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2019 TURIN Summer School- Game Design Workshop

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How to prototype a history or heritage serious game

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2019 TURIN Summer School- Game Design Workshop

  1. 1. ‘Gamification & Cultural Heritage’ 3 September 2019 workshop Erik Champion, Curtin University erik.champion@curtin.edu.au twitter @nzerik
  2. 2. Programme 8.30-12.30 1. Introductions for all (10-20 minutes): YOU: name, research topic, game you liked+why, idea for project? 2. Overview: games, gamification (50-40 minutes) finish 9:30 3. Discussion of technologies, methods + prototyping (20 minutes). 4. Group suggest ideas (10 minutes) 5. Short break/questions (20 minutes) 6. Selection of teams (10 minutes) Finish at 10:30 7. Work on game ideas as prototypes. playtest solutions OR describe how DH simulations could be gamified (90 minutes) 8. Present prototypes/suggestions in class (30 minutes) finish 12:30
  3. 3. Australian Theatre Projectshttps://hunterlivinghistories.com/2018/09/13/victoria-theatre-3d-vr/ Victoria Theatre Newcastle – 3D Reconstruction Project (also https://hunterlivinghistories.com/glamx/) also https://researchdata.ands.org.au/cultural-atlas-australia-film-literature/550693
  4. 4. Biofeedback Phillips, P., Hartup, M., and Champion, E. (2009). “A survey of 10 free massive multiplayer online games that may help augment social interaction and positive mental health.” The ANZ Association of Psychiatry, Psychology And Law (Inc.) Conference, Fremantle,
  5. 5. Shown at VSMM2011 conference Chinese Taoism Touch Screen by Neil Wang and Erik Champion
  6. 6. Indigenous Heritage Machinima ‘In game’ footage: Sims 4 machinima -3rd Person-Susannah Emery Honours Project With Michele Wilson
  7. 7. How to use panotours or hotspot tours in Unity+VR Panoramic movies-Beat Dawson, Dr Pauline Joseph, EC
  8. 8. RUSAILIABAZLAMIT, PHDSTUDENT, VSMM2017
  9. 9. Intern project Agathe Limouzy Toulouse (Collaborative Learning)
  10. 10. PhD project Mafkereseb Bekele (MR-Collaborative Learning)
  11. 11. Hafizur Rahaman, Erik Champion Crowd-sourced photogrammetry
  12. 12. WHY Digital games?? Pros/Cons • easy to change, simpler IDEs • easy to find students + involve them • Lower maintenance -online forums • active modding community • inbuilt performance evaluation • interaction more intuitive • Different ways of learning • fast-moving technology (?) • less coding flexibility (?) • looked down upon • No pro support-not main market • artistic artifice OR hist. accuracy • evaluating without disturbing • genre baggage
  13. 13. History through game engines • Resource management • Learn social behavior (chat, observation, mimicry) • Visualize scale, landscape or climate • Depict levels of uncertainty • Filter, reconfigure, reconstruct • Immersion in excitement of the times • Select correct objects or appearance to move about the ‘world’, trade, advance social role or period of time • Decipher codes, language, avoid traps • Online walkthrough by teacher or inhabitant • Collaborative storytelling (in- world role-playing, film- making)
  14. 14. 1. communicate cultural significance 2. manage technical change 3. demonstrate archaeological method & principle 4. convey inhabitants’ viewpoints 5. link scholarly or intangible data 6. help communities convey traditions Not clear how to
  15. 15. Defining Games: engaging challenge? • A rule-based formal system with a variable and quantifiable outcome, where different outcomes are assigned different values, the player exerts effort in order to influence the outcome, the player feels attached to the outcome, and the consequences of the activity are optional and negotiable. (Juul 2003, para 15). • A system in which players engage in an artificial conflict, defined by rules, that results in a quantifiable outcome. (Salen and Zimmerman, 2004). – possibility of temporary or permanent tactical resolution without conflict (mimesis, vertigo, chance?) – Discounts games that may never have a final outcome (e.g. cricket) – No mention of the importance of strategy. – NB Virtual environments have constraints and affordances, games have risks and rewards. What should virtual heritage have? • An engaging challenge that offers up armful outcomes to the real world situation of the participant (Champion, 2006).
