http://grammarist.com/usage/depository-repository/ In its oldest English sense, dating from the 15th century,1 a repository is a place where things are stored, usually for safe keeping. Depository, which entered English a couple of centuries later,2 bears the same meaning (though, considered etymologically, a depository is a place where things are deposited, whereas a repository is one where things rest), and indeed both words are widely used to refer to places where things are stored.
Juul (2003, para. 15).
“One of the most fascinating (albeit underdeveloped) parts of the book is Kolko’s “poetic” model of interaction. He writes, “An interaction occurs in the conceptual space between a person and an object. It is at once physical, cognitive, and social. A poetic interaction is one that resonates immediately but yet continues to inform later—it is one that causes reflection, and one that relies heavily on a state of emotional awareness. Additionally, a poetic interaction is one that is nearly always subtle, yet mindful” (104). Kolko claims that what amount to the ‘common requisites’ of poetic interaction are “honesty, mindfulness, and a vivid and refined attention to sensory detail” (105). He devotes but 4 pages to the entirety of this fascinating idea of poetic interaction.”
2019 TURIN Summer School- Game Design Workshop
‘Gamification & Cultural Heritage’
3 September 2019 workshop
Erik Champion, Curtin University email@example.com twitter
1. Introductions for all (10-20 minutes):
YOU: name, research topic, game you liked+why, idea for project?
2. Overview: games, gamification (50-40 minutes) finish 9:30
3. Discussion of technologies, methods + prototyping (20 minutes).
4. Group suggest ideas (10 minutes)
5. Short break/questions (20 minutes)
6. Selection of teams (10 minutes) Finish at 10:30
7. Work on game ideas as prototypes. playtest solutions
OR describe how DH simulations could be gamified (90 minutes)
8. Present prototypes/suggestions in class (30 minutes) finish 12:30
Australian Theatre Projectshttps://hunterlivinghistories.com/2018/09/13/victoria-theatre-3d-vr/ Victoria Theatre
Newcastle – 3D Reconstruction Project (also https://hunterlivinghistories.com/glamx/)
Phillips, P., Hartup, M., and Champion, E. (2009). “A survey of 10 free massive multiplayer online games that may help augment social interaction
and positive mental health.” The ANZ Association of Psychiatry, Psychology And Law (Inc.) Conference, Fremantle,
Shown at VSMM2011 conference
Chinese Taoism Touch Screen by Neil Wang and Erik Champion
Indigenous Heritage Machinima
‘In game’ footage: Sims 4 machinima -3rd Person-Susannah
Emery Honours Project With Michele Wilson
How to use panotours
or hotspot tours in Unity+VR
Panoramic movies-Beat Dawson, Dr Pauline Joseph, EC
Hafizur Rahaman, Erik Champion
WHY Digital games??
• easy to change, simpler IDEs
• easy to find students +
• Lower maintenance -online
• active modding community
• inbuilt performance
• interaction more intuitive
• Different ways of learning
• fast-moving technology (?)
• less coding flexibility (?)
• looked down upon
• No pro support-not main
• artistic artifice OR hist.
• evaluating without
• genre baggage
History through game engines
• Resource management
• Learn social behavior (chat,
• Visualize scale, landscape or
• Depict levels of uncertainty
• Filter, reconfigure,
• Immersion in excitement of
• Select correct objects or
appearance to move about
the ‘world’, trade, advance
social role or period of time
• Decipher codes, language,
• Online walkthrough by
teacher or inhabitant
• Collaborative storytelling (in-
world role-playing, film-
1. communicate cultural significance
2. manage technical change
3. demonstrate archaeological
method & principle
4. convey inhabitants’ viewpoints
5. link scholarly or intangible data
6. help communities convey traditions
Not clear how to
Defining Games: engaging
• A rule-based formal system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where
different outcomes are assigned different values, the player exerts effort in order to
influence the outcome, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the
consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable. (Juul 2003, para 15).
• A system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that
results in a quantifiable outcome. (Salen and Zimmerman, 2004).
– possibility of temporary or permanent tactical resolution without conflict (mimesis,
– Discounts games that may never have a final outcome (e.g. cricket)
– No mention of the importance of strategy.
– NB Virtual environments have constraints and affordances, games have risks and rewards.
What should virtual heritage have?
• An engaging challenge that offers up armful outcomes to the real world situation of the
participant (Champion, 2006).
