Once all of the nuclear club countries developed atomic bombs, they moved onto bigger things like the hydrogen bomb….this cycle continues!A competition began to develop more (quantity) and better (quality) nuclear weapons…this turned into an arms race or nuclear proliferation (whichever you prefer to call it)Why did they join in this arms race? = FOR POWER & PROTECTION
August 6th 1945 on HiroshimaAugust 9th 1945 on Nagasaki
There are two basic types of nuclear weapon. The first type produces its explosive energy through nuclear fission reactions alone. Such fission weapons are commonly referred to as atomic bombs or atom bombs (abbreviated as A-bombs), though their energy comes specifically from the nucleus of the atom.In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material (enriched uranium or plutonium) is assembled into a supercritical mass—the amount of material needed to start an exponentially growingnuclear chain reaction—either by shooting one piece of sub-critical material into another (the "gun" method), or by compressing a sub-critical sphere of material using chemical explosives to many times its original density (the "implosion" method). The latter approach is considered more sophisticated than the former, and only the latter approach can be used if plutonium is the fissile material.nuclear fission is a nuclear reaction in which the nucleus of an atom splits into smaller parts, often producing free neutrons and lighter nuclei
The second basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large amount of its energy through nuclear fusion reactions. Such fusion weapons are generally referred to as thermonuclear weapons or more colloquially as hydrogen bombs (abbreviated as H-bombs), as they rely on fusion reactions between isotopes of hydrogen (deuterium and tritium). However, all such weapons derive a significant portion – and sometimes a majority – of their energy from fission (including fission induced by neutrons from fusion reactions). Unlike fission weapons, there are no inherent limits on the energy released by thermonuclear weapons. Only six countries—United States, Russia, United Kingdom, People's Republic of China, France and India—have conducted thermonuclear weapon tests. (Whether India has detonated a "true," multi-staged thermonuclear weapon is controversial.)The basics of the Teller–Ulam design for a hydrogen bomb: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel.Thermonuclear bombs work by using the energy of a fission bomb in order to compress and heat fusion fuel. nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy
long-range (greater than 5,500 km or 3,500 miles) ballistic missile typically designed for nuclear weapons delivery, that is, delivering one or more nuclear warheads. Due to their great range and firepower, in an all-out nuclear war, land-based ICBMs and submarines would carry most of the destructive force, with nuclear-armed bombers having the remainder.
The Trident missile is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) designed by Lockheed Martin Space Systems in the United States with multiple independently-targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) capability. It is armed with nuclear warheads and is launched from nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs). Trident missiles are carried by fourteen active US NavyOhio class submarines, with U.S.-designed warheads, and four Royal NavyVanguard class submarines, with British warheads.A multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) warhead is a collection of nuclear weapons carried on a single intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) or a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM). Using a MIRV warhead, a single launched missile can strike several targets, or fewer targets redundantly. By contrast a unitary warhead is a single warhead on a single missile.MIRV helps to stop anti-ballistic missile systems
MAD – if one country fired a nuke, then another would follow and so on and so forth until the world was destroyed (very difficult to limited the damage of a nuke)
In 1905 Albert Einstein wrote a number of revolutionary physics papers including his Special Theory of Relativity. One of the formulas that came out of this, almost as an afterthought, was E=mc². That is: energy is equal to mass times the speed of light squared. What Einstein was saying is that matter - everything around us we can touch and see - is actually the same thing as energy, just in a different form. The upshot of this is that it should be possible to convert energy to matter or, visa versa, convert matter to energy. Einstein's formula suggested that it was possible to get energy by what we now call a nuclear reaction. This is the conversion of matter to energy. What's more, the amount of energy available in even a small amount of matter is, according to the formula, tremendous. Matter is just sort of a condensed version of energy.We can picture this relationship by thinking about water and steam. You can cool steam (think of this as the energy) down and it becomes water (think of this as matter) or heat water up to make steam. It takes a lot of steam to create a few drops of water though, but only few a ounces of water to create a whole room full of steam. The same is true of energy and matter. In the atomic bomb that destroyed Hiroshima only 600 milligrams of uranium (less than the weight of a dime) was converted to energy, but it released the same amount of power as at least 13,000 tons of the conventional chemical explosive TNT.