  16. 16. Example: bust a cup • Engaging challenge • Feedback + reward system • Easy to learn, hard to master • It needs 2 players • Some element of danger • Anyone can build one • Games and prototypes don’t have to be digital https://shakethatbutton.com/bust-a-cup/ Stuff used : – pieces of wood – hammers – locks and chains – coffee cups Created by : Brian Shrank & Brian Gabor Jr.
  17. 17. Defining Gamification 1. Addition to websites and learning environments of quantifiable actions, can be ranked and processed (info stored), immediate & vastly exaggerated feedback & graphically designed in idiom of games. 2. Game-based rules structures & interfaces by corps “to manage and control brand-communities and to create value”, attraction of gamification to business and derision it has received (Fuchs 2013). 3. Goal in mind the player works to achieve; systematic or emergent rules; considered a form of play or competition • Critics! (Bogost 2011; Deterding et al. 2011; Fuchs 2014).
  18. 18. “Gamification Is Bullshit” (Ian Bogost) • BUT http://www.epicwinblog.net/2013/10/can- we-use-game-mechanics-for.html 1. Games inherently fun, vs gamification makes (tries to make) things fun. 2. Games: space, action, movement, verbs. 3. Gamify: actions are tasks duties or work. 4. Can’t directly apply game mechanics to gamification. Inherent game play and discovery goes beyond gamification? University of Trondheim: Renaissance books, hands on alchemy
  19. 19. Games have desirable goals
  20. 20. Roger Caillois: forms of play? challenge modes Engages because you Archaeology Examples Pros/Cons Competition Agon (competition / strategy) Compete against people, long-term decision making Civilization? All those build empire games.. -Means to end +Strategic + Engaging Chance Alea Handle unpredictability, humour Could Spore be an archaeology game? -No causality + Engaging Vertigo Ilinx Mastery of commitment, mental focus, multi- tasking The extreme parkour of Assassin’s creed? -Distracts +Ergodic appreciation + Engaging Mimicry mimesis Observation, control and humour and roleplaying Maybe if Sims 4 was used as anthropological machinima? -Difficult for interfaces +Build empathy + Engaging
  21. 21. Mechanics: evade definitions 1. Action constrained by gameplay-Sicart 2008 2. ..tools, techniques, and widgets for gamifying a website or application.- Badgevillle 3. “constructs of rules or methods designed for interaction with the game state..” Wiki 4. ..any major chunk of gameplay in a video game..” Michael Stout, 5. Fixed and unchanging subsystem-Al Nelson, Quora 6. How you interact with the game dynamic, the generic gameplay methods- Ryan Allen 7. Methods by which the game moves forward, BGDF 8. describes the game components at level of data representation and algorithms. (Hunicke et al)
  22. 22. 4-5 Types of Mechanics 1. Game progression mechanics (progress the player through the game) 2. Performance mechanics / Rewards and skills mastery mechanics (encourage player to improve + extend their range of skills and judgement) 3. Narrative mechanics (progress /unfold or bring together apparent story threads in relation to game play). Are dramatic mechanics a subset? 4. Behavioural and Role assimilation mechanics (mechanics which become habit through repeated game play, and accustom players to see things in certain ways) 5. Insight and reversal mechanics (disrupt the in-game or real-world expectations + presumptions of the player acquired previously or during game to reveal viewpoint taken for granted, or supplant a view created by game play.
  23. 23. Reversing Game Mechanics • In Space invaders you normally shoot down aliens. • What if you were an alien refugee feeling destruction and tried to land peacefully on earth? • Watch video https://www.youtube.com /watch?v=oSDd_ytw4T4 Games can reverse stereotypes e.g. Space Refugees (Zach Whalen)
  24. 24. Never alone Website http://neveralonegame.com/ Trailer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lM_80zVzwpI When was the last time a video game told you about a whole other culture? Took you somewhere remote you'd only heard about in passing, and let the people who've lived there speak to you in a generations-old voice? Never Alone does that all-too-rare thing and does it very well.
