Julia Arnett
Nuclear War Project 
Period 7- Tye
Nuclear Fusion V.S. Nuclear Fission- Peanut butter is to jelly as
fusion i...
We Put Our Minds to the test in the PhET Stimulation-part 11 

When A neutron is released towards the uranium-235 it chang...
Nuclear Reactor (15)










**phET simulations citation (5)



I was very shocked when I saw the Fukashima video. I was...
Hydrogen V.S. Atomic-part111

The difference between a hydrogen and atomic bomb is apparent through their
makeup. A hydrog...
Video Exploration on Nuclear Attacks-part IV


After watching the videos, I learned in the first video that underwater
nucl...
Craters Impacting Our Earth-part V


















It's neat to see the impact that the powerful explosions make on the ...
Nuclear Weapons: Who's Really in Control?- partVI


1. What countries are declared nuclear weapons-possessing countries?
T...
recent nuclear test. 

** Part 6 info from (9) 


How Can We Help?-VII


1. Summarize the obligations of the United States...
Pedro Arrupe's Religious Point of View-partVIII 


1. How did Arrupe's experience at Hiroshima impact his view of violence...
2.What dangers do the US bishops connect to a policy of deterrence?
The US bishops connect a potential threat of the polic...
Who Really Matters- Hearing from the Scientists-partIX 
The scientists believe that the aggressive role that the US is tak...
Nuclear War on the Home Front?-part X


On April 3, 2013, Mail Online reported that North Korea threatened to drop
some ty...
Citations!

(1) "Nuclear Fission Versus Nuclear Fusion." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web.
21 May 2013.

(2) "Nuclear F...
(13)"Visual Dictionary Online." SCIENCE. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013.

(14) "The Web's Where You Study In!" Nuclear Fusion...
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Julia arnett nuclear warproject-2013