A fission reaction is just the opposite of fusion. Instead of atoms being put together, they are split into pieces. When a neutron (a subatomic particle) with enough energy hits an atom of radioactive material like uranium, the uranium atom will split into two smaller atoms and some of the energy that held the original atom together is released. If the right type of uranium is used, the split will also release additional neutrons capable of splitting other atoms. If this process continues with each new split releasing neutrons which in turn split other atoms it is called a chain reaction. Because of the speed involved in a nuclear reaction, billions of atoms can be split in a tiny fraction of a second. If the reaction proceeds at a sedate level the fission produces energy in a controllable manner. This is what is going on in the heart of a nuclear power plant. The energy released is used to heat water to the point of steam and the steam spins turbines connected to generators to make electricity. If the reaction proceeds at an uncontrolled level, however, a nuclear explosion can result. nuclear fusion is the process by which multiple like-charged atomic nuclei join together to form a heavier nucleus. It is accompanied by the release or absorption of energy
a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission.Uranium or plutonium can be used as fuel for atomic bombs. Both are highly radioactive. This means they are constantly shedding subatomic particles including neutrons. Only certain isotopes of these materials - like uranium 235 and plutonium 239 - consistently give off neutrons of such high energy that they will split atoms. When enough of the material is put together, a chain reaction starts and the mass is said to be critical. The term used for a mass of radioactive material with a growing chain reaction, splitting more and more atoms with each moment, is supercritical.
Bomb FuelUranium is an element that is similar to iron. Like iron, you dig uranium ore out of the ground and then process it to extract the pure uranium from the ore. When you finish processing uranium ore, what you have is uranium oxide. Uranium oxide contains two types (or isotopes) of uranium: U-235 and U-238. U-235 is what you need if you want to make a bomb or fuel a nuclear power plant. But the uranium oxide from the mine is about 99 percent U-238. So you need to somehow separate the U-235 from the U-238 and increase the amount of U-235. The process of concentrating the U-235 is called enrichment, and centrifuges are a central part of the process. Isotopes are different types of atoms (nuclides) of the same chemical element, each having a different number of neutrons.
U-235 weighs slightly less than U-238. By exploiting this weight difference, you can separate the U-235 and the U-238.The first step is to react the uranium with hydrofluoric acid, an extremely powerful acid. After several steps, you create the gas uranium hexafluoride. Now that the uranium is in a gaseous form, it is easier to work with. You can put the gas into a centrifuge and spin it up. The centrifuge creates a force thousands of times more powerful than the force of gravity. Because the U-238 atoms are slightly heavier than the U-235 atoms, they tend to move out toward the walls of the centrifuge. The U-235 atoms tend to stay more toward the center of the centrifuge. Although it is only a slight difference in concentrations, when you extract the gas from the center of the centrifuge, it has slightly more U-235 than it did before. You place this slightly concentrated gas in another centrifuge and do the same thing. If you do this thousands of times, you can create a gas that is highly enriched in U-235. At a uranium enrichment plant, thousands of centrifuges are chained together in long cascades.At the end of a long chain of centrifuges, you have uranium hexafluoride gas containing a high concentration of U-235 atoms. Meeting all three of these requirements has been out of reach for most countries. The recent development of inexpensive, high-precision computer-controlled machining equipment has made things somewhat easier. This is why more countries are learning to enrich uranium in recent years. Now you need to turn the uranium hexafluoride gas back into uranium metal. You do this by adding calcium. The calcium reacts with the fluoride to create a salt, and the pure uranium metal is left behind. With this highly concentrated U-235 metal, you can either make a nuclear bomb or power a nuclear reactor.
