Introduction to Open: OER, Open Pedagogy, & Open Access
Introduction to OPEN:
OER, Open Pedagogy,
& Open Access
Professor of English & Chair of Interdisciplinary Studies, PSU
OER Ambassador Pilot Consultant, UNH
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons
Attribution 4.0 International License.
Open Educational Resources
OER are teaching, learning, and research resources
that reside in the public domain or have been
released under an intellectual property license that
permits their free use and repurposing by others.
Open educational resources include full courses,
course materials, modules, textbooks, streaming
videos, tests, software, and any other tools,
materials, or techniques used to support access to
Hewlett Foundation: http://www.hewlett.org/programs/education/open-educational-resources
The 5 R’s of OER
CC BY Yamashita Yohei flic.kr/p/uG21U
Save Students Money
• Students spend on average $1,200 a year on textbooks
(U.S. Public Interest Research Group, survey of 156 campuses in 33 states)
• That’s equal to more than 7% of UNH in-state tuition!
• Since 1978, college textbook costs have increased
812%. To put that in context, it means that textbook
prices have increased at 3.2 times the rate of
inflation. (Mark J Perry, AEIdeas. http://www.aei.org)
• Used/rentals/ebooks don’t solve the problem. Used
textbooks are undermined by new editions, rentals
create a system where we remove books from
student hands. Many ebooks have expiration dates
and print limits.
CCBY Sean McMenemy flic.kr/p/8L2hMU
• 60% of students report not
purchasing a required
textbook because of cost,
and 23% regularly go
without books due to cost
• 50% of students report
taking fewer courses due
to textbook costs
• 14% have dropped a
course and 10% have
withdrawn from a course
due to textbook costs
2012 Survey of 22,000 students, Florida Virtual Campus, comprised of the
12 universities and 28 colleges in the Florida state system.
When Universities Address
Houston Community College
• OER --increase in class grade average, increase in
average score on departmental final exam, and a
lower course withdrawal rate. (2011, 690 students,
• Pass rates 8.54% higher in OER math sections. (2012,
695 students, http://www.educause.edu/)
Tidewater Community College
• 90.4% retention rate in all-OER Z-degrees.
Average savings per student, per course with OER is $128.00.
Savings generated are often up to 6 times the amount invested.
Textbook Costs REALLY Matter
• A 2014 survey found that nearly half of students
(49%) were actually willing to choose one
university over another if free textbooks were
provided all four years.
• The survey showed that college students currently
worry more about how they will afford required
college textbooks than they do about paying the
cost of tuition.
Image CCBYNC Thomas Hawk https://flic.kr/p/PNrwk
This is not (only) about COST
We could save students money in tons of
– Increase all class sizes to 100+;
– Increase all teaching loads to 6-6;
– Close the library! Close the gym!
– Turn off the heat!
Cheaper isn’t the (only) point. Affordability will
bring more students to the table and keep them
there. But that is only the beginning of how OER can
improve the learning process.
“give the customer
what s/he wants.”
Photo: CC BY SA Magnus Manske
• Community and collaboration over content.
• Connects the university with the wider public.
• Treats education as a learner-developed process.
• Is skeptical of hoops, products, end-points, experts,
CC BY Tripp flic.kr/p/6K8Kmv
Schedule of Work
what does OER
• Add Components
• Revise & Reorder
What will your students bring to the class?
Where will they take it?
CCBYSA Patti Neumann http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Buttress_roots.JPG#/media/File:Buttress_roots.JPG
Image by Daniel Lynds, @daniellynds
Schedule of Work
What is the role of content in your community?
Schedule of Work
Function of CONTENT:
for students to learn to identify what matters to them.
The shelf-life of discipline-specific content is short.
The shelf-life of learner-centered inquiry is forever.
CC BY Gayle Nicholson flic.kr/p/5wuqSd
“The amount of
knowledge in the world
has doubled in the past
10 years and is [now]
doubling every 18
months…To combat the
shrinking half-life of
have been forced to
develop new methods of
CCBY Kevin Dooley flic.kr/p/5ttM97
Connected, Not Disposable
CCBYSA Martin Abegglin flic.kr/p/7AUF3h
• Training peer graders like we train standardized test
graders (the @Chris_Friend model)
• Open p2p Badges (the BC Campus model)
• Grading by contract and crowdsourcing (the
• Grading by guided, frequent self-evaluation (the
• Grades that emphasize effort/engagement (the
“Every study of peer review among students shows that students
perform at a higher level, and with more care, when they know they
are being evaluated by their peers than when they know only the
teacher and the TA will be grading” ~Cathy N. Davidson
CCBYNCND Andrew Purdam flic.kr/p/3dCSg1
• Intellectual Property Scholarly Dialogue
• CC Licenses Retain Copyright
• Open Access Journals & Peer Review
• Green and Gold OA Publishing
• Institutional Policies for OA
• Access is a Social Justice Issue
• The High Cost of Paywalls
Why Do You Do What You Do?
If you write to be read, to encourage critical thinking and
to educate, then why wouldn't you disseminate your
work as far as possible? Open access is the answer.
~Martin Eve, University of Lincoln
Photo: CC BY SA Ken Lund, https://www.flickr.com/people/75683070@N00
• OER has to be gratis AND libre.
• Saving money is HUGE to students.
• OER can empower learners.
• Rhizomatic approaches honor student
contributions and enable lifelong learning.
• Content isn’t everything.
• Assignments should matter to students and
should involve their communities.
• Grading should match our pedagogy.
• Our courses are communities and communities
don’t have end dates.
• Scholarly work should be accessible to the public.
CCBYNC Ian-bogdan dumitrescu flic.kr/p/mRKNQ