Example: bust a cup
• Engaging challenge
• Feedback + reward system
• Easy to learn, hard to
• It needs 2 players
• Some element of danger
• Anyone can build one
• Games and prototypes
don’t have to be digital https://shakethatbutton.com/bust-a-cup/
Stuff used :
– pieces of wood
– locks and chains
– coffee cups
Created by : Brian Shrank & Brian Gabor Jr.
1. Addition to websites and learning environments of
quantifiable actions, can be ranked and processed (info
stored), immediate & vastly exaggerated feedback &
graphically designed in idiom of games.
2. Game-based rules structures & interfaces by corps “to
manage and control brand-communities and to create
value”, attraction of gamification to business and derision
it has received (Fuchs 2013).
3. Goal in mind the player works to achieve; systematic or
emergent rules; considered a form of play or competition
• Critics! (Bogost 2011; Deterding et al. 2011; Fuchs 2014).
“Gamification Is Bullshit” (Ian Bogost)
• BUT http://www.epicwinblog.net/2013/10/can-
1. Games inherently fun, vs
gamification makes (tries to
make) things fun.
2. Games: space, action,
3. Gamify: actions are tasks
duties or work.
4. Can’t directly apply game
mechanics to gamification.
Inherent game play and discovery
goes beyond gamification?
University of Trondheim: Renaissance books, hands on
Roger Caillois: forms of play?
challenge modes Engages because you Archaeology Examples Pros/Cons
Compete against people,
Civilization? All those
build empire games..
-Means to end
Could Spore be an
Mastery of commitment,
mental focus, multi-
The extreme parkour of
Observation, control and
humour and roleplaying
Maybe if Sims 4 was
used as anthropological
Mechanics: evade definitions
1. Action constrained by gameplay-Sicart 2008
2. ..tools, techniques, and widgets for gamifying a website or application.-
3. “constructs of rules or methods designed for interaction with the game
4. ..any major chunk of gameplay in a video game..” Michael Stout,
5. Fixed and unchanging subsystem-Al Nelson, Quora
6. How you interact with the game dynamic, the generic gameplay methods-
7. Methods by which the game moves forward, BGDF
8. describes the game components at level of data representation and
algorithms. (Hunicke et al)
4-5 Types of Mechanics
1. Game progression mechanics (progress the player through the game)
2. Performance mechanics / Rewards and skills mastery mechanics
(encourage player to improve + extend their range of skills and judgement)
3. Narrative mechanics (progress /unfold or bring together apparent story
threads in relation to game play). Are dramatic mechanics a subset?
4. Behavioural and Role assimilation mechanics (mechanics which become
habit through repeated game play, and accustom players to see things in
5. Insight and reversal mechanics (disrupt the in-game or real-world
expectations + presumptions of the player acquired previously or during
game to reveal viewpoint taken for granted, or supplant a view created by
Reversing Game Mechanics
• In Space invaders you
normally shoot down
• What if you were an alien
refugee feeling destruction
and tried to land
peacefully on earth?
• Watch video
Games can reverse stereotypes
e.g. Space Refugees (Zach Whalen)
When was the last time a video game told you about a whole other culture? Took you somewhere remote you'd only heard about in passing,
and let the people who've lived there speak to you in a generations-old voice? Never Alone does that all-too-rare thing and does it very well.
This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption
This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption
Serious Games For Prototyping?
“Playing games? It’s a serious way to win community backing for change “
community-backing-for-change-116171 and https://www.audrc.org/
Some persuasive (?) games
• Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes persuasively.’
• Description https://ahatter.wordpress.com/serious-video-games/procedurality-and-september-
• Game http://www.newsgaming.com/games/index12.htm download windows version
Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural
rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes
1. What is success, defined by whom?
2. Too formalist? Better OR just for serious games?
3. How does PR work with agency, freedom of a player to
4. Is Rhetoric empty argument? How does PR differ to
5. Traditional rhetoric (speech +writing + oratory) also
spatial? Can sequentially experienced art be PR?
6. Rhetoric depends on memory, does it work for people
with different cognitive load, with different
strategies/game-play, learning modalities?
7. Players often distort or misunderstand the rules!
8. Too similar to gamification?
Designing a Game Not A
• What is the goal? Why try to achieve it?
• Why is it an engaging challenge? Does it involve
competition/mastery, chance, imitation,
controlling vertigo/rush of movement/flight?
• What is the feedback system, affordances and
constraints, rewards and punishments?
• Does it level up/use mechanics to advance?
• How does it offer different strategies, options?