  1. 1. Julia Arnett Nuclear War Project Period 7- Tye Nuclear Fusion V.S. Nuclear Fission- Peanut butter is to jelly as fusion is to fission-part1 Both nuclear fusion and fission are a nuclear reaction, which occur when the energy and/or the composition of an atoms nucleus is altered. The process of nuclear fusion occurs when a number of atoms join together which all consist of the same charge, negative or positive. Once a large amount of atoms have conjoined, they form a much larger atom with a heavier nucleus. During the creation of a new atom energy is released (1). The quantity of the matter (mass) in the newly formed larger atom is smaller than in the atoms that formed it (1).The difference in mass between the two, is then released in what is considered energy. Nuclear fission is simply the complete opposite of fusion. Through the fission process, an atoms nucleus is torn apart resulting in two new atoms (2). The new atoms have about half the mass of the original one because it has half as many Nuclear fusion (14) protons and neutrons (2). During the transformation some of the neutrons of the atom are unleashed which results in energy being given off. Nuclear fission (13)
  2. 2. We Put Our Minds to the test in the PhET Stimulation-part 11 When A neutron is released towards the uranium-235 it changes into a uranium-236 which makes it unstable and in essence allows for energy to be released. Through fission, the atom is split into two, releasing an outward force, creating daughter nucli. Fission: One Nucleus (15) In the chain reaction, when the neutron is released towards the uranium-235 atoms, it hits and immediately splits into daughter nucli which then in essence serve as new neutrons which bounce around the contained area, hit the uranium atoms, and allow them to break apart. In other words, the product of the split uranium atoms into daughter nucli become reactants which create new neutrons. In the nuclear reactor portion of the stimulation we learn that nuclear Chain Reaction (15) reactions are caused by chain reactions. Chain reactions take place when more than one nuclear reaction has been set off (3). Whenever there is an interaction between neutrons and an elements isotopes (atoms within the uranium element with a different number of neutrons), the neutrons and isotopes will be released through fission (4). The neutrons that are released thought the process will then interact with a new uranium element, creating a chain reaction.
  3. 3. Nuclear Reactor (15) **phET simulations citation (5) I was very shocked when I saw the Fukashima video. I was surprised to learn that the fuel roads inside the nuclear reaction release heat which ends up generating the energy. It is important that these roads maintain a certain temperature, cool enough so that they don't melt. It surprised me that all three emergency backup plans failed at cooling the roads at the time of the earthquake. (6)
  4. 4. Hydrogen V.S. Atomic-part111 The difference between a hydrogen and atomic bomb is apparent through their makeup. A hydrogen bomb is constructed with an underlying focus on nuclear fusion (7). A number of hydrogen isotopes will come together (fuse) to form helium (7). Through this process, energy is being produced as atoms collide with one another. The constant split of atoms makes the explosion extremely powerful. An atomic bomb undergoes the process of fission, when a neutrons hits the nucleus of an atom (uranium) it causes the nucleus to break apart into two new atoms(8). Again, through the fission process, energy is released. The atomic bomb reactions are purposely uncontrolled in order for the disintegration rate to increase, allowing for thermal energy to be given off(8). The increasing rates, cause a huge amount of energy to be released, allowing the bomb to be extremely powerful. Hydrogen bomb Atomic bomb ** Map citations - google maps SI is about 24 miles from Downtown San Francisco. If a nuclear explosion were to occur in the city, SI would probably be just outside the cremation zone but definitely within the mushroom cloud zone.
  5. 5. Video Exploration on Nuclear Attacks-part IV After watching the videos, I learned in the first video that underwater nuclear explosion is seen dramatically from ground level as an explosive cloud over the sea. I was surprised to learn about the tsar which is composed of 58 million tons of TNT (the amount of explosives used throughout all of WWII multiplied by ten). The tsar was the bomb that Russians hoped would be string enough to explode America. They attached a parachute to the bomb in order to allow more time for the pilot to escape once the bomb was designated. The earth below the bomb was turned to ash as a result of the intense heat the bomb gave off. This bomb was 4 times bigger than anything the united states had designated. In the third video I leaned that after the bomb fell for 43 seconds in Hiroshima there was a nuclear chain reaction which allowed for it to explode. The atom bomb of Nagasaki stood out to me because it was set off as a little egg like device on the ground and exploded as if it reached high above the clouds (mushroom clouds). It's power took out neighborhoods and destroyed all types of infrastructure. I was surprised and depressed to see the results of the Hiroshima bomb. It is insane to see how powerful and the amount of destruction that one nuclear weapon has the ability to accomplish.
  6. 6. Craters Impacting Our Earth-part V It's neat to see the impact that the powerful explosions make on the earth, creating craters. Exploring on google earth was a ton of fun and I got to see how big the craters actually were in regards to the land masses around them.
  7. 7. Nuclear Weapons: Who's Really in Control?- partVI 1. What countries are declared nuclear weapons-possessing countries? The countries that are known to have nuclear weapons include, France, the United States, Russia, United Kingdom, China, and India. All of these contrives have land, sea, and air confirmed deliveries of nuclear weapons. 2. What countries are undeclared nuclear weapons-possessing countries or are believed to be pursuing nuclear weapons technologies? Israel, Iran, and North Korea, are all detected to be pursuing nuclear weapons. Countries who posses or are seeking to possess nuclear weapons. (9) 4. How many nuclear weapons are in the US arsenal? There are said to be 7,650 nuclear weapons in the US arsenal. 2,150 of those warheads are operational, 2,500 are in storage, and 3,000 are awaiting dismantlement. 5. When was the last time the US made an above-ground ("atmospheric") nuclear test? What about a below-ground test? In 1963, before the limited test band treaty was signed, the United States launched an above- ground nuclear test. 1992 was the last recorded belowground test arranged by the US. 6.When was the last time an atmospheric test by any country was made? In 1980 China launched a nuclear test, making it the most recent atmospheric test (12). 7. When was the last time any nuclear test by any country was made In 2013, North Korea launched a below ground nuclear test, making it the most
  8. 8. recent nuclear test. ** Part 6 info from (9) How Can We Help?-VII 1. Summarize the obligations of the United States under the Non-Proliferation Treaty? Under the Non-Prolifefration Treaty, the United States has an obligation to avert any wide spread use of nuclear weaponry. The "Parties of the Treaty" have decided that only "peaceful applications of nuclear technology" is acceptable in trade throughout the world. Both nuclear and non nuclear weapon states have agreed to no longer participate in the transfer or in receiving nuclear weapons meant for innocent destruction (10). Because the United states is a nuclearweapon state party, we have an obligation under the treaty to discourage and prevent