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An Introduction toGamificationDoug BaldwinEmerging Technologies LibrarianPiscataway Public Library@baldwind1976 / dbaldwin...
What the next 20 minutes will looklike...• What is Gamification• Reward Based Gamificationo Defineo Theoryo Applicationo P...
What is GamificationTo start, it is not "Gaming in Libraries"...Define:• One definition - "Use of game design elements in ...
What is GamificationNot a new concept - just a new word (2008)Examples• Store and credit card rewards• Airline loyalty pro...
Two quick stats...• M2 Research projects that companies willspend upwards of $2 billion on gamificationservices by 2015• G...
Rewards Based GamificationElements or Game Mechanics• Badges - public indicator of accomplishedtasks or achievements (shar...
Rewards Based GamificationTheory• Feedback Loop (Micro Level)o Player/Individual Takes an Actiono Action produces an effec...
Rewards Based GamificationTheory• (BJ) Fogg Behavioral Model - There are threeelements that must converge in order for a b...
Uses of Rewards Based Gamification1. Human Resources• Staff Development / Trainingo My Marriot Hotel (Marriot)o Plantville...
Uses of Rewards Based Gamification2. Consumer Applicationso FourSquareo SCVNGRo Get Glueo Starbuckso Bank Credit Cardso St...
Uses of Rewards Based Gamification3. Other Applications• Civic Engagemento SeeClickFixo Idea Street(UK Dept of Work and Pe...
Reward Based Gamification (Libraries)• Programso Summer Reading programs (ex. Ann Arbor District Library)o Book Discussion...
Rewards Based Gamification - Pitfalls1. Bad Design2. Organization versus User Centeredgamification3. Reward permanence (or...
Meaningful Gamification (MG)"The use of game elements to help someone find meaning in a non-gamecontext, and therefore a t...
Meaningful Gamification"Game is a form of play with goal andstructures" expressed as :Game = Play + Goals + StructurePlay ...
Meaningful Gamification - Theoryhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SelfDeterminationTheory.png2. Cognitive Evaluation ...
Meaningful Gamification - ApplicationMeaningful Gamification Space(6 elements)• Role play - seeing the world throughother ...
Meaningful Gamification - ApplicationStrategies• Player Generated Contento Braid / Little Big Planeto MakerSpaces (modding...
Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesSwedish Piano Stairs• Volkswagon project to promote exercise• Subway stairs transformed ...
Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesAlternate Reality GameA story, with game mechanics, played out in the real world•Finksbu...
Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesAlternate Reality Game:• World Without Oilhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Without_Oil...
Meaningful Gamification - Examples• Zombies Runo Immersive audio adventure andgamification of runningo Story arc of zombie...
Final Thoughts• Design games with the users in mind• Think about short term and long term goals• Think about intrinsic and...
A Few Good ResourcesVideo• Ted Talk, "The Game Layer on Top of the World" Seth Priebatsh• Ted Talk, "Gaming Can Make a Bet...
Questions???Presentation : http://slideshare.net/baldwind1976Emaiil : dbaldwin@piscatawaylibrary.orgTwitter: @baldwind1976
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Introduction to Gamification (NJLA 2013)

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This is a presentation prepared for the "Level Up @ Your Library" program presented at the 2013 NJLA Annual Conference. Co-presenter for this session is Megan Kiocelek. The presentation covers two approaches to gamification services, rewards based and meaning based. It also covers tips and examples of gamification in a variety of settings.