The "gun" is the simplest way to build a nuclear weapon. The atomic bomb used on Hiroshima during World War II used this approach. The weapon consists of a tube (much like the barrel of a gun) with half the nuclear charge fixed at one end and the other half (the moving half) at the opposite end. A conventional explosive charge was placed behind the moving portion which can be thought of as the "bullet." When the conventional charge is detonated, the bullet races down the tube and slams into the fixed charge at the other end (referred to as the "spike"). Once the two halves of the nuclear fuel are brought together and held together long enough, the chain reaction starts, the fuel goes supercritical and the explosion takes place. While the gun method is easy to engineer, it has some drawbacks. The biggest one is the need to make sure the two parts of nuclear fuel come together rapidly enough. As the two sections get about an inch apart, they will start exchanging neutrons that might start a chain reaction. If the two parts go supercritical before they get close enough, the force of the energy released will blow them apart before the main explosion gets underway. This type of failure is known as a "fizzle." Another problem is that this method is less efficient, requiring between 20 and 25 kilograms (around 44 to 55 pounds) of uranium. Other approaches can use as little as 15 kilograms (about 33 pounds). Given that weapon's grade uranium and plutonium are very hard to get, this is a real disadvantage. Also, the gun method only works if the uranium is being used as the fuel. The process of creating plutonium generally causes it to be contaminated with other materials which increase the chance of it going supercritical before the two sections are close enough together. This, in turn, increases the chances of a fizzle instead of a blast. To make the gun method work reliably with plutonium, you would have to increase the speed with which the "bullet" approached the "spike" significantly. To do this would mean making the tube impracticality long.
For this reason, if you use plutonium to fuel a bomb you need to use the more sophisticated "implosion" method. With this approach the nuclear fuel is shaped into a sphere (called the "pit"). Conventional explosives are put around it. When these are detonated the force of the explosion squeezes the pit into a supercritical mass long enough for the explosion to take place. While the principle sounds easy, it is difficult to actually make it work. The pit cannot simply be surrounded by high explosives. The shock wave that compresses it must be precisely spherical, otherwise the pit material will escape out through a weak point. To create the necessary explosive force in a perfect sphere, shaped explosive charges (sometimes called explosive lens) are used. The "fatman" bomb the leveled Nagasaki in World War II used 32 charges arranged around the pit like the faces of a soccer ball. In order to create the spherical shock wave it isn't only necessary to get the charges in the right position with the right shape, but they must be detonated at exactly the right time. A charge that detonates late will create a hole in the shock wave through which the pit can escape. Implosion designs also require a neutron trigger or "initiator" to flood the pit with neutrons during detonation. In "fatman" this was done with a small sphere with layers of beryllium and polonium separated by thin gold foil placed in the center of the pit. An implosion design may also include other layers between the explosives and the pit to create a more powerful explosion. These include a "pusher" (designed to increase the explosive shock wave hitting the pit), a "tamper" (to help the pit from blowing apart too quickly once the explosion starts), and a "reflector" composed of a material that will reflect neutrons back in the pit increasing the amount of fission. In some bomb designs these functions are integrated into a single layer of material.
Nuclear fusion is a process in which two atoms combine into a single larger atom, releasing large amounts of energy. Because it occurs only at excessively high temperatures and pressures such as those found in the core of the sun, where hydrogen fuses into helium, controlling fusion on earth is exceedingly difficult. The basis for the H-bomb is the Teller-Ulam configuration, which uses the huge energy released by nuclear fission to create the conditions necessary to ignite fusion in a secondary stage of the bomb. Fission is a process roughly the opposite of fusion: It releases energy through the physical smashing of an atomic nucleus into smaller parts. In addition to these two stages, an H-bomb might have a third stage consisting of depleted uranium or other fissile materialThe primary section of a hydrogen bomb is a fission trigger, not unlike the atomic bombs dropped on Japan. In a hydrogen bomb, however, this reaction occurs within a radiation case that temporarily contains the energy of the fission reaction and transfers the energy to the second stage. Though the exact mechanism remains unknown, it is believed that a small amount of gas between the two stages and a uranium sheath around the fusion fuel contribute to the compression. When the fuel in the fusion portion of the bomb goes critical---that is, reaches temperatures and pressure high enough for fusion---vast amounts of energy are released.
