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The Aboriginal People of Canada


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This is the first powerpoint in our unit on Injustices towards the native people of Canada. We will take two classes to cover it. It will be used as an aid for my lectures as well as displaying the questions for class discussions. Your homework is on the last slide of class 2.

The Aboriginal People of Canada

  1. 1. The Aboriginal People of Canada Class 1
  2. 2. Topics to be covered this class… <ul><li>Introduction to the Aboriginal </li></ul><ul><li>Jacques Cartier </li></ul><ul><li>The arrival and the set-up of the French </li></ul><ul><li>Samuel de Champlain </li></ul><ul><li>The Fur trade </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Aboriginal People of Canada <ul><li>We know that the first Aboriginals crossed into Canada approximately 30,000 years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>At that time the Bering Strait was frozen. </li></ul><ul><li>They crossed from (what is today) Asia over into Alaska, following herds of animals. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>In Canada there are three Aboriginal groups: </li></ul><ul><li>1) First Nations </li></ul><ul><li>2) Métis </li></ul><ul><li>3) Inuit </li></ul><ul><li>Each one of these groups is comprised of many smaller groups, such as Iroquois, Algonquin, etc. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Many of these groups shared certain similarities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They used plants for medicinal purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They traded (bartered), they did not use money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They believed in spirits and their religion was very nature oriented, the spiritual guide was called Shaman . </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>They did not write, instead they passed on their traditions through symbols and stories. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They had several methods of transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Canoes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kayaks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Toboggans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Snowshoes </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. The Iroquois <ul><li>Lived in the St-Lawrence Lowlands </li></ul><ul><li>were farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Matriarchal form government </li></ul><ul><li>Sedentary </li></ul><ul><li>Their villages were often centered around longhouses. </li></ul><ul><li>Corn, squash and beans were staples in their diet. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Algonquin <ul><li>Lived in the Canadian Shield (eastern and central Canada) </li></ul><ul><li>Hunters and gatherers </li></ul><ul><li>Patriarchal </li></ul><ul><li>They were nomadic and lived in wigwams </li></ul><ul><li>They traveled by canoe and snowshoes and toboggans in the winter. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Jacques Cartier <ul><li>He was a French explorer. </li></ul><ul><li>He made three voyages to Canada in: </li></ul><ul><li>1) 1534 </li></ul><ul><li>2) 1535 </li></ul><ul><li>3) 1541 </li></ul><ul><li>His voyages were commissioned by the King of France. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>There were 3 main reasons for his exploration: </li></ul><ul><li>1) find an alternate route to China </li></ul><ul><li>2) bring back gold, silk and other riches </li></ul><ul><li>3) claim land for the King of France </li></ul>
  11. 11. Cartier’s three visits to N.A. <ul><li>In his first voyage to North America Cartier claimed land in the name of the king and reported an abundance of fish, timber and furs (the Natives and French traded furs for trinkets) </li></ul><ul><li>*Class Discussion* </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think Cartier/King Henry II had a right to claim the land as France’s? </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The second voyage brought more French men into N.A. Four ships sailed into the Native villages of Stradacona (Quebec City) and Hochelaga (Montreal). </li></ul><ul><li>The Natives showed the French how to survive the harsh winters. </li></ul><ul><li>The French returned to France, bringing several Native people with them. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>The purpose of Cartier’s third voyage was to setup a colony in the Stradacona area. </li></ul><ul><li>With him came Missionaries who wanted to convert the natives to Christianity. </li></ul><ul><li>France lost interest in the settlement after only a year and it was abandoned. </li></ul>
  14. 14. The meeting of two cultures <ul><li>*Class Discussion* </li></ul><ul><li>What do you think happened when the French and Natives began to interact? </li></ul><ul><li>Was it positive/Negative? </li></ul>
  15. 15. The Europeans <ul><li>They learned how to survive in the wilderness, as well as the cold of the winter and the possibility of scurvy. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned how to make clothing out of leather, travel in the winter and use medicinal plants. </li></ul><ul><li>They learned of new foods, such as maple syrup and pumpkin. </li></ul>
  16. 16. The Natives- Positive <ul><li>They learned of new foods, salt and bread. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans introduced them to woolen cloth. </li></ul><ul><li>They were also brought iron weapons, which they became increasingly dependant on. </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Natives- Negative <ul><li>The Europeans introduced them to alcohol, which had a tremendous effect on the Natives. </li></ul><ul><li>They brought diseases, like small pox, influenza and measles, which killed thousands. </li></ul><ul><li>The fur trade changed the Native’s ways of living. </li></ul><ul><li>The French tried to impose Christianity on them. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Homework for tomorrow! <ul><li>Using what we have learned today, make a comic strip of Cartier’s three voyages to Canada. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It has to be at least three different scenes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neat and understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide a short explanation of the picture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You may do stick figures, as long as it is presentable. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Samuel de Champlain <ul><li>He was the next French explorer to travel to N.A. in hopes of setting up a colony. </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1600, Europeans continued to use Canada as a fishing site, staying for the summer and bringing back the goods before the cold would set in. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1608, Champlain made his voyage to setup the fur trade along the St-Lawrence. </li></ul>
  20. 20. The Fur trade in New France <ul><li>Trade monopolies were granted to entrepreneurs, under the condition that they see to the evangelization of the Aboriginal people. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fur trade brought alliances between the French and Aboriginal groups, the Hurons and Algonquians. The Iroquois allied with the Dutch and English. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Consequences of these alliances <ul><li>The fur trade caused many battles between Europeans and their Native allies. </li></ul><ul><li>It eventually led to the extinction of the Huron people by the Iroquois. </li></ul><ul><li>*Class Discussion* </li></ul><ul><li>Do you think the arrival and colonization by the Europeans can be blamed for the extinction of the Huron people? </li></ul>