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Introduction to Gamification (NJLA 2013)

  1. 1. An Introduction toGamificationDoug BaldwinEmerging Technologies LibrarianPiscataway Public Library@baldwind1976 / dbaldwin@piscatawaylibrary.org
  2. 2. What the next 20 minutes will looklike...• What is Gamification• Reward Based Gamificationo Defineo Theoryo Applicationo Pitfalls• Meaningful Gamification (Scott Nicholson)o Defineo Theoryo Application• Questions
  3. 3. What is GamificationTo start, it is not "Gaming in Libraries"...Define:• One definition - "Use of game design elements in non-gamecontexts" Deterding et al (2011)• Another definition - "Its using game mechanics help you driveparticipation, engagement and loyalty on your online property, site,or community" - Bunchball.com• Yet another definition - " Gamification is the use of game thinkingand game mechanics in a non-game context in order to engage usersand solve problems" - WikipediaI like # 1 - Lets go with that
  4. 4. What is GamificationNot a new concept - just a new word (2008)Examples• Store and credit card rewards• Airline loyalty programs• McDonalds Monopoly (game layer)• Badges (Military / Scouts )o Status / Membershipo Motivation (above and beyond)http://troop368.files.wordpress.com/2012/10/meritbadges.jpg
  5. 5. Two quick stats...• M2 Research projects that companies willspend upwards of $2 billion on gamificationservices by 2015• Gartner Group forecasts that 70% of theGlobal 2000 will employ gamificationtechniqueso but that 80% of those projects will fail unless theyare thoughtfully designed
  6. 6. Rewards Based GamificationElements or Game Mechanics• Badges - public indicator of accomplishedtasks or achievements (sharable)• Levels - accomplishment over time (status)• Leaderboards - Ranked status listing (status)• Achievements - Accomplished goals (reflectedas badges or levels)• Points - Assigned value to an achievementOther Elements http://farm2.staticflickr.com/1359/5178734471_43d3d1dcb0_o.png
  7. 7. Rewards Based GamificationTheory• Feedback Loop (Micro Level)o Player/Individual Takes an Actiono Action produces an effecto Feedback on that action is giveno Using new knowledge, another action istaken• Progression Loop (Macro Level)
  8. 8. Rewards Based GamificationTheory• (BJ) Fogg Behavioral Model - There are threeelements that must converge in order for a behavior totake placehttp://www.flickr.com/photos/taedc/5719219915/Motivation = Reward fordoing somethingAbility = Action can becompletedTrigger = Cue to completethe action
  9. 9. Uses of Rewards Based Gamification1. Human Resources• Staff Development / Trainingo My Marriot Hotel (Marriot)o Plantville (Siemens)o Patient Shuffle (GE Healthcare)• Recruitingo Googleo Operations and Soldiers (US Army)o Pizza Hero (Dominos Pizza)• Motivation / Engagemento CheckPluso Target
  10. 10. Uses of Rewards Based Gamification2. Consumer Applicationso FourSquareo SCVNGRo Get Glueo Starbuckso Bank Credit Cardso Store Loyalty Programs
  11. 11. Uses of Rewards Based Gamification3. Other Applications• Civic Engagemento SeeClickFixo Idea Street(UK Dept of Work and Pensions)• Educationo Code Academyo Ribbon Hero (Microsoft)• Healtho NextJump
  12. 12. Reward Based Gamification (Libraries)• Programso Summer Reading programs (ex. Ann Arbor District Library)o Book Discussion (ex. Level Up Book Club / Game of Books)• Serviceso "Level" up experience (Boyhun Kim)o Catalog "progress bar" (Boyhun Kim)• Staff Development (my bad ideas!)o Rewards based training programo Real time achievement based review process
  13. 13. Rewards Based Gamification - Pitfalls1. Bad Design2. Organization versus User Centeredgamification3. Reward permanence (or "forever") loop4. Overjustification5. Discourages creativity and innovation6. Risk of Unintended Behaviors7. Generation gaphttp://www.flickr.com/photos/docpopular/4206981641/
  14. 14. Meaningful Gamification (MG)"The use of game elements to help someone find meaning in a non-gamecontext, and therefore a tool to help people learn through changingperspectives in their lives" (S Nicholson)Meaningful GamificationElements of MG :•Give the player information (sothey can make choices)•Allow player to make thosechoices•Make informed play the reward(use external rewards sparingly)•Put the players benefit first in thegame design processhttp://farm5.staticflickr.com/4022/4619993744_d2600607f0_o.jpg
  15. 15. Meaningful Gamification"Game is a form of play with goal andstructures" expressed as :Game = Play + Goals + StructurePlay - voluntary, intrinsicallymotivated activities associated withrecreation and enjoyment (Wikipedia)Reward Based GamificationGame = Goals + Structure (- Play)Meaningful GamificationGame = Play + Goals (-Structure)VShttp://pixabay.com/p-88517/?no_redirect