An atomic bomb is an explosive device that unleashes a tremendous amount of energy through the process of nuclear fission. This should not be confused with nuclear fusion which happens in a hydrogen or thermonuclear bomb. An atomic bomb uses a conventional explosive to compress a radioactive core made of uranium or plutonium. Atomic Bomb DetonationThe outer casing of TNT is detonated all around the radioactive core. This compresses the uranium or plutonium in on itself until it reaches "critical mass." This is when the nuclei of the uranium or plutonium is so tightly packed that neutrons can not escape without hitting another uranium or plutonium atom. That causes the impacted atom to come apart. The flying neutrons from that atom hits others, causing them to come apart as well. Atomic Bomb Chain ReactionThe splitting of atoms accelerates, resulting in a chain reaction. The resulting release of energy creates a devastating explosion. Radioactive elements are already unstable. They release heat and radioactivity just sitting there in their natural state. If left alone, they take centuries to release all their energy. Inside an atomic bomb the radioactive material is forced to unleash all its energy in a fraction of a second. Atomic Bomb ExplosionThe atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima had a core of 130 pounds of uranium-235. It created an explosion equivalent to 13 thousand tons of TNT. The blast killed an estimated 70,000 people instantly. Another 70,000 people died from radiation within the next four months. The atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki had a core of 14 pounds of plutonium-239. It was equivalent to 21 thousand tons of TNT. The atomic bomb killed an estimated 75,000 people instantly and another 5000 died from radiation within four months. Modern atomic bombs are many times bigger than the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Could You Build a Bomb? Building a basic nuclear weapon is not easy, but not all that hard either. In 1964 the U.S. Army decided to see just how difficult it was. They hired two professors that had Ph.Ds in physics, but no experience with nuclear weapons or access to nuclear secrets. The two were given the task of designing an atomic bomb using only information available to the general public. It took them roughly two years, but in the end they designed an implosion style weapon that could have been made in a local machine shop which could have produced an explosion similar to the Hiroshima bomb.The only thing that they found extremely difficult to do was to get the proper material to fuel the bomb: uranium 235 or plutonium 239. Only a tiny fraction of natural uranium that is mined from the ground is isotope 235 and separating it from the other isotopes is a major chore requiring huge factory complexes working years to isolate just a few pounds. In fact, most weapons programs get around this by utilizing plutonium, which is very rarely in found nature at all, but can be created by exposing more common types of uranium to radiation in a nuclear "breeder" reactor. Plutonium is extremely difficult to handle, however. It is one of the most toxic materials known to man, especially if inhaled. It is the difficulty of getting and handling these fissionable materials that protects us from people building nuclear bombs in their basements. It is for this reason nonproliferation of nuclear material is a major concern of most governments and there is great apprehension about countries who want to build nuclear reactors capable of "breeding" plutonium fuel. Knowledge of how to build a bomb is hard to control. Fortunately, so far, the materials needed have been much easier to keep track of.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks I (SALT I) - 1969-1972sought to limit and restrain land- and submarine-based offensive nuclear weapons. The talks, riddled with diplomatic and political obstacles, dragged on from November 1969 to May 1972. Efforts to limit the strategic nuclear arms were difficult given that the United States possessed far more warheads than the Soviets. This made it difficult to equate the number, type or categories of weapons and to define overall strategic equivalence.The Soviets, hoping to continue to build up its nuclear arms stockpile, sought to restrict negotiations to only banning anti-ballistic missile systems. The United States argued that to do so would be incompatible with the basic objectives of talks aimed at limiting strategic arms. Finally the deadlock was resolved when both sides agreed to concentrate on a permanent treaty to limit ABM systems, but at the same time to work out certain limits on offensive systems and establish a second round of SALT negotiations to reach a more comprehensive and long-term agreement. The first round of SALT concluded with the signing of a five-year Interim Agreement to limit further construction of intercontinental missile sites and other nuclear systems and the signing of the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty.Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty - 1972The ABM, signed in Moscow on May 26, 1972 was the first real nuclear-related agreement between the United States and the former Soviet Union. The treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems restricted the development of a defensive missile system that would prevent the penetration of others' retaliatory missiles. The United States and the Soviet Union agreed that each would have only two deployment areas, one to protect the capital and another at a major missile base. The sites would be at least 807 miles apart and the ABM deployment systems would be limited to no more than 100 interceptor missiles and 100 launchers at each site. The treaty has subsequently undergone extensive modifications. In December 2001 the United States pulled out of the 1972 ABM Treaty following months of talks to persuade Russia to set aside the treaty and negotiate a new strategic agreement.Strategic Arms Limitation Talks II (SALT II) - 1972-1979The second round of Strategic Arms Limitation Talks, which opened in November 1972, aimed to replace the five-year Interim Agreement with a more comprehensive long-term treaty to limit the number and types of nuclear missiles.The two sides remained far apart in the negotiations until a summit between American President Gerald Ford and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev in 1974 in Vladivostok during which the parties reached a basic framework for an agreement. But, despite the framework, negotiations bogged down over the limitations on American cruise missiles and the Soviet "Backfire"-class bombers.The American government reinvigorated the stalled talks after Jimmy Carter became president in 1977. At that time, the United States put forward two proposals, one a much more sweeping set of weapons limitations and the other an agreement similar to the Vladivostok accord, with the cruise missiles and Backfire issues deferred until later negotiations. The Soviet Union rejected both the proposals. After further negotiations both sides agreed to a framework that accommodated the Soviets' desire to retain the Vladivostok framework, and the U.S. desire for more comprehensive limitations on SALT II. A final agreement was signed on June 18, 1979 but expired in 1985 without either side formally implementing the pact.
Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) - July 31, 1991The Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, signed by President George H.W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev on July 31, 1991, was the most sweeping arms reduction treaty ever entered into by the two great nuclear superpowers. The result of nearly a decade of difficult negotiation, the treaty required the United States and Soviet Union to reduce their strategic nuclear forces.With the reductions, each nation would still control: 1,600 Strategic Nuclear Delivery Vehicles -- that is the sum of all inter-continental ballistic missiles, submarine-launched missiles and deployed heavy bombers 6,000 nuclear warheads of which no more than 4,900 could be on ballistic missiles. No more than 1,100 nuclear missiles deployed on mobile launchersThe agreement also limited the development of new and more deadly missile systems and established a wide-ranging inspection regime to ensure the treaty was adhered to by both sides.When the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991, the START limits appeared to be in danger, but negotiators from the United States and the four nations that inherited the Soviet's nuclear force -- Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus -- negotiated an additional protocol where Russia would take control of the nuclear arms and abide by the START pact and the other three nations would declare themselves non-nuclear states and agree to the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.On Dec. 5, 2001 the United States and the Russian Federation successfully reached START levels of 6,000 warheads completing the largest arms control reductions in history.Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START II) - 1993Built on the foundations of the START agreement, the Russian and American governments negotiated a second treaty to further reduce nuclear stockpiles by roughly two-thirds compared to pre-START levels. President George H.W. Bush and Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed the Treaty Between the United States of America and the Russian Federation on Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms, or START II for short, on Jan. 3, 1993.The pact, approved by the U.S. Senate in 1996 and the Russian Duma in 2000, set in place a two-phased reduction in nuclear weapons systems. The main thrust of this effort was to eliminate the larger Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) and the rockets that carried multiple warheads, technically known as Multiple-Reentry Vehicles (MRVs). In Phase One -- set to be complete by 2001 -- each side must have reduced its total deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 3,800-4,250. Of those warheads, no more than 1,200 may be on deployed MRVs, no more than 2,160 may be on deployed submarines, and no more than 650 may be on deployed heavy ICBMs.In Phase Two -- set to be complete by 2007 -- each side must have reduced its total deployed strategic nuclear warheads to 3,000-3,500. Of those, none may be on land-based MRVs. No more than 1,700-1,750 deployed warheads may be on submarines.
Treaty of Moscow - 2002Signed by the United States and Russia on May 26, 2002, the treaty called for both sides to reduce their nuclear warheads from 6,000 to 2,200 by the year 2012. Once ratified, the new treaty will replace the START II treaty. Despite this agreement, both Russia and America have said they will continue to invest in modernizing the remaining forces. Additionally, both nations have said the additional warheads will be placed in storage rather than dismantled.
1968 NPT signed by UNIntended to 1. nonproliferate, 2. disarm, 3. right to peaceful use of nuclear technologySigned by 189 countries which shows some successFailed in some ways because Israel, India, & Pakistan did not sign (North Korea backed out!)Failed because some signatories are still pursuing their own weapons programsNon-Proliferation Treaty - 1968Signed in the Soviet Union, the United States and the United Kingdom on July 1, 1968, the treaty sought to control the spread and use of nuclear technology for the manufacture of weapons. This pact pledged to restrict countries already in possession of nuclear weapons to refrain from giving control of those weapons to others and from transmitting information for their manufacture to states not possessing them. Countries without nuclear weapons that signed the pact agreed not to receive or manufacture them. The NPT also gave authority to the IAEA to police the nuclear activities of member countries to ensure nonproliferation. It has been approved by 187 countries, including all five major nuclear powers.
