The Changing Role of Viewer<br />Reading:<br />“The Profession of the Artist,” 1-20<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />patron, crit...
Diego Velasquez, Las Meninas, 1656.
Michelangelo, David, Florence,  Marble, 1503.
Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, Flanders, Oil on Panel, 1425-1428. </li></li></ul><li>Artist<br />Context<br />Context<b...
Who is the viewer?<br /><ul><li>People who encounter art.
…intentionally or unintentionally.
…aware or unaware of their role as viewer.
…with or without an opinion about what they see.</li></ul>Viewers at the Museum.<br />
Who is the patron?<br /><ul><li>People who pay for art.
…who buy art for private or public viewing.
…who support artists and their works financially.
…who commission specific works.</li></ul>Isabella Stewart Gardner<br />
Who is the critic?<br /><ul><li>People who write about art.
…who make value judgments about individual works and artists.
…who comment about the role of art in society.
…who actively contribute to the way others view art.
…who supports artists with their writing.</li></ul>Norman Rockwell, The Art Critic, 1955.<br />
Interrelated Roles<br />People who encounter art.<br />Viewer<br />People who pay for art.<br />Patron<br />People who wri...
Patronage<br />“The deliberate sponsorship of the creation, production, preservation, and dissemination of the so-called ‘...
Exerting control over the artistic process.
Using art to promote an agenda.
Display cultural acumen.</li></li></ul><li>Patron funds the artist<br />Artist produces work<br />Artist<br />Context<br /...
Patron makes “suggestions”<br />Artist modifies work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Patron<br />Conte...
The Renaissance: Artist as Divine Genius<br />“Why has God given me such magnificent talent? It is a curse as well as a gr...
Patron makes “suggestions”<br />Artist modifies work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Tension<br />Art<br />Patr...
Church Patronage<br />The Bishop of Ravenna, Ecclesiasticus<br />Model of the Church<br />Christ Enthroned with St. Vitali...
Church Patronage<br />Pope Julius II as the Prophet Zacharias<br />Raphael, Pope Julius II, 1511-1512<br />Michelangelo, S...
Court Patronage<br />Peter Paul Rubens, The Exchange of the Princesses, <br />
Court Patronage<br />Terracotta Warriors, Tomb of Shihuangdi, Shaanxi Province, China, c. 210 BCE <br />
Court Patronage<br />Francisco de Goya, Family of King Charles IV, Madrid, 1803. <br />
Court Patronage<br />Francisco de Goya, Saturn Devouring his Children, 1819-1823.<br />
Court Patronage<br />La Infanta Margarita<br />Velasquez<br />King and Queen of Spain<br />Diego Velasquez, Las Meninas, 1...
Public or Civic Patronage<br />Michangelo, David, Florence,  Marble, 1503 <br />
Public or Civic Patronage<br />Richard Serra, Tilted Arc, 1981-1989.<br />
Private Patronage<br />The window in Joseph’s workshop overlooks early modern Flanders<br />Mary is in the costume and dem...
Private Patronage<br />
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  1. 1. The Changing Role of Viewer<br />Reading:<br />“The Profession of the Artist,” 1-20<br />Terms/Concepts:<br />patron, critic, court patronage, church patronage, public/civic patronage, <br />Monument List:<br /><ul><li>Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Fresco, Vatican, 1508.
  2. 2. Diego Velasquez, Las Meninas, 1656.
  3. 3. Michelangelo, David, Florence, Marble, 1503.
  4. 4. Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, Flanders, Oil on Panel, 1425-1428. </li></li></ul><li>Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Viewer<br />Context<br />
  5. 5. Who is the viewer?<br /><ul><li>People who encounter art.
  6. 6. …intentionally or unintentionally.
  7. 7. …aware or unaware of their role as viewer.
  8. 8. …with or without an opinion about what they see.</li></ul>Viewers at the Museum.<br />
  9. 9. Who is the patron?<br /><ul><li>People who pay for art.
  10. 10. …who buy art for private or public viewing.
  11. 11. …who support artists and their works financially.
  12. 12. …who commission specific works.</li></ul>Isabella Stewart Gardner<br />
  13. 13. Who is the critic?<br /><ul><li>People who write about art.
  14. 14. …who make value judgments about individual works and artists.
  15. 15. …who comment about the role of art in society.
  16. 16. …who actively contribute to the way others view art.
  17. 17. …who supports artists with their writing.</li></ul>Norman Rockwell, The Art Critic, 1955.<br />
  18. 18. Interrelated Roles<br />People who encounter art.<br />Viewer<br />People who pay for art.<br />Patron<br />People who write about art.<br />Critic<br />
  19. 19. Patronage<br />“The deliberate sponsorship of the creation, production, preservation, and dissemination of the so-called ‘fine arts.’” <br /> --Judith Huggins Balfe<br />Why become a patron?<br /><ul><li>Preserve the artistic process.
  20. 20. Exerting control over the artistic process.
  21. 21. Using art to promote an agenda.