  25. 25. https://www.polygon.com/2018/9/3/17800798/this-land-is-my- land-preview-native-american-western-stealth-game This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption This Land is My Land takes a different view of the Wild West than Red Dead Redemption
  26. 26. • http://thegamedesignroundtable.com/2018/02/23/189-gaming-the-past-with- jeremiah-mccall/ audio
  27. 27. Serious Games For Prototyping? “Playing games? It’s a serious way to win community backing for change “ https://theconversation.com/playing-games-its-a-serious-way-to-win- community-backing-for-change-116171 and https://www.audrc.org/
  28. 28. Some persuasive (?) games • Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes persuasively.’ http://bogost.com/books/persuasive_games/ • Description https://ahatter.wordpress.com/serious-video-games/procedurality-and-september- 12/ • Game http://www.newsgaming.com/games/index12.htm download windows version
  29. 29. Ian Bogost (2007) defined procedural rhetoric as ‘a practice of using processes persuasively.’ 1. What is success, defined by whom? 2. Too formalist? Better OR just for serious games? 3. How does PR work with agency, freedom of a player to choose? 4. Is Rhetoric empty argument? How does PR differ to Gamification? 5. Traditional rhetoric (speech +writing + oratory) also spatial? Can sequentially experienced art be PR? Karnak, Acropolis? 6. Rhetoric depends on memory, does it work for people with different cognitive load, with different strategies/game-play, learning modalities? 7. Players often distort or misunderstand the rules! 8. Too similar to gamification?
  30. 30. Designing a Game Not A Walkthrough • What is the goal? Why try to achieve it? • Why is it an engaging challenge? Does it involve competition/mastery, chance, imitation, controlling vertigo/rush of movement/flight? • What is the feedback system, affordances and constraints, rewards and punishments? • Does it level up/use mechanics to advance? • How does it offer different strategies, options? • What is learnt during or after the experience?
  31. 31. Designing a Prototype 1. How would your game provide an engaging challenge? 2. What is the core game play? 3. How is the player given feedback and how are they rewarded? 4. How would you create game balance, not too hard or too easy (unlike most software, games are easy to learn and hard to master) 5. How will mechanics advance the stages or levels of the game? 6. Does your prototype convey the above simply, effectively, in a fun way? 7. How will your prototype convey the fun AND catch any problems? 8. Will you ask friends or colleagues to test the prototype?
  32. 32. Questions to Ask When Designing 1. What should be experienced & interacted with, as specifically as possible. 2. Why create a specific experience in a game? (Our objectives?) 3. Where will it be played? (Environment, imaginative setting?) 4. How to convey the experience of the site, artefact or model? 1. Systems, methods, or findings leading to engaging learning experiences? 2. Reveal what is unknown or debated (how knowledge is established or contested)? 3. Interpretative systems or to test, demo, pose / test a scholarly argument? 5. When will the player receive suitable feedback?
  33. 33. 6 Steps for History+Heritage 1. Determine cultural, historical or archaeological facts and interpretations of the site or model that are significant, hidden, or otherwise appropriate, engaging or transformative to explore. 2. Consider the environment it will be played in, not just the type of audience, together, alone, on a bus, in a lecture theatre, at a museum? 3. Design a game rather than a virtual environment: choose a challenge (Caillois’ modes of game experience or some other theory), and how core game play affects and is affected by the modality of experience. #2 and #3 also give us an idea of a setting and theme. 4. Define the core gameplay, what does the player typically do? Does the game scale, changing in effectiveness and complexity over time? Because increasing complexity will help keep the game interesting. 5. Develop a reward and punishment system; how do the rewards and punishments interact with the core gameplay and move the game along (i.e. trigger its mechanics)? 6. End meaningfully. What is the end state? How will the game mechanics help us get there? Does reaching the end state create an intentional specific reflection, knowledge development, interpretation, experience or other feeling in the player?
  34. 34. Cultural Significance, Hidden features, uniqueness Place/context Move, Compete, Chance, Mimic •Engaging Challenge What does the player typically do? Core game play Changes game state, Feedback to player Mechanics Reward, Punishment, Hierarchical? Free? GOALS Methods; Facts; Tools; Techniques, Strategies Abilities: Spatial coordination; Reflexes; Observations; Memory; timing. What is Learnt?