Pros - shows world that U.S. is committed to stopping spread of nukes by stopping their own testing & curb race for better weapons in the futureCons- other nonproliferation treaties have failed so while other enemy nations will continue to develop weapons, the US will not be able to update its arsenal & therefore protect its nationWould make it harder for non-weapons states to obtain nuclear weapons.Would make it harder for nuclear weapons states to develop new types of nuclear weapons.Don’t need to test in order to ensure safety and reliability of existing weapons.No guarantee that clandestine tests will be detected.Rogue states can’t be trusted to comply.Reliability of aging U.S. weapons still can’t be guaranteed without testing. International community can’t be depended on to effectively enforce any treaty.No reason to think that one more symbolic gesture by the U.S. will change anything.Would jeopardize U.S. national security.U.S. can’t expect to rally support for tougher actions against North Korea and Iran if isn’t willing to play by the same rules.World would get serious about nonproliferation if the U.S. took this step
The Cold War Nuclear Arms Race<br />After WWII, 2 superpowers were left: United States & Soviet Union<br />Arms Race started to gain power: <br /><ul><li>A competition between two or </li></ul> more countries in the building <br /> up (escalation) of weapons. <br /><ul><li>A cycle of action and reaction </li></ul> motivated by fear.<br />
Nuclear Arms Race… First Step<br />1945 U.S. created the world’s <br /> first atomic bomb <br />(A-bomb) and used the <br /> weapon against Japan to <br /> end WWII. <br />
The First Atomic Bombs<br />“Little Boy” – bomb dropped on Hiroshima. <br />15 kiloton bomb(the equivalent of 15,000 tons of TNT).<br />“Fat Man” – 20 kiloton <br />bomb used on Nagasaki.<br />
Nuclear Arms Race … Next Steps<br />1949 Soviet Union’s <br /> first A-bomb <br /> test.<br />1952 U.S. tested first hydrogen-bomb <br /> (H-bomb). <br />1953 Soviet Union’s first H-bomb test.<br />
H-bombs (Thermonuclear Weapons)<br /><ul><li>Fusion bombs measured </li></ul> in megatons<br /><ul><li>More difficult to create</li></ul> than A-bombs.<br />Only the five original<br /> members of the nuclear<br /> club have tested and now<br /> possess these weapons.<br />
A-bomb <br />vs.<br />H-bomb<br />Tests<br />Largest U.S. test<br /> 1954<br />Largest Soviet test<br /> 1961<br />Tzar Bomba test<br />5o+ megaton<br />H-bomb<br />4,000 x more powerful than Hiroshima <br />bomb<br />Bravo test<br />15megaton<br />H-bomb<br />1,000 x more <br />powerful than<br />Hiroshima <br />bomb<br />Hiroshima<br />A- bomb<br />15-20 kilotons<br />
Nuclear Arms Race… Next Step<br />1957 First ICBM (Intercontinental <br /> Ballistic Missile) <br /> deployed by the <br /> USSR.<br />1958 First ICBM <br /> deployed by the <br /> U.S. <br />
Nuclear Arms Race… Next Steps<br /><ul><li>1960s
Nuclear missiles called Trident Missiles were put on submarines.
Dramatic increase in stockpiles ofnuclear weapons.
ICBMs equipped with multiple warheads. </li></li></ul><li>Why did the arms race continue?<br />Because of Deterrence!<br /><ul><li>The maintenance </li></ul>of military power <br />for the purpose of <br />discouraging an<br /> attack.<br />
Nuclear Deterrence During the Cold War<br />To use nuclear weapons became unthinkable. Their primary purpose was to preventwar.<br />The threat of retaliation using nuclear weapons was intended to deter or discourage either side from launching a first strike.<br />Idea was called MAD(“mutual assured destruction”).<br />
The Nuclear Club & Nuclear Proliferation<br />
Nuclear Proliferation<br />Nuclear Proliferation <br />The spread of nuclear <br /> weapons.<br />The “Nuclear Club”<br /> The countries with nuclear <br /> weapons:<br /><ul><li>5 original members
9 members today</li></ul>Online News Hour Tracking Proliferation<br />
http://www.pbs.org/newshour/indepth_coverage/military/proliferation/map_flash.html<br />Let’s check out the map<br />
Effects<br />Nuclear technology spread to less power countries<br />The fear of MAD arose<br />Mass quantities of conventional weapons were being sold to developing countries in Africa and the Middle East<br />Threat of nuclear war seemed possible at any moment<br />Effects of Nuclear Proliferation<br />
Building a Nuclear Weapon<br />Three steps:<br />Making bomb fuel. <br /> (most difficult part)<br />Building a nuclear <br /> warhead.<br />Developing a reliable <br /> delivery system (like <br /> a missile).<br />
Making Bomb Fuel<br />Need fissile material --<br />either<br />uranium or plutonium<br />
Uranium Enrichment<br /><ul><li>Uranium enrichment is the process of turning raw uranium into reactor or bomb fuel.