  16. 16. Meaningful Gamification - Theoryhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:SelfDeterminationTheory.png2. Cognitive Evaluation Theory (Deci and Ryan)•Specifies factors explaining intrinsic motivationo More competent we FEEL = More internally motivated we areo More in control we FEEL = More internally motivated we are(Deci & Ryan)• Basic needs for self motivationo Autonomy = Choice / Controlo Competence = Masteryo Relatedness = Engagement withworld around us1. Self Determination Theory• Distinguishes sources of motivationo Intrinsic (Internal) = long term changeo Extrinsic (External) = short term change
  17. 17. Meaningful Gamification - ApplicationMeaningful Gamification Space(6 elements)• Role play - seeing the world throughother eyes / escape themselves toprovide new perspectives• Experimentation - explore and trysolutions to challenges• Collaborative experiences -working together on activities• Voluntary engagement• Choice - Users have ability to createtheir own path• Sharing - Ability to share yourthoughts about items/experience• Ludic (PLAY) Learning Spaceso Discover, Play, Explore, Learn, Transform Ex. Participatory Museums and Exhibits)
  18. 18. Meaningful Gamification - ApplicationStrategies• Player Generated Contento Braid / Little Big Planeto MakerSpaces (modding) DIY.org• User/Player Designed Goalso Chore Wars (hybrid)• Aligning Game Elements with Non-Play Contexto Remove rewards / Insert voluntary playo Embedded limits = Deeper immersiono Player combines interest with limits to create new experience
  19. 19. Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesSwedish Piano Stairs• Volkswagon project to promote exercise• Subway stairs transformed into working piano• 66% increase in usage over escalatorhttp://mcself.wordpress.com/2009/10/23/the-fun-theory-changing-stairs-into-a-piano/
  20. 20. Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesAlternate Reality GameA story, with game mechanics, played out in the real world•Finksburg Public Library - "The Mystery Guest"o Summer Reading gameo Story arc involved identifying and returning a famousliterary character to book he escaped fromo Teens created videos and story content for the gameo Programs, crafts and activities allowed participants todevelop interact with the story
  21. 21. Meaningful Gamification - ExamplesAlternate Reality Game:• World Without Oilhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Without_Oilo Story arc : world oil shortageo Players encouraged to create story contentof their "experiences" during this oilshortage (blog posts, voicemails, video,photos, etc)o User content part of expanded the storyuniverseo Designed to promote reflection, potentialproblem solving and an "idea" playgroundfor sharing solutions and thoughts toavoid such a crisis
  22. 22. Meaningful Gamification - Examples• Zombies Runo Immersive audio adventure andgamification of runningo Story arc of zombie apocalypseo Provides audio story layer to yourworkout through completion ofmissionso Items retrieved via mission aredispersed via player choiceo Goals include building up your basedand solving story mysteries
  23. 23. Final Thoughts• Design games with the users in mind• Think about short term and long term goals• Think about intrinsic and extrinsic motivation• Be thoughtful in game design constructs• Rules are ok - in fact they can enhance play - if they are deployed withcare• Gamification is not for every situation• Gamification, if done with thought care and participants in mind canhttp://fc05.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2011/108/8/6/playing_by_pbarreto-d3ea0mc.jpg
  24. 24. A Few Good ResourcesVideo• Ted Talk, "The Game Layer on Top of the World" Seth Priebatsh• Ted Talk, "Gaming Can Make a Better World" Jane McGonigal• "Introduction to Meaningful Gamification" Scott NicholsonArticles• "User Centered Theoretical Framework for Meaningful Gamification" Scott Nicholson• "Applying Game Dynamics to Library Services" Bohyun Kim• "Why Gamify and What to Avoid in Library Gamification" Bohyun KimBooks• For The Win : How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business, Kevin Werbach andDan Hunter (2012)• Reality is Broken : Why Games Make Us Better and How They Can Change the World,Jane McGonigal (2011)Web• Gamification Wiki• Gamification 101 - Designing the Player Journey• Because Play Matters - Scott Nicholson• Enterprise Gamification for Employee Engagement - Zoe Epstein
  25. 25. Questions???Presentation : http://slideshare.net/baldwind1976Emaiil : dbaldwin@piscatawaylibrary.orgTwitter: @baldwind1976

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