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What is art?


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An overview of the different concepts about art. Presentation of the elements and principles that support a critical analysis of a work of art

What is art?

  1. 1. WHAT IS ART? MA Rosa M. Brito
  2. 2. MA Rosa M. Brito
  3. 3. WHAT IS ART? Participate in the debate! • What do you think is the purpose of art? • Do you consider people must have some previous knowledge to be able to understand and appreciate a piece of art? Why? • Have you been to a museum or art exhibit? • What have you liked the most? What didn´t you like? • Do you believe the value and “price” of a work of art are the same thing? Why? • What circumstances do you think influence theAugust Rodin, The Thinker artists´ works ?1879-1889 MA Rosa M. Brito
  4. 4. Which one is a work of art? Alberto Prego. 2009. Joan Miró, Blue Star, 1927. Free digital scribbling. MA Rosa M. Brito
  5. 5. Which one is a work of art? Picasso. The dog. MA Rosa M. Brito
  6. 6. “There really is no such thing as Art. There are only artists” E. H. Gombrich Do you agree? Why? MA Rosa M. Brito
  7. 7. Is this art? Loris Cecchini, Stage Evidence (bicycle), 1998. Emilio Mariño, Spring, 2001Darío Escobar, Obverse & Reverse MA Rosa M. Brito
  8. 8. “Art is everything that men call art” Dino de Formaggio Do you agree? Why? MA Rosa M. Brito
  9. 9. Art and the artistic creationArtistic creation is inherently human Art and men are inseparable MA Rosa M. Brito
  10. 10. “ It is virtually impossible to imagine any society without art of some kind. Indeed, the visual arts, music, drama, dance, and other forms of art, add a sense of pleasure to life. The arts are a vital part of civilization, an essential part of any culture. They are the universal languages through which human beings express their dreams, their aspirations, theirideas, and their feelings. They make it possible for all of us to communicate, understand, and appreciate each other. The arts have always been and always will be the language of civilization” (Mittler, 2000: 5) MA Rosa M. Brito
  11. 11. Art, a unique contribution in human lifeMichelangelo, The Sistine Chapel, 1508-12
  12. 12. “The aim of art is to represent not the outward appearance of things, but their inward significance”. Aristotle (384 AC-322 AC) Greek philosopher.Vincent van Gogh, The Starry Night, 1889
  13. 13. “A thousand years ago, most people never saw an image. People who lived in a town might have seen art in their local church or temple but only the very wealthy could own images. In the sixteenth century, Henry VIII sent the painter Hans Holbein across the channel so he could see what a woman he was considering for marriage looked like. Throughout history, images were anchored to aplace. Today, images are everywhere and infinitelyreproducible. They may even be surpassing text as the dominant form of communication.” Google Art Project MA Rosa M. Brito
  14. 14. Art… It is a human production It is an expressive production It has symbolic values as a result of a mental activity and a technique in a determined model of society. It uses specific languages MA Rosa M. Brito
  15. 15. Why do we create art? Aesthetics reasons: beauty, goodness Moral/ethic reasons: existentialist dilemmas Spiritual reasons: religion and supernatural forces Historical reasons: immortalization of historical events Political reasons: propaganda or ideological indoctrination MA Rosa M. Brito
  16. 16. Classify possible reasons La Almudena Cathedral, 1879-1993, Madrid, España MA Rosa M. Brito
  17. 17. Classify possible reasonsBenito Juárez y la Reforma, José Clemente Orozco, 1948 MA Rosa M. Brito
  18. 18. Classify possible reasons Cultura Ewe, Togo MA Rosa M. Brito
  19. 19. Classify possible reasons Adriana Kosub, Introspection, 2007 MA Rosa M. Brito
  20. 20. Classify possible reasons Pablo Picasso, Guernica, 1937 MA Rosa M. Brito
  21. 21. What is Aesthetics? Aesthetics is a Philosophy´s discipline that studies the different manifestations of beauty. Beauty is a concept whose differentdefinitions depend of the time period andsociety values MA Rosa M. Brito
  22. 22. Elements of Art Jackson Pollock, Untitled, 1950
  23. 23. Works of art are made of line, color, texture, form, andperspective. Can you identify the lines, colors and shapes inthis painting of Joan Miró, Carnival of Harlequin, 1924-25? MA Rosa M. Brito
  24. 24. Color Secundary Primary Tertiary Joan Miró, Portrait IV, 1938 Claude Monet,Bartolomé Esteban Murillo Garden at Vetheuil“,San Agustín lavando los pies a Cristo 18811650 - 1655. MA Rosa M. Brito
  25. 25. LineIt is a continuousmark made by amoving point in asurface. It permitsthe identificationof pictorial shapes Can you draw a face Henri Matisse, with 5 lines? Nude Oranges, 1952MA Rosa M. Brito
  26. 26. Find the lines in this painting Jean Baptiste Camille, Beach near Etreta Corot 1872 MA Rosa M. Brito
  27. 27. Line and Movement Parthenon, Grecia, 447-438 bcVertical: strength and stability MA Rosa M. Brito
  28. 28. Line and MovementThomas Eakins, The Biglin Brothers Racing, Horizontal: calmness1873 MA Rosa M. Brito