It takes about 1,500 of these centrifuge stacks one year to produce enough enriched uranium for one nuclear weapon.</li></li></ul><li>
Building a Warhead – Fission Bomb<br />A conventional explosive drives the uranium "bullet" into the "spike;" bringing the mass to supercritical and causing the detonation. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 2007)<br />
Building a Warhead - Fission Bomb<br />Conventional explosives press on the "tamper/pusher," compressing the plutonium until it reaches a supercritical mass. The initiator floods the area with neutrons to help get the chain reaction going. (Copyright Lee Krystek, 2007)<br />
Building a Warhead - Fusion Bomb<br />Radiation from a primary fission bomb compresses a secondary section containing both fission and fusion fuel. The compressed secondary is heated from within by a second fission explosion <br />
Delivery System for Nukes<br />Nuclear Triad: U.S. nuclear weapons placed on land-based ICBMs, on Trident submarines, and on bombers (B-52s and B-2s).<br />ICBM launch simulation<br />Ballistic Missile Submarine <br />
Start of Nonproliferation<br />Arms Control Agreements during Cold War and beyond<br />
In the 1980s, the USSR began to reform its country and with its internal reforms they also changed the way they interacted with the U.S.<br />Détente became the policy of the US & USSR in the 1980s<br />Definition – a policy of easing tensions or improving poor relations between countries<br />With less tensions, the US & USSR started pushing nonproliferation<br />In order to promote nonproliferation, countries began negotiating arms control and disarmament treaties<br />What ended nuclear proliferation?<br />
Arms Control vs. Disarmament<br />Arms Control Treaties:Limit or regulate the number or the types of weapons a nation can possess.<br />Disarmament Treaties: Actually reduce the existing number of weapons or ban certain types of weapons altogether.<br />
1969 & 1979– SALT 1 & 2<br />Both aimed at limiting the production of future nuclear weapons between the U.S. and USSR<br />1972 – ABM Treaty<br />Limit missile defense systems and production of specific offensive warheads<br />Arms Control Treaties<br />
Bilateral Disarmament Treaties Between U.S. and Russia<br />START I and II Treaties (1990s)<br />(Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties)<br /><ul><li>First agreements to reduce </li></ul> strategic nuclear weapons <br /> (to 3,000 each by 2007).<br /><ul><li>Strategic weapons are long-range weapons.
Also eliminated all multi-warhead land-based missiles</li></li></ul><li>Bilateral Disarmament (2002)<br />Treaty of Moscow<br />(Strategic Offensive Reductions Treaty) <br /><ul><li>Requires U.S. and Russia to reduce their deployed strategic warheads by two thirds </li></ul> - to between 1,700 and 2,200 by the end of 2012.<br /><ul><li>Doesn’t require the destruction of any weapons -- allows warheads to be put in storage instead. </li></li></ul><li>Strategic vs. Tactical Nuclear Weapons<br />Strategic Nuclear Weapons:<br /><ul><li>Long-range weapons usually with destructive power over one megaton.
Carried on ICBMs, bombers, and subs.</li></ul>Tactical Nuclear Weapons: <br /><ul><li>Short-range weapons designed for use on the battlefield.
Destructive power ranges from 0.1 kiloton to 1.0 megatons.
