Successfully reported this slideshow.

Present Perfect

956 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Technology
  • Be the first to comment

Present Perfect

  1. 1. Present Perfect
  2. 2. Present Perfect Simple <ul><li>have / has + past participle </li></ul><ul><li>I have seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>She has seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>Has she seen the film before? </li></ul><ul><li>They have n’t seen the film before. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t seen the film before. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Recent events <ul><li>Present Perfect Simple is used to describe recent events without a definite time . The idea of time or place in the speaker’s mind makes the event recent. A time expression may emphasise recentness ( just, recently, lately ). </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve left my shopping bag behind. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve just broken my watch. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>We can also describe events that have not happened. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t found her phone number yet . </li></ul><ul><li>The event may be connected with the present, because the result of the event is present . No definite time is given for the event. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ ve broken my arm, as you can see. </li></ul><ul><li>I think I’ ve eaten something bad. I don’t feel well. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Indefinite events <ul><li>Present Perfect Simple – No definite time is given for the event. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve been to France three times. </li></ul><ul><li>Compared with Past Simple – Events described using the Past Simple have definite time (yesterday, last week ...) </li></ul><ul><li>I went to France last year . </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>The tense used can depend on the time expression. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the first time I have eaten Japanese food. </li></ul><ul><li>If we think of a definite place for an event, this may suggest a definite time . </li></ul><ul><li>I left my shopping bag on the train . </li></ul>
  7. 7. The difference between the Present Perfect and the Past Simple <ul><li>The Present Perfect is used when the present result is important. </li></ul><ul><li>The Past Simple is used for something that happened in the past and that has no direct link to the present . </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><ul><li>We have finished the house. Now we need a vacation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We finished the house and left for a vacation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I have met Ray a few times but I don’t like him. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I met Ray a few times but I didn’t like him. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>The Present Perfect cannot be used for something that happened at a specific time in the past. It cannot be used with words and phrases of past time which say (or ask) when something happened , e.g. yesterday, last week / month / year, …ago, at five o’clock, on Sunday, When …? … </li></ul><ul><li>These words refer to events that happened and were completed in the past. Therefore we use them with the Past Simple . </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Gerald has bought a new car. He bought it last week . </li></ul><ul><li>Have you met Ray? – Yes, I met him when we were students . </li></ul><ul><li>My parents have been to India. In fact, they went there twice last year . </li></ul><ul><li>Has anybody phoned me? – Yes, Joyce phoned an hour ago . </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve seen that man before. – Really? When did you see him? </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Some words or phrases of time, e.g. today, this morning / week / month / year , can be used with either the Present Perfect or the Past Simple . If the period is not finished at the time of speaking / writing, the Present Perfect is used. </li></ul><ul><li>I haven’t seen Rachel this morning . Have you? – No, she hasn’t come yet . (It’s still morning.) </li></ul><ul><li>I didn’t see Rachel this morning . Did you? – No, she didn’t come in at all. (It’s afternoon or evening.) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>The Present Perfect can be used only for events or actions that are connected with the present . With events, people or actions that are known to be connected with the past (e.g. historical events, people who are dead), the Past Simple is used. </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen King has written many books. </li></ul><ul><li>Agatha Christie wrote detective stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Michael Jackson has appeared all over the world. </li></ul><ul><li>How many songs did the Beatles write ? </li></ul>
  13. 13. Underline the correct tense <ul><li>I looked up at the sky and saw / have seen a very bright light. </li></ul><ul><li>I lost / have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>I felt /have felt much better when I went to the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained / has rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>I looked up at the sky and saw / have seen a very bright light. </li></ul><ul><li>I lost / have lost the keys to my car. I don’t know what to do. </li></ul><ul><li>I felt /have felt much better when I went to the mountains. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained / has rained for two days before we could leave the hotel for the first time. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>I told / have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time. </li></ul><ul><li>It became /has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished / have finished mine hours ago. </li></ul><ul><li>I waited /have waited for hours but nobody came. </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>I told / have told you the same thing over and over again. Why don’t you listen? I’ll tell you again, but please pay attention this time. </li></ul><ul><li>It became / has become very hot in here suddenly. Is there something wrong with the air-conditioning? </li></ul><ul><li>Haven’t you finished your homework yet? I finished / have finished mine hours ago. </li></ul><ul><li>I waited /have waited for hours but nobody came. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>I met / have met many interesting people since I came here last May. </li></ul><ul><li>You smoked / have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Last week I invited / have invited a few friends over for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>After less than 10 minutes they realised / have realised that they were lost. </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>I met / have met many interesting people since I came here last May. </li></ul><ul><li>You smoked / have smoked ten cigarettes so far today. Don’t you think you should stop? </li></ul><ul><li>Last week I invited / have invited a few friends over for dinner. </li></ul><ul><li>After less than 10 minutes they realised / have realised that they were lost. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Present Perfect Continuous <ul><li>have / has + been + present participle </li></ul><ul><li>I have been working all the time . </li></ul><ul><li>She has been working all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been working all the time? </li></ul><ul><li>Has he been working all the time? </li></ul><ul><li>We have n’t been working all the time. </li></ul><ul><li>He has n’t been working all the time. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Extended or repeated events <ul><li>With verbs that describe states, the Present Perfect Simple describes a state which lasts up to the present . </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve lived in this house for five years . </li></ul><ul><li>The Present Perfect Continuous can also describe a state which lasts up to the present moment . </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve been living in this house for five years . </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>There is little difference in meaning between simple and continuous in this case, or with How long questions. The verbs sit, lie, wait, stay prefer the Present Perfect Continuous . </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been waiting ? </li></ul><ul><li>The Present Perfect Simple can describe a habitual action in a period of time up to the present moment. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve never worn a tie to work, and I refuse to start now! </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>We use the Present Perfect Continuous for a continuous or repeated activity that began in the past and continues into the present. It emphasises the activity itself and its duration. </li></ul><ul><li>Jack has been waiting for over an hour. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve been studying since 5 o’clock. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Contrasts between simple and continuous <ul><li>Not completed – Use of the Present Perfect Continuous can suggest that an action is not completed, or has recently finished. </li></ul><ul><li>We’ ve been walking for hours ! Let’s have a rest. </li></ul><ul><li>I ’ve been digging the garden. That’s why I’m so dirty. </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Completed – Use of the Present Perfect Simple can show that an action is complete. Given the number of actions suggests completion. </li></ul><ul><li>I’ ve written ten pages of my homework assignment! </li></ul>
  25. 25. Underline the correct tense <ul><li>We have been driving /drove / drive around for an hour and we are still lost. Let’s stop and ask somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>I am / have been /was here since Tuesday and I still can’t find my way around. </li></ul><ul><li>I have been reading / read /have read that book. Do you have another one to lend me? </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>We have been driving /drove / drive around for an hour and we are still lost. Let’s stop and ask somebody. </li></ul><ul><li>I am / have been /was here since Tuesday and I still can’t find my way around. </li></ul><ul><li>I have been reading / read / have read that book. Do you have another one to lend me? </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>I just came / have just come / have just been coming in. I’d like to rest for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been /were you /did you in Rome last year? </li></ul><ul><li>I read / have read / have been reading this book for over a month. I’ll finish it soon. </li></ul><ul><li>Who ate / has eaten / has been eating my chips? There are none left. </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>I just came / have just come / have just been coming in. I’d like to rest for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>How long have you been / were you /did you in Rome last year? </li></ul><ul><li>I read / have read / have been reading this book for over a month. I’ll finish it soon. </li></ul><ul><li>Who ate / has eaten / has been eating my chips? There are none left. </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>Who ate /has eaten /has been eating my chips? Soon I’ll have none left. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained / has rained /has been raining all day! Why can’t it stop! </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been / Have you gone / Did you go to the concert in the park last week? </li></ul><ul><li>I watched / have watched / have been watching this video ten times so far. </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Who ate /has eaten / has been eating my chips? Soon I’ll have none left. </li></ul><ul><li>It rained / has rained / has been raining all day! Why can’t it stop! </li></ul><ul><li>Have you been / Have you gone / Did you go to the concert in the park last week? </li></ul><ul><li>I watched / have watched / have been watching this video ten times so far. </li></ul>
  31. 31. Note the difference <ul><li>He has been to Italy.  Now he is here. He can tell you wonderful stories about Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>He has been in Italy for two weeks.  He is still in Italy. </li></ul><ul><li>Where’s Peter? – He has gone to Italy.  He is in Italy or on his way to Italy. </li></ul>

×