Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Mazariegos zuñiga


Published on


Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Mazariegos zuñiga

  2. 2. Present perfect  The perfect present is roughly equivalent to the Spanish preterit. We will see the differences in the section on uses. Overall it is a mixture between the present and the past. We used it for past actions that are important in this.  Example:  I have talked to peter  She has gone to work  Exersice:  complete the following sentences using have or has  I ______ talked to Jesica  He _______ go to gym  She ______ go to kitchen  You _______ played top carlos  inglesa/present-perfect.php
  3. 3. Future tense of ‘have to’  The two verbs "have" and "have got" (have) indicate possession in English, but it is important to note that the structure of these verbs is very different. These two verbs can be used to talk about relationships, illness and features. Note that "have" has several meanings and uses.  "Have got" is often used in colloquial language and often short or abbreviated form.  Example:  I have got a car. (Tengo un coche.)  I have a car. (Tengo un coche.)  Exersice:  complete the following sentences using have or have got  I __________ the ball.  I _________ a car red.  You _______ to kitchen.  inglesa/have_have_got.php
  4. 4. The Active and Passive Voice Subject Verb Object A lot of people saw the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl.  1. They built these houses in 1902. . 2. She bakes a cake every Sunday. . 3. He broke the vase yesterday. . 4. I clean the shoes every Friday. . 5. We wrote the exercise an hour ago. . Active Voice A lot of people saw the movie Pirates of the Caribbean: The Curse of the Black Pearl. Agent = the person or thing that does or performs the action. Who is doing the verb, the seeing? A lot of people When the agent is in the subject position, we call this kind of sentence an active voice sentence. ssive%20Voice/grammar_active- passive_voice_introduction.htm
  5. 5. Present Simple Liabilities  Passive sentences are easy to make, and indeed almost every English sentence can become indifferent verbal passive time-not always make much sense to do it, but you can. In spoken English is not widely used passive, and many style guides say that writers should not use it either. The formula is:  Subject + verb to be (am / is / are) + past participle. Is or are used depending on whether the subject is singular or plural  examples: A lot of cod is caught in the North Atlantic. (What fish fishermen.) The best wine in the world is made in California. (What do there.) Thousands of new vans are sold every year. (They sell the vendors.) Hundreds of bicycles are made in That factory every day. (The manufacturing workers.)
  6. 6. The Past Perfect Simple Tense 1. The past perfect simple, to refer to the action that happened first or earlier 2. The past simple to refer to the action that happened second or later 3. After Sofie had finished her work, she went to lunch. (First she finished her work and then she went to eat lunch.) 4. I washed the floor when the painter had gone. (First the painter left and then I washed the floor.) 5. Harold had known about it for a while. (First he knew about it, then others knew about it)  The time expressions already, for, since, and yet may be used in the past perfect simple, as they are in the present perfect simple. Remember the following rules for using other time expressions: • Use after, as soon as, the moment that, until before using the past perfect simple. Ex: After she had moved out, I found her notes./ I didn’t say anything until she had finished talking. • Use before, when, by the time before the past simple: Ex. Before I knew it, she had run out the door. / By the time he phoned her, she had found someone new. rules/verbs/the-past-perfect-simple-tense/ I mhaven't phoned home Christmas. •We've been here nine o'clock.
  7. 7. Quantifiers (Cuantificadores)  Significado: Mucho Uso: Como "many", expresa la idea de gran cantidad y es utilizado sobretodo en frases negativas e interrogativas. La diferencia con "many" es que usamos "much" sólo con nombres incontables en singular. Se puede usar "much" en frases afirmativas, aunque sería más formal y no tan común.  Ejemplos:  Frase negativa:  Play  There is not much time. (No hay mucho tiempo.)  Frase interrogativa:  Play  How much money does he have? (¿Cuánto dinero tiene?)  Frase afirmativa:  Play  We have much to do! (¡Tenemos mucho que hacer!)  Uso: Se utiliza tanto para los nombres o sustantivos contables en singular como para los nombres o sustantivos contables en plural. Se usa en frases afirmativas e interrogativas (para afirmar algo); se sustituye "any" en frases negativas o interrogativas. Significa una cantidad indefinida, pero limitada.  Ejemplos:  Frase afirmativa/nombre contable:  Play  She has some apples. (Tiene algunas manzanas.)  Frase afirmativa/nombre incontable:  Play  There is some milk in the kitchen. (Hay leche en la cocina.)  Frase interrogativa/nombre contable:  Play  Are there some tourists? (¿Hay unos turistas?)
