul><...
<ul><li>Distinction between: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-computerised corpus studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical analysis based...
<ul><li>NON-COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fries’ Grammars of AmE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1940)-Letters ...
<ul><li>Tottie (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Linguistic factors associated with the choice between synthetic and analyt...
<ul><li>Description of linguistic variation within a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Based in grammatical characteristics (...
<ul><li>Studies focused only in written registers </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually focused on Academic writting.  </li><...
<ul><li>Corpus-based spoken and written registers </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies have identified the sequences of words wh...
<ul><li>THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF REGISTERS: </li></ul><ul><li>SPOKEN REGISTER </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>WRITIN...
<ul><li>SPOKEN REGISTER: </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation  </li></ul><ul><li>Service Encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Call Centre...
<ul><li>Spoken media discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken university register: </li></ul><ul><li>classroom teaching  </li></...
<ul><li>WRITTEN REGISTER: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Prose </li></ul><ul><li>Others: Personal letters, Written advertiseme...
<ul><li>Corpus-driven: Describe patterns of variation between a set of spoken or written registers. </li></ul><ul><li>Mult...
<ul><li>MD studies of register variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General spoken and written registers (Biber 1988) </li></ul...
<ul><li>Differences in the Corpus-driven MD studies of English registers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The regardless of discours...
<ul><li>Numerous corpus-based description of a genre: documenting the structure of a text of a particular type. </li></ul>
<ul><li>THE MOST OF THESES: </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC KINDS OF RESEARCH WRITING: </li></ul><ul><li>Articles: abstracts, i...
 
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What can a corpus tell us about registers and genres douglas biber

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NUEVAS TECNOLOGÍAS PARA LOS ESTUDIOS INGLESES
Practice session 3
Group B. Pascual Pérez-Paredes

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What can a corpus tell us about registers and genres douglas biber

  1. 2. <ul><li>Text category __ the most important organising principle in corpora. </li></ul><ul><li>Found in the earliest electronic corpora such as: “Brown”, “LOB” and “London-Lund” </li></ul>
  2. 3. <ul><li>“ Brown”: Informative prose in the Brown Corpus. </li></ul><ul><li>“ LOB” </li></ul><ul><li>“ London-Lund”: face-to-face conversations, telephone conversations, broadcasts, spontaneous speeches and planned speeches. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>PRESENT DAY: “MICASE” (Spoken English). Includes lectures, labs and disertation defences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ CANCODE” (Conversational English) related to different situations and speaker relationships. </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>TWO CATEGORIES: REGISTER and GENRE </li></ul><ul><li>GENRE PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on linguistics characteristics used to structure complete texts. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis have to be based on complete texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: scientific research articles (Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion) </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>REGISTER PERSPECTIVE </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on words and grammatical features that are frequent and pervasive. </li></ul><ul><li>The analysis can be based on a sample of text excerpts rather than complete texts. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: Higher use of first an second person pronouns in business letters than in expository registers (newspapers reportage or scientific research) </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>Most corpus-based studies have taken register perspective: </li></ul><ul><li>Corpora much better designed for the analysis of register. </li></ul><ul><li>Software tools (concordancers) designed for the analysis of pervasive and frequent linguistic caracteristics (register features). </li></ul><ul><li>The genre perspective describes the rethorical organisation of texts, with no consideration of frequency. </li></ul><ul><li>Detailed analysis of individual texts. </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Two major types </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic variants associated with a feature in different registers </li></ul><ul><li>The use of a particular linguistic feature in a single register. </li></ul><ul><li>Both include description of synchronic & diachronic patterns of use. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of the second one: describe the ling. Feature and the target register itself. </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Distinction between: </li></ul><ul><li>Non-computerised corpus studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Empirical analysis based on a text collection. </li></ul><ul><li>Computerised corpus studies. </li></ul><ul><li>Large text collections. </li></ul><ul><li>Computational tools and techniques for it. </li></ul>
  9. 10. <ul><li>NON-COMPUTATIONAL STUDIES </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fries’ Grammars of AmE. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1940)-Letters to the government </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(1952)-Telephone conversations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>USING REGISTER AS A PREDICTOR </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic variation from all grammatical levels (not valid for the language as a whole). </li></ul><ul><li>Use of one register appear to be so weak comparing to studies of different registers. </li></ul>
  10. 11. <ul><li>Tottie (1991) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ex. Linguistic factors associated with the choice between synthetic and analytic negation: </li></ul></ul><ul><li>He could find no words to express his pain VERSUS. </li></ul><ul><li>He couldn’t find any words to express his pain </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Description of linguistic variation within a conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Based in grammatical characteristics (Quaglio and Bieber (2006)) </li></ul><ul><li>Based in detailed descriptions of a particular feature in a conversation (McCarthy (2002) Aijmer (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies have compared the spoken with the written registers (Biber and Finegan (1988) </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>Studies focused only in written registers </li></ul><ul><li>They are usually focused on Academic writting. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The studies of Stance(Charles (2003,2006,2007)). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Academic writting form different disciplines (Salager (1994). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only few studes have described the linguistic devices to express stance in spoken registers. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Corpus-based spoken and written registers </li></ul><ul><li>Many studies have identified the sequences of words which are most common in different register (spoken and written). They are called “lexical bundles” </li></ul><ul><li>Other studies have contrasted the patterns of use in spoken and written registers. (Collins (1991). </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>THERE ARE TWO KINDS OF REGISTERS: </li></ul><ul><li>SPOKEN REGISTER </li></ul><ul><li>AND </li></ul><ul><li>WRITING REGISTER </li></ul>
  15. 16. <ul><li>SPOKEN REGISTER: </li></ul><ul><li>Conversation </li></ul><ul><li>Service Encounter </li></ul><ul><li>Call Centre Interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken Business English </li></ul><ul><li>Television Dialogue </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Spoken media discourse </li></ul><ul><li>Spoken university register: </li></ul><ul><li>classroom teaching </li></ul><ul><li>office hours </li></ul><ul><li>teacher-mentoring sessions </li></ul>
  17. 18. <ul><li>WRITTEN REGISTER: </li></ul><ul><li>Academic Prose </li></ul><ul><li>Others: Personal letters, Written advertisement, Newspaper discourse and fiction </li></ul><ul><li>Electronic Register: e-mail, weblogs . </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>Corpus-driven: Describe patterns of variation between a set of spoken or written registers. </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-dimensional(MD) analysis </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus-driven methodological approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Important part in the analysis: Frequency </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. <ul><li>MD studies of register variation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>General spoken and written registers (Biber 1988) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>American English versus British English written registers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Elementary school spoken and written registers (Reppen 2001) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-profit grant proposals and author styles (Connor and Upton 2004) </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Differences in the Corpus-driven MD studies of English registers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The regardless of discourse domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A dimension associated with narrative discourse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus analysis and MD studies: Important for historical descriptions of registers: Letters, medical recipes, medical and scientific writing… </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Numerous corpus-based description of a genre: documenting the structure of a text of a particular type. </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>THE MOST OF THESES: </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIFIC KINDS OF RESEARCH WRITING: </li></ul><ul><li>Articles: abstracts, introductions or discussion sections. </li></ul><ul><li>PhD dissertations from various disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Grant proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Conference proposals </li></ul><ul><li>Professional letters and application statements </li></ul>

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