THIRD FOURT MONTH
PRACTICE ENGLISH I
ENGINEER OSCAR GARCIA
NAME: Mazariegos Zuñiga Oscar Rene
The perfect present is roughly equivalent to
the Spanish preterit. We will see the
differences in the section on uses. Overall it
is a mixture between the present and the
past. We used it for past actions that are
important in this.
I have talked to peter
She has gone to work
complete the following sentences using
have or has
I ______ talked to Jesica
He _______ go to gym
She ______ go to kitchen
You _______ played top carlos
Future tense of ‘have to’
The two verbs "have" and "have got" (have)
indicate possession in English, but it is
important to note that the structure of these
verbs is very different. These two verbs can
be used to talk about relationships, illness
and features. Note that "have" has several
meanings and uses.
"Have got" is often used in colloquial language and
often short or abbreviated form.
I have got a car. (Tengo un coche.)
I have a car. (Tengo un coche.)
complete the following sentences using have or
I __________ the ball.
I _________ a car red.
You _______ to kitchen.
The Active and Passive Voice
Subject Verb Object
A lot of
the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The
Curse of the Black Pearl.
1. They built these houses in 1902.
2. She bakes a cake every Sunday.
3. He broke the vase yesterday.
4. I clean the shoes every Friday.
5. We wrote the exercise an hour ago.
A lot of people saw the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The
Curse of the Black Pearl.
Agent = the person or thing that does or performs the action.
Who is doing the verb, the seeing? A lot of people
When the agent is in the subject position, we call this kind of
sentence an active voice sentence.
Present Simple Liabilities
Passive sentences are easy to make,
and indeed almost every English
sentence can become indifferent verbal
passive time-not always make much
sense to do it, but you can.
In spoken English is not widely used
passive, and many style guides say that
writers should not use it either.
The formula is:
Subject + verb to be (am / is / are) +
Is or are used depending on whether the
subject is singular or plural
A lot of cod is caught in the North
Atlantic. (What fish fishermen.)
The best wine in the world is made in
California. (What do there.)
Thousands of new vans are sold every
year. (They sell the vendors.)
Hundreds of bicycles are made in That
factory every day. (The manufacturing
The Past Perfect Simple Tense
1. The past perfect simple, to refer to the
action that happened first or earlier
2. The past simple to refer to the action
that happened second or later
3. After Sofie had finished her work, she
went to lunch.
(First she finished her work and then she
went to eat lunch.)
4. I washed the floor when the painter had
(First the painter left and then I washed
5. Harold had known about it for a while.
(First he knew about it, then others knew
The time expressions already, for, since,
and yet may be used in the past perfect
simple, as they are in the present perfect
simple. Remember the following rules for
using other time expressions:
• Use after, as soon as, the moment that,
until before using the past perfect
Ex: After she had moved out, I found her
notes./ I didn’t say anything until she had
• Use before, when, by the time before
the past simple:
Ex. Before I knew it, she had run out the
door. / By the time he phoned her, she
had found someone new.
I mhaven't phoned home Christmas.
•We've been here nine o'clock.
Uso: Como "many", expresa la idea de gran cantidad y
es utilizado sobretodo en frases negativas e
interrogativas. La diferencia con "many" es que usamos
"much" sólo con nombres incontables en singular. Se
puede usar "much" en frases afirmativas, aunque sería
más formal y no tan común.
There is not much time. (No hay mucho tiempo.)
How much money does he have? (¿Cuánto dinero
We have much to do! (¡Tenemos mucho que hacer!)
Uso: Se utiliza tanto para los nombres o sustantivos
contables en singular como para los nombres o
sustantivos contables en plural. Se usa en frases
afirmativas e interrogativas (para afirmar algo); se
sustituye "any" en frases negativas o interrogativas.
Significa una cantidad indefinida, pero limitada.
Frase afirmativa/nombre contable:
She has some apples. (Tiene algunas manzanas.)
Frase afirmativa/nombre incontable:
There is some milk in the kitchen. (Hay leche en la
Frase interrogativa/nombre contable:
Are there some tourists? (¿Hay unos turistas?)
1. You’ve been working all day. You
be very tired.
2. Congratulations on passing your
driving test. You be very happy to have
a driving licence.
3. You got here very quickly. You have
4. Amparo and Santi had terrible
weather and they lost their passports
and video camera. They have had a
very nice holiday.
5. The neighbours have just bought a
new Porsche. They be short of money.
6. You’re going on holiday next week,
aren’t you? You be looking forward to it.
7. That new restaurant be very good. It’s
Usos de mustPara los tiempos que carecen del must, puede emplearse to
have to (tener que):
I had to go to the hospital. / Tuve/Tenía que ir al hospital. (pasado)
I’ll have to go to the hospital. / Tendré que ir al hospital. (futuro)
1. Deber. Una obligación de hacer algo que se considera necesario o muy
A soldier must obey orders. – Un soldado deber cumplir las ordenes.
You must be here before 8 o’clock tomorrow. / Debes estar aquí antes de las
ocho de la mañana.
La negación mustn’t indica prohibición.
You musn’t smoke here. – No deben fumar aquí.
Usos mas importantes de might
1. Posibilidad: El empleo de might en lugar de may indica que la probabilidad es
I may go to Barcelona tomorrow. (Tal vez una posibilidad del 50%)
Juan might come with me. (Tal vez una posibilidad del 30%)
2. Permiso o peticiones corteses:
Might I open this bottle of wine? / ¿Podría abrir este botella de vino?
Simple Past of the verb can
The verb form can in Simple Past Could and
is the same for all people. As it is a modal
verb, the negative form does not specify
the verb to do but is formed simply by
adding not, that is not contracted.
The modal verb can in Simple Present:
can - can not - can not
The modal verb can in Simple Past:
Could - Could not - Could not
I can ski I Could ski ten years ago
I know I could ski skiing decade
I can not sleep I Could not sleep last night
•you at home last night?
•send you an email because our
computer was broken.
•very good. The singers were fantastic.
•go to the beach on Sunday because I
was at orkw.
•They on holiday last week.
El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del
estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y
no necesita ser palabra por
palabra. En general, cuando se usa
el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbal
cambia. A continuación tienes un
explicación de los cambios que
sufren los tiempos verbales.
A veces se usa "that" en las frases
afirmativas y negativas para
introducir lo que ha dicho la otra
persona. Por otro lado, en las frases
interrogativas se puede usar "if" o
Direct Speech Reported Speech
Present Simple Past Simple
"He's American," she said.
She said he was American.
"I'm happy to see you," Mary said.
Mary said that she was happy to see me.
He asked, "Are you busy tonight?"
He asked me if I was busy that night.
Present Continuous Past Continuous
Dan is living in San Francisco," she said.
She said Dan was living in San Francisco.
He said, "I'm making dinner."
He told me that he was making dinner.
"Why are you working so hard?" they asked.
They asked me why I was working so hard.
The use of must, must not (mustn't) and
The modals must, must not and need not have
the same form regardless the subject. There is
no ending with he/she/it.
► If you want to say the sth. is unnecessary, use
need not, not must not. (The negation of must
means not allowed to.)
I must play football. = I have to play football.
I need not play football. = I do not need to
play football. = I do not have to play football.
I must not play football. = I am not allowed to
You can use must only with Simple Present. If
you want to use it with other tenses, you need
the form have to. This form is not the same
regardless the subject. Look at the following
I must play football I have to play football.
I need not play
I do not need to play football.
I do not have to play football.
I must not play
I am not allowed to play
Substitutes in the
I, we, you, they
I must play
I have to play
he, she, it
He must play
He has to play