• What is learnt during or after the experience?
Designing a Prototype
1. How would your game provide an engaging challenge?
2. What is the core game play?
3. How is the player given feedback and how are they rewarded?
4. How would you create game balance, not too hard or too easy
(unlike most software, games are easy to learn and hard to master)
5. How will mechanics advance the stages or levels of the game?
6. Does your prototype convey the above simply, effectively, in a fun
7. How will your prototype convey the fun AND catch any problems?
8. Will you ask friends or colleagues to test the prototype?
Questions to Ask When
1. What should be experienced & interacted with, as
specifically as possible.
2. Why create a specific experience in a game? (Our
3. Where will it be played? (Environment, imaginative setting?)
4. How to convey the experience of the site, artefact or model?
1. Systems, methods, or findings leading to engaging learning experiences?
2. Reveal what is unknown or debated (how knowledge is established or
3. Interpretative systems or to test, demo, pose / test a scholarly argument?
5. When will the player receive suitable feedback?
6 Steps for History+Heritage
1. Determine cultural, historical or archaeological facts and interpretations of the site or model
that are significant, hidden, or otherwise appropriate, engaging or transformative to explore.
2. Consider the environment it will be played in, not just the type of audience, together, alone,
on a bus, in a lecture theatre, at a museum?
3. Design a game rather than a virtual environment: choose a challenge (Caillois’ modes of
game experience or some other theory), and how core game play affects and is affected by
the modality of experience. #2 and #3 also give us an idea of a setting and theme.
4. Define the core gameplay, what does the player typically do? Does the game scale, changing
in effectiveness and complexity over time? Because increasing complexity will help keep the
5. Develop a reward and punishment system; how do the rewards and punishments interact
with the core gameplay and move the game along (i.e. trigger its mechanics)?
6. End meaningfully. What is the end state? How will the game mechanics help us get there?
Does reaching the end state create an intentional specific reflection, knowledge
development, interpretation, experience or other feeling in the player?
What does the
Core game play
What is Learnt?
Roleplaying a Ludic Waterloo
S American roleplaying
Miguel Escobar, Heritage Interfaces 2016, NUS Singapore
Exercise: Rapid prototyping
• Gather together your UX supplies, including A4 paper, markers and sticky dots
• Give each person an A4 sheet of paper and ask them to draw eight boxes on it. Or, for
even more ease, simply use my free downloadable Crazy 8’s template!
• Set a timer for 8 minutes and ask the group to sketch 8 quick ideas each in 8 minutes
• When the timer pings, everyone stops sketching
• At this point (time-dependent) you can either:
– Ask people to present their top three ideas to the group
– Ask people pick their three favourite ideas. Give them 6 more minutes to sketch
out these three ideas further. Then ask them to present them to the group.
• Give everyone 2 sticky dots, vote on their favourite ideas out of the whole group
– NB UX sketching https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oakzPi2urR8
• Download and read chapter
10 People and Prototypes
tribute to Bill Moggridge
• How prototypes helped
Examples in Augmented Reality
• AR prototype with cartoon
Fk25OQJ_8 (effects: SPARK AR Studio
studio/ or AR Creator Cartoon
Building an augmented reality (AR)
application using the WebXR Device API
Twine: to prototype
1. User flows.
2. Code architecture.
3. Branching narratives.
4. Other branching game structures.
With sugar cube
Explanation, interactive fiction examples
Some twine stories
• Venus Meets Venus by kaleidofish, Twine (2014).
• the uncle who works for nintendo by Michael
Lutz (2014), Twine. Free
• https://www.mcvuk.com/development/a-guide-to-twine (many examples)
• Twine wiki
• Free twine hosting http://philome.la/allieisanant/merry-wanderer play free game
students/content/Digital%20Mapping.html Digital Mapping Tool Tutorial
https://www.inklestudios.com/blog/ OR https://www.inklestudios.com/inklewriter/
Play demo the intercept https://www.inklestudios.com/ink/theintercept/
• “Storyboards and Sketch Prototypes for Rapid Interface Visualization
– “Describe the task with a series of images, showing the user, the environment, and the
– “Describe the interface with a series of screen images, indicating the user’s
representation and the computer’s response.” [“what happens next?”]