Not covered by any arms control treaties. </li></li></ul><li>The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) 1968<br />Effort to stop any more countries from acquiring nuclear weapons.<br />Only five countries permitted to possess nuclear weapons.<br />The five existing nuclear weapons states agreed to:<br />1. Keep weapons or weapons technology from non-nuclear powers. <br />2. Reduce and eventually eliminate their own nuclear arsenals.<br />
Recent Signatories to the NPT<br />Joined as non-nuclear states <br />when Soviet Union broke up:<br />Belarus<br />Kazakhstan<br />Ukraine<br />Ended active nuclear weapons <br />programs:<br />Taiwan<br />South Africa<br />Brazil<br />Argentina<br />Algeria<br />Iraq<br />Libya<br />
Non-signatories to the NPT<br />Only three countries have <br /> refused to join the NPT:<br />India<br /> Pakistan<br /> Israel<br />North Korea withdrew <br /> from the NPT in 2003.<br />
Non-Weapons States under the NPT<br />Non-weapons states <br /> agreed never to acquire <br /> nuclear weapons. <br />Guaranteed access to<br /> nuclear technology for <br /> the peaceful production <br /> of nuclear power in <br /> return.<br />
<ul><li>Major nuclear powers have honored a voluntary </li></ul> moratorium since early 1990s. <br /><ul><li>The U.S. hasn’t conducted a nuclear test since 1992. </li></li></ul><li>U.S. Test Sites<br />New Mexico<br />South Pacific<br />
Limited Nuclear Test Ban Treaty 1963<br />Prohibits the testing of <br /> nuclear weapons in the <br /> atmosphere, in space, or <br /> underwater.<br />Permits underground <br /> tests only.<br />Signed and ratified by <br /> both U.S. and USSR.<br />
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty<br />Bans all nuclear explosions in all environments, including for military or civilian purposes<br />Signed by 178 countries of world including some nuclear capable states<br />U.S. debates about ratifying treaty (We have NOT ratified it yet!)<br />Pros – <br />Cons – <br />WOULD YOU SUPPORT THIS TREATY?<br />Other Issues<br />
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty(CTBT) 1996<br />Prohibits all testing of <br /> nuclear weapons, <br /> including underground <br /> tests. <br />President Clinton was<br /> The first world leader to<br /> sign the treaty. Sent to<br /> Senate for ratification.<br />
CTBT continued <br />1999 ratification vote <br /> failed in the Senate by <br /> a vote of 51-48.<br /><ul><li>All Democrats voted </li></ul> for the treaty and all<br /> but four Republicans <br /> were opposed.<br />
CTBT continued<br />Obama pledged during campaign to “aggressively” pursue CTBT’s ratification. <br />
Current Status of CTBT<br />CTBT will not be in force <br /> until all “nuclear capable” <br /> states ratify it.<br />180 countries have signed <br /> the CTBT, but nine nuclear <br /> capable states have <br /> NOT RATIFIED the treaty.<br />U.S.<br />China<br />North Korea<br />India<br />Pakistan<br />Indonesia<br />Iran<br />Israel<br />Egypt<br />
U.S. is developing a Missile Defense System<br />Why? – nuclear weapon technology is still spreading worldwide & so we need to protect ourselves<br />Does anyone oppose?<br />Yes, it is costly!<br />This goes against ABM treaty which means other later treaties could fall apart if the U.S. violates ABM<br />Many major powers of the world thinks that this system gives the US an unfair advantage<br />DO YOU SUPPORT THIS SYSTEM?<br />Other Issues<br />
Missile Defense<br />ABM Treaty (Anti-Ballistic Missile) 1972<br /> <br />Limited U.S. and Soviet <br /> anti-missile defenses to <br /> one site each. Why?<br />Goal was to maintain <br /> MAD.<br />Bush withdrew U.S. from <br /> ABM Treaty in 2001.<br />
Bush’s Missile Defense Plan<br /> <br />A limited missile defense <br /> system to defend U.S. and<br /> Europe against missiles <br /> launched by states such as <br /> North Korea or Iran.<br />Interceptor missiles<br /> based in Alaska, California, <br /> ships at sea, and Poland.<br />Interceptors hit and destroy<br /> incoming missiles in<br /> mid-flight.<br />
Obama and Missile Defense<br /><ul><li>Obama cancelled Bush’s</li></ul> plan to place missile base and radar site in Poland / Czech Republic.<br /><ul><li>Obama’s plan will place smaller missiles on ships in order to protect Europe from Iran’s short and medium range missiles.</li></ul>Report<br />