  35. 35. Roleplaying a Ludic Waterloo • https://video.twimg.com/ext_tw_video/84201424319301632 0/pu/vid/1280x720/LpXIOXvAM3o7V5iv.mp4
  36. 36. S American roleplaying https://twitter.com/search?vertical=default&q=%23caaatlanta&src=typd
  37. 37. Miguel Escobar, Heritage Interfaces 2016, NUS Singapore THEMATICinterfaces
  38. 38. Workshop 2018
  39. 39. You need to challenge and build on each others ideas! (3 groups from 2018)
  40. 40. PROTOTYPING
  41. 41. Exercise: Rapid prototyping (groups)https://www.iamnotmypixels.com/how-to-use-crazy-8s-to-generate-design-ideas/ • Gather together your UX supplies, including A4 paper, markers and sticky dots • Give each person an A4 sheet of paper and ask them to draw eight boxes on it. Or, for even more ease, simply use my free downloadable Crazy 8’s template! • Set a timer for 8 minutes and ask the group to sketch 8 quick ideas each in 8 minutes • When the timer pings, everyone stops sketching • At this point (time-dependent) you can either: – Ask people to present their top three ideas to the group – Ask people pick their three favourite ideas. Give them 6 more minutes to sketch out these three ideas further. Then ask them to present them to the group. • Give everyone 2 sticky dots, vote on their favourite ideas out of the whole group – NB UX sketching https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oakzPi2urR8 – https://www.tandemseven.com/experience-design/ux-agile-run-product-design- sprint/ – https://www.uxbooth.com/articles/40-hours-to-prototype/) https://www.iamnotmypixels.com/how-to-use-crazy-8s-to- generate-design-ideas/
  42. 42. Designing interactions.. • Download and read chapter 10 People and Prototypes http://www.designingintera ctions.com/download plus tribute to Bill Moggridge (optional) https://www.youtube.com/ watch?v=PWkk9sr_GOs • How prototypes helped Apple https://www.cultofmac.com /488008/jony-ive-book- excerpt-iphone/
  43. 43. Examples in Augmented Reality • AR prototype with cartoon https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LY Fk25OQJ_8 (effects: SPARK AR Studio https://sparkar.facebook.com/ar- studio/ or AR Creator Cartoon https://apps.apple.com/au/app/ar- creator-cartoon/id1374011229) OR WebXR tutorial https://codelabs.developers.google.co m/codelabs/ar-with-webxr/#0 Building an augmented reality (AR) application using the WebXR Device API
  44. 44. Twine: to prototype games http://www.sibylmoon.com/twine-as-a- prototyping-tool/ 1. User flows. 2. Code architecture. 3. Branching narratives. 4. Other branching game structures. https://rmcphersonnarrativedesign.wordpr ess.com/2015/03/30/to-live-using-twine- as-a-prototyping-tool/ With sugar cube https://opensource.com/article/18/2/twin e-gaming Explanation, interactive fiction examples https://www.gamasutra.com/blogs/LizEngl and/20150313/238709/What_is_Twine_Fo r_Developers.php https://www.christytuckerlearning.com/br anching-scenario-prototype-in-twine/
  45. 45. Some twine stories • Venus Meets Venus by kaleidofish, Twine (2014). Free http://ifdb.tads.org/viewgame?id=fbvvkywbvcov binl • the uncle who works for nintendo by Michael Lutz (2014), Twine. Free http://ifdb.tads.org/viewgame?id=dwgm9le9d8u h2ibq [https://ztul.itch.io/the-uncle-who-works- for-nintendo] horror
  46. 46. Twine examples • https://www.mcvuk.com/development/a-guide-to-twine (many examples) • https://www.mcvuk.com/development/developer-guide-what-is-twine • http://www.sfwa.org/creating-interactive-fiction-guide-using-twine/ • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english- students/content/Twine%20Tool%20Tutorial.html • Twine wiki • TwineHub • Free twine hosting http://philome.la/allieisanant/merry-wanderer play free game http://philome.la/allieisanant/merry-wanderer/play • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english- students/content/Digital%20Mapping.html Digital Mapping Tool Tutorial • https://jennaherdman.gitbooks.io/a-digital-humanities-primer-for-english- students/content/Twine%20Tool%20Tutorial.html