• Storyboarding vs. Prototyping: When to Use Each
• https://Create Storyboards for your web comics
– What event or user interaction causes which things to animate
– How said things animate
– Why the animation improves the interaction
• How to storyboard your game tools i.e. Canv
creator free trial
templates/ not all free nb
Game card prototypes
(nanDECK for windows)
• How to design a board or card game: 10 prototyping tips
storytelling-skills/ (download cards
• Card editor https://bitbucket.org/mattsinger/card-editor free
• http://www.CardsAgainstHumanity.com Ask a question from a Black Card,
everyone else answers with funniest White Card. […] download PDF here
• https://www.patreon.com/paperize (beta) download video or Github
Using presentation software
• Using Powerpoint to prototype your UI:
• For iPhone https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/tutorials/how-to-
• https://www.defold.com/ 2D games
Drawing tool inspiration
3d/ two3D is a physics-
based 2D to 3D “drawing”
tool currently in
development-create art in
a quick and intuitive way.
Also destroy it. Set it on
Scan the World
Virtual Theater District of Pompeii
Draw 3D in VR (TiltVR)
• draw with VR
• Export to Unity from TiltVR/HTC Vive-Oculus
Rebecca Kerr, Curtin https://rebeccaknotebook.wordpress.com/2018/02/16/interactive-creative-explorer/
• https://alicevision.github.io/ tutorials at
– Meshlab + Sketchfab+ Regard3D (a free and open source
• INKSCAPE (a professional vector graphics
editor for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux - free
and open source) https://inkscape.org/en/
• https://www.pixelmator.com/pro/ new beta
Prototype with AR
•Magic book AR
•Apple ARKit or Google ARCore
•Six Top Tools to Build Augmented Reality Mobile Apps
SENSORY urban history?
Bodily Experiences-smell Indirect Biofed Environments
Champion and Dekker, Biofeedback and Virtual Environments, IJAC 2011 or.
The ARtefactKit - Stu Eve
• https://aframe.io/ Make WebVR with HTML for Vive, Rift,
Daydream, GearVR, desktop
• Design tool for AR and VR
• Storyboard AR free but windows/HTC Vive only
Game prototyping (pro)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9O9Q8OVWrFA see also
Key Gamification References
Bogost, Ian, Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames,
Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007).
Bogost, I. (2008). The Rhetoric of Video Games. In K. Salen (Ed.), The Ecology of
Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning (pp. 117–140). Cambridge,
MA:: The MIT Press.
Bogost, I. (2008). Unit operations: An approach to videogame criticism: MIT
King, M. Procedural Rhetoric:Analyzing Video Games. Retrieved 24 March, 2014,
Reid, A. (2010, 11 March). post-procedural rhetoric and serious games.
Retrieved from http://alex-reid.net/2010/03/postprocedural-rhetoric-and-
Thominet, L. (2012). Procedural Rhetoric. Retrieved 24 March, 2014, from
Treanor, M., & Mateas, M. (2009). Newsgames: Procedural rhetoric meets
political cartoons. Digital Games Research Association-DIGRA, 2009.
Sicart, M. (2011). Against Procedurality. Game Studies the international journal
of computer game research, 11(3), online. Retrieved from Gamestudies website:
Aiken, S. F., & Talisse, R. B. (2014). Why We Argue (And How We Should): A
Guide to Political Disagreement. New York: Routledge.
Betts, B. W., Bal, J., & Betts, A. W. (2013). Gamification as a tool for increasing
the depth of student understanding using a collaborative e-learning
environment. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education
and Life Long Learning, 23(3), 213-228.
Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification Is Bullshit. The Atlantic. Retrieved from The
Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification is bullshit. Ian Bogost blog, 8, 2011.
Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification.
using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. Paper presented at the
CHI'11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems.
Flanagan, M. (2010). Creating Critical Play. In R. Catlow, M. Garrett, & C.
Morgana (Eds.), Artists Re: thinking Games (pp. 49-53). Liverpool: Liverpool
Flanagan, M. (2013). Critical Play Radical Game Design. Cambridge MA: The MIT
Frasca, G. (2003). Simulation versus narrative. The video game theory reader,
Fuchs, M. (2014). Gamification as twenty-first-century ideology. Journal of
Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 6(2), 143-157.
Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work?--A
Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. Paper presented at the
System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on.
Shand, J. (2002). Arguing well. London: Routledge.
Shelton, B. E., & Wiley, D. A. (Eds.). (2007). The Design And Use Of Simulation
Games In Education: Sense Publishers.
Stansbury, M. (2013, 19 August). Why you should care about gamification in
higher education. Blog Retrieved from http://www.ecampusnews.com/top-