  8. 8. Might MUST  1. You’ve been working all day. You be very tired. 2. Congratulations on passing your driving test. You be very happy to have a driving licence. 3. You got here very quickly. You have walked. 4. Amparo and Santi had terrible weather and they lost their passports and video camera. They have had a very nice holiday. 5. The neighbours have just bought a new Porsche. They be short of money. 6. You’re going on holiday next week, aren’t you? You be looking forward to it. 7. That new restaurant be very good. It’s always empty. MUST Usos de mustPara los tiempos que carecen del must, puede emplearse to have to (tener que): I had to go to the hospital. / Tuve/Tenía que ir al hospital. (pasado) I’ll have to go to the hospital. / Tendré que ir al hospital. (futuro) 1. Deber. Una obligación de hacer algo que se considera necesario o muy importante: A soldier must obey orders. – Un soldado deber cumplir las ordenes. You must be here before 8 o’clock tomorrow. / Debes estar aquí antes de las ocho de la mañana. La negación mustn’t indica prohibición. You musn’t smoke here. – No deben fumar aquí. Usos mas importantes de might 1. Posibilidad: El empleo de might en lugar de may indica que la probabilidad es más remota: I may go to Barcelona tomorrow. (Tal vez una posibilidad del 50%) Juan might come with me. (Tal vez una posibilidad del 30%) 2. Permiso o peticiones corteses: Might I open this bottle of wine? / ¿Podría abrir este botella de vino?
  9. 9. Simple Past of the verb can  The verb form can in Simple Past Could and is the same for all people. As it is a modal verb, the negative form does not specify the verb to do but is formed simply by adding not, that is not contracted. The modal verb can in Simple Present: can - can not - can not The modal verb can in Simple Past: Could - Could not - Could not I can ski I Could ski ten years ago I know I could ski skiing decade I can not sleep I Could not sleep last night •you at home last night? •We •send you an email because our computer was broken. •The concert •very good. The singers were fantastic. •I •go to the beach on Sunday because I was at orkw. •They on holiday last week. ar_06_012e?cc=gt&selLanguage=en
  10. 10. Reported Speech  El estilo indirecto, a diferencia del estilo directo, no utiliza las comillas y no necesita ser palabra por palabra. En general, cuando se usa el estilo indirecto, el tiempo verbal cambia. A continuación tienes un explicación de los cambios que sufren los tiempos verbales.  A veces se usa "that" en las frases afirmativas y negativas para introducir lo que ha dicho la otra persona. Por otro lado, en las frases interrogativas se puede usar "if" o "whether". Direct Speech Reported Speech Present Simple Past Simple Play "He's American," she said. Play She said he was American. Play "I'm happy to see you," Mary said. Play Mary said that she was happy to see me. Play He asked, "Are you busy tonight?" Play He asked me if I was busy that night. Present Continuous Past Continuous Play Dan is living in San Francisco," she said. Play She said Dan was living in San Francisco. Play He said, "I'm making dinner." Play He told me that he was making dinner. Play "Why are you working so hard?" they asked. Play They asked me why I was working so hard. inglesa/reported.php
  11. 11. The use of must, must not (mustn't) and need not  The modals must, must not and need not have the same form regardless the subject. There is no ending with he/she/it.  ► If you want to say the sth. is unnecessary, use need not, not must not. (The negation of must means not allowed to.)  I must play football. = I have to play football.  I need not play football. = I do not need to play football. = I do not have to play football.  I must not play football. = I am not allowed to play football.  You can use must only with Simple Present. If you want to use it with other tenses, you need the form have to. This form is not the same regardless the subject. Look at the following table. Modal Substitutes I must play football I have to play football. I need not play football. I do not need to play football. I do not have to play football. I must not play football. I am not allowed to play football. Pronouns Modal Substitutes in the Simple Present I, we, you, they I must play football. I have to play football. he, she, it He must play football. He has to play football.