  47. 47. Ink/inkle https://www.inklestudios.com/blog/ OR https://www.inklestudios.com/inklewriter/ Play demo the intercept https://www.inklestudios.com/ink/theintercept/ Code https://github.com/inkle/the-intercept/blob/master/Assets/Ink/TheIntercept.ink Heaven’s Vault
  48. 48. Storyboarding https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/articles/storyboarding-vs-prototyping-when-to-use-each--cms-28707
  49. 49. • “Storyboards and Sketch Prototypes for Rapid Interface Visualization – “Describe the task with a series of images, showing the user, the environment, and the computer.” OR – “Describe the interface with a series of screen images, indicating the user’s representation and the computer’s response.” [“what happens next?”] • Storyboarding vs. Prototyping: When to Use Each • https://Create Storyboards for your web comics – What event or user interaction causes which things to animate – How said things animate – Why the animation improves the interaction • How to storyboard your game tools i.e. Canv Storyboarding tips
  50. 50. Storyboard tools • https://www.canva.com/create/comic-strips/ • https://www.storyboardthat.com/storyboard- creator free trial • https://schools.pixton.com/schools/overview free trial • https://www.studiobinder.com/blog/top-10- storyboard-software-of-2016-free-storyboard- templates/ not all free nb • https://www.shotprofessional.com/
  51. 51. Game card prototypes • https://streamlinedgaming.com/how-to-make-a-board-game-prototype/ (nanDECK for windows) • How to design a board or card game: 10 prototyping tips • http://www.storybench.org/classroom-card-game-teach-digital- storytelling-skills/ (download cards http://storybench.org/docs/storydeck.pdf) • Card editor https://bitbucket.org/mattsinger/card-editor free (https://www.npmjs.com/package/card-game-generator) • http://www.CardsAgainstHumanity.com Ask a question from a Black Card, everyone else answers with funniest White Card. […] download PDF here • https://www.patreon.com/paperize (beta) download video or Github • https://boardgamegeek.com/thread/991506/resources-card-game- makers
  52. 52. Using presentation software • Using Powerpoint to prototype your UI: • http://boxesandarrows.com/interactive-prototypes-with- powerpoint/ • https://medium.com/berlin-lean-prototyping/5-tips-to-convert- your-powerpoint-into-prototyping-tool-e02d96728efe Apple keynote • https://www.smashingmagazine.com/2015/08/animating-in- keynote/ • https://keynotopia.com/guides/ • For iPhone https://webdesign.tutsplus.com/tutorials/how-to- demo-an-ios-prototype-in-keynote--cms-22279
  53. 53. 2D games • https://www.pcgamer.com/the-secret-history- of-underdog-game-engine-rpg-maker-and- how-it-got-its-bad-reputation// • http://superpowers-html5.com/index.en.html • https://gdevelop-app.com/ • https://www.defold.com/ 2D games
  54. 54. Drawing tool inspiration • http://www.drawastickm an.com/ • http://www.crayonphysic s.com/ • http://42bytes.rocks/two 3d/ two3D is a physics- based 2D to 3D “drawing” tool currently in development-create art in a quick and intuitive way. Also destroy it. Set it on fire.
  55. 55. Create Guided WebXR landscape tours? https://sketchfab.com/
  56. 56. Scan the World https://www.myminifactory.com/scantheworld
  57. 57. Virtual Theater District of Pompeii http://publicvr.org/html/pro_pompeii.html OR http://publicvr.org/PompeiiVRML/ OR http://publicvr.org/images/UnrealPompeiiShots/index.html
  58. 58. Draw 3D in VR (TiltVR) • draw with VR • Export to Unity from TiltVR/HTC Vive-Oculus Rebecca Kerr, Curtin https://rebeccaknotebook.wordpress.com/2018/02/16/interactive-creative-explorer/
  59. 59. Photogrammetry: free • https://alicevision.github.io/ tutorials at https://www.blendernation.com/2018/08/26/how-to- photoscan-easy-and-free-meshroom-and-blender/ – Meshlab + Sketchfab+ Regard3D (a free and open source structure-from-motion program.)