  22. 22. Display cultural acumen.</li></li></ul><li>Patron funds the artist<br />Artist produces work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Patron<br />Context<br />The Patron and the Artist<br />Patron appreciates the work<br />
  23. 23. Patron makes “suggestions”<br />Artist modifies work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Patron<br />Context<br />The Patron and the Artist<br />Patron hates the work<br />Patron appreciates work<br />
  24. 24. The Renaissance: Artist as Divine Genius<br />“Why has God given me such magnificent talent? It is a curse as well as a great blessing.”--Albrecht Dürer<br />“Nature holds the beautiful, for the artist who has the insight to extract it.”<br />― Albrecht Dürer<br />“I, Albrecht Dürer of Nuremberg painted myself thus, with undying colors, at the age of twenty-eight years.”<br />--Inscription on Painting <br />Albrecht Durer, Self-Portrait, 1500.<br />
  25. 25. Patron makes “suggestions”<br />Artist modifies work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Tension<br />Art<br />Patron<br />Context<br />The Patron and the Artist<br />Patron hates the work<br />Patron appreciates work<br />
  26. 26. Church Patronage<br />The Bishop of Ravenna, Ecclesiasticus<br />Model of the Church<br />Christ Enthroned with St. Vitalisand Ecclesiasticus, San Vitale, Ravenna, 6th century CE.<br />
  27. 27. Church Patronage<br />Pope Julius II as the Prophet Zacharias<br />Raphael, Pope Julius II, 1511-1512<br />Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel, Fresco, Vatican, 1508. <br />
  28. 28. Court Patronage<br />Peter Paul Rubens, The Exchange of the Princesses, <br />
  29. 29. Court Patronage<br />Terracotta Warriors, Tomb of Shihuangdi, Shaanxi Province, China, c. 210 BCE <br />
  30. 30. Court Patronage<br />Francisco de Goya, Family of King Charles IV, Madrid, 1803. <br />
  31. 31. Court Patronage<br />Francisco de Goya, Saturn Devouring his Children, 1819-1823.<br />
  32. 32. Court Patronage<br />La Infanta Margarita<br />Velasquez<br />King and Queen of Spain<br />Diego Velasquez, Las Meninas, 1656. <br />
  33. 33. Public or Civic Patronage<br />Michangelo, David, Florence, Marble, 1503 <br />
  34. 34. Public or Civic Patronage<br />Richard Serra, Tilted Arc, 1981-1989.<br />
  35. 35. Private Patronage<br />The window in Joseph’s workshop overlooks early modern Flanders<br />Mary is in the costume and demeanor of a middle class Flemish woman<br />The patrons are shown looking in on the annunciation.<br />The interior represents a typical middle class home in Flanders.<br />Robert Campin, Merode Altarpiece, Flanders, Oil on Panel, 1425-1428.<br />
  36. 36. Private Patronage<br />
  37. 37. Private Patronage<br />Theo van Gogh<br />Vincent van Gogh, Portrait of Theo van Gogh, 1887<br />
  38. 38. Contemporary Concerns in Patronage<br /><ul><li>To whom should patrons appeal? Wide audience? Elite audience?
  39. 39. How does one balance financial investment with protecting the arts?
  40. 40. How much control should a patron exert over the artist?
  41. 41. How much should their support be determined by critics?</li></li></ul><li>Art Criticism<br />“The process of looking at, thinking about, and judging an artwork.” <br />Why become a critic?<br /><ul><li>Explore the meaning of art.
  42. 42. Participate in the artistic process.
  43. 43. Influence artists and other viewers.
  44. 44. Encourage artists in their work.
  45. 45. Impact the art market.</li></li></ul><li>Critic gives praise or criticism<br />Artist produces work<br />Artist<br />Context<br />Context<br />Art<br />Critic<br />Context<br />The Critic and the Artist<br />Critic assesses work<br />
  46. 46. Interrelated Roles<br />People who encounter art.<br />Viewer<br />People who pay for art.<br />Patron<br />People who write about art.<br />Critic<br />
  47. 47. John Ruskin<br /><ul><li>Was a minor artist in his own right.
  48. 48. Earliest works focused on architecture.
  49. 49. Encouraged a return to purer values in the pursuit of art.
  50. 50. Was a large supporter of a group of artists called the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood.</li></li></ul><li>John Ruskin<br /><ul><li>"Go to Nature in all singleness of heart, and walk with her laboriously and trustingly, having no other thought but how best to penetrate her meaning, rejecting nothing, selecting nothing, and scorning nothing.”</li></li></ul><li>John Ruskin<br />Everett Millais, Ophelia, 1851-1852. <br />
  51. 51. The Power of the Critic:Ruskin vs. Whistler<br />Ruskin: “For Mr. Whistler’s own sake, no less than for the protection of the purchaser, Sir Coutts Lindsay ought not to have admitted works into the gallery in which the ill-educated conceit of the artist so nearly approached the aspect of wilful imposture. I have seen, and heard, much of Cockney impudence before now; but never expected to hear a coxcomb ask two hundred guineas for flinging a pot of paint in the public’s face.”<br />James McNeill Abbot Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875. <br />
  52. 52. The Power of the Critic:Ruskin vs. Whistler<br />An Appeal to the Law, Punch Magazine, 1878.<br />James McNeill Abbot Whistler, Nocturne in Black and Gold: The Falling Rocket, 1875. <br />
  53. 53. Clement Greenberg<br /><ul><li>Explained Modern Art to a buying public.
  54. 54. Made artists like Pollock marketable.
  55. 55. Encouraged the use of complete abstraction/non-representational forms.</li></li></ul><li>Critic as Tastemaker:Greenbergian Formalism<br />Jackson Pollock, Number 1 (Lavender Mist), 1950.<br />
  56. 56. Concerns in Art Criticism<br /><ul><li>Can a critic have undue influence over a particular artist or the viewer?
  57. 57. Can a single critic define the entirety of art and what it should be?
  58. 58. What is the responsibility of the critic?
  59. 59. How do critics avoid conflicts of interest between ideals and finances?</li></li></ul><li>Major Goals<br />Be able to describe the distinct but overlapping roles of the viewer, patron and critic and understand how these roles interact.<br />Understand the control and influence different types of patrons exert over the artistic process.<br />Know the circumstances that surround the rise of the art critic in the 19th century.<br />Be able to discuss the contemporary concerns and problems associated with art patronage and criticism.<br />

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