  29. 29. Line and Movement Diagonal: tensionThéodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa, 1818-19 MA Rosa M. Brito
  30. 30. Line and Movement Henry Moore, Large Interior Form, 1981 Andy Goldsworthy, Broken Pebbles, 1985 Curve: flowing and continuous movement MA Rosa M. Brito
  31. 31. TextureIt is an element of art that refers tothe quality of the surface of the work ofart.The texture can be real or visual. MA Rosa M. Brito
  32. 32. Compare texturesLudolf Backhuysen, Ships in Distress off a Rocky Coast, 1667 MA Rosa M. Brito
  33. 33. Compare textures MA Rosa M. Brito
  34. 34. Compare textures José de Creeft MA Rosa M. Brito
  35. 35. Compare textures Jean-Auguste- Dominique Ingres, Princess de Broglie, 1853 MA Rosa M. Brito
  36. 36. Shape and Form William H. Johnson, Going to Church, 1940-41Two-dimensional or three-dimensional? MA Rosa M. Brito
  37. 37. Shape and FormLuis Meléndez, Stll Life with Oranges, Jars, and Boxes of Sweets, 1760-65 Two-dimensional or three-dimensional? MA Rosa M. Brito
  38. 38. Components of the Form Henry Moore, Family Group, 1945-49Mass: size and bulk of the three-dimensional form MA Rosa M. Brito
  39. 39. Components of the Form Henry Moore, Two Large Forms, 1965-69 Paul taylor Dance CompanyVolume: space inside the three-dimensional form MA Rosa M. Brito
  40. 40. Perspective Depth in a painting is an optical illusion created by the use of space in the work as a whole. The types of perspective are:• Vanishing point• Planes• Contrast Real three-dimensional space: height, width, and depth is found in sculpture, ceramic and architecture. MA Rosa M. Brito
  41. 41. Recognizing the spaceGiorgione, The Adoration of the Shepherds, c. 1505-10 MA Rosa M. Brito
  42. 42. Recognizing the spacePicasso, Fábrica del Horta del Ebro, 1909 MA Rosa M. Brito
  43. 43. Recognizing the, African Silhouettes MA Rosa M. Brito
  44. 44. Javier Marín, Cabeza de mujer en un tronco de árbol,2008 Principles of Art
  45. 45. The principles of art The artists design their works of artusing and controlling the elements of artand applying the principles of art. To learn and identify the principles ofart in a creative work, help us to recognizeand enjoy the composition, artistry of thepiece and the talent of the artist. MA Rosa M. Brito
  46. 46. BalanceCombined elementsto give stability andequilibrium to a workof art. There arethree types ofbalance:symmetrical,asymmetrical andradialSymmetricalbalance Raphael, Madonna del Baldacchino, 1508 MA Rosa M. Brito
  47. 47. Asymmetrical balance Mary Cassat, Summer, 1894 MA Rosa M. Brito
  48. 48. Radialbalance Notre-Dame Cathedral, Paris, 1163 MA Rosa M. Brito
  49. 49. Emphasis or contrast Combines elements to point out the differences or contrasts Vicent Van Gogh Le Cyprés 1889 MA Rosa M. Brito
  50. 50. Harmony“Combines similar elements in a work ofart to stress their similarities” (Mittler,42) Tunic Moche_Wari Community, VII – IX Century MA Rosa M. Brito
  51. 51. Variety It is diversity, change and complexity.Kandinsky, Composition X1939 (160 Kb); Oil on canvas MA Rosa M. Brito
  52. 52. GradationCombines a series of gradual changes Joseph Turner, Zuck lake, 1843 MA Rosa M. Brito
  53. 53. Rhythm It is created through the careful repetition of elements to create a visual tempo or beatMarcel Duchamp,Nude Descending a Staircase #2,1912 MA Rosa M. Brito
  54. 54. ProportionIt is therelationshipbetween theelements ofthe artwork,usuallyconnectedwithemphasis Feminine figure Iranian region, Caspian Sea Bronce Age MA Rosa M. Brito
  55. 55. Activity Work in pairs. Observe the following images, analyze them, applying the elements and principles of art that correspond to each one of them MA Rosa M. Brito
  56. 56. Painted 19th century Tibetan mandala of the Naropa tradition MA Rosa M. Brito
  57. 57. Henri Matisse, The Red Room, 1908
  58. 58. Mirón de Eleuteras, Discóbolo, 455 ac
  59. 59. Frida Kahlo, Diego en mi pensamiento, 1943
  60. 60. Castle Museum, Osaka, Japan
  61. 61. Pablo Picasso, Los tres músicos, 1921
  62. 62. Javier Marín, Cabeza de mujer
  63. 63. Paul Rubens, The Four Continents, 1615
  64. 64. Bayron Gálvez, En el escenario
  65. 65. Caravaggio, Medusa, 1598-99
  66. 66. Arq. Santiago Calatrava, Ciudad de las Ciencias y las Artes de Valencia, España
  67. 67. Activity Choose a partner for the activity. Analyze each one of the artworks with the corresponding formats given to you by your professor. Henry Moore, Family Group, 1945-49, bronze, Tate , LondonTemplo del Expiatorio, Arq. AdamoBoari, 1897-1972, Guadalajara, Jal. Théodore Géricault, The Raft of the Medusa,México 1818-19, Oil on canvas, Musée du Louvre, Paris
  68. 68. Referencias y BibliografíaArnason, H. H., & Prather, M. (1998). History of modern art: painting,sculpture, architecture, photography (4th ed.). New York: Harry N.Abrams, Inc.Figueroba, A., & Madrid, M. T. (1996). Historia del arte . Madrid: McGraw-Hill.Manzaneque Casero, J. A. (n.d.). Historia del Arte. December 7, 2012,, G. A. (2000). Art in focus: aesthetics, criticism, history, studio(4th ed.). New York : GLENCOE/MCGRAW-HILL.  APA formatting by MA Rosa M. Brito