  60. 60. Other tools • GIMP • BLENDER • INKSCAPE (a professional vector graphics editor for Windows, Mac OS X and Linux - free and open source) https://inkscape.org/en/ • https://www.pixelmator.com/pro/ new beta version
  61. 61. Prototype with AR https://developers.google.com/ar/discover/ https://developer.apple.com/augmented-reality/ •http://argonjs.io/ •Magic book AR •Apple ARKit or Google ARCore •Six Top Tools to Build Augmented Reality Mobile Apps
  62. 62. Mixed Reality-Mixed Viewpoints https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Mafkereseb_Bekele
  63. 63. SENSORY urban history? Bodily Experiences-smell Indirect Biofed Environments http://www.dead-mens-eyes.org/ Champion and Dekker, Biofeedback and Virtual Environments, IJAC 2011 or. http://papers.cumincad.org/data/works/att/caadria2011_023.content.pdf The ARtefactKit - Stu Eve
  64. 64. AR VR • https://skarredghost.com/2018/03/03/create-webvr- experience-using-unity/ • https://medium.com/@stew_rtsmith/space-rocks- technical-deep-dive-9bf67fb8a467 • https://www.pcmag.com/feature/362057/how-unity-is- building-its-future-on-ar-vr-and-ai • https://aframe.io/ Make WebVR with HTML for Vive, Rift, Daydream, GearVR, desktop • Design tool for AR and VR • Storyboard AR free but windows/HTC Vive only
  65. 65. Game prototyping (pro) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9O9Q8OVWrFA see also https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JMjozqJS44M
  66. 66. Key Gamification References Bogost, Ian, Persuasive Games: The Expressive Power of Videogames, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 2007). Bogost, I. (2008). The Rhetoric of Video Games. In K. Salen (Ed.), The Ecology of Games: Connecting Youth, Games, and Learning (pp. 117–140). Cambridge, MA:: The MIT Press. Bogost, I. (2008). Unit operations: An approach to videogame criticism: MIT Press. King, M. Procedural Rhetoric:Analyzing Video Games. Retrieved 24 March, 2014, from http://www.dwrl.utexas.edu/old/content/procedural-rhetoric-analyzing- video-games Reid, A. (2010, 11 March). post-procedural rhetoric and serious games. Retrieved from http://alex-reid.net/2010/03/postprocedural-rhetoric-and- serious-games.html Thominet, L. (2012). Procedural Rhetoric. Retrieved 24 March, 2014, from https://sites.google.com/site/composingvideogames/six-levels-of/level-4- critical-game-studies/procedural-rhetoric Treanor, M., & Mateas, M. (2009). Newsgames: Procedural rhetoric meets political cartoons. Digital Games Research Association-DIGRA, 2009. Sicart, M. (2011). Against Procedurality. Game Studies the international journal of computer game research, 11(3), online. Retrieved from Gamestudies website: http://gamestudies.org/1103/articles/sicart_ap Aiken, S. F., & Talisse, R. B. (2014). Why We Argue (And How We Should): A Guide to Political Disagreement. New York: Routledge. Betts, B. W., Bal, J., & Betts, A. W. (2013). Gamification as a tool for increasing the depth of student understanding using a collaborative e-learning environment. International Journal of Continuing Engineering Education and Life Long Learning, 23(3), 213-228. Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification Is Bullshit. The Atlantic. Retrieved from The Atlantic website: http://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2011/08/gamification-is- bullshit/243338/ Bogost, I. (2011). Gamification is bullshit. Ian Bogost blog, 8, 2011. Deterding, S., Sicart, M., Nacke, L., O'Hara, K., & Dixon, D. (2011). Gamification. using game-design elements in non-gaming contexts. Paper presented at the CHI'11 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Flanagan, M. (2010). Creating Critical Play. In R. Catlow, M. Garrett, & C. Morgana (Eds.), Artists Re: thinking Games (pp. 49-53). Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Flanagan, M. (2013). Critical Play Radical Game Design. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press. Frasca, G. (2003). Simulation versus narrative. The video game theory reader, 221-235. Fuchs, M. (2014). Gamification as twenty-first-century ideology. Journal of Gaming & Virtual Worlds, 6(2), 143-157. Hamari, J., Koivisto, J., & Sarsa, H. (2014). Does Gamification Work?--A Literature Review of Empirical Studies on Gamification. Paper presented at the System Sciences (HICSS), 2014 47th Hawaii International Conference on. Shand, J. (2002). Arguing well. London: Routledge. Shelton, B. E., & Wiley, D. A. (Eds.). (2007). The Design And Use Of Simulation Games In Education: Sense Publishers. Stansbury, M. (2013, 19 August). Why you should care about gamification in higher education. Blog Retrieved from http://www.ecampusnews.com/top- news/gamification-higher-education-028/
  67. 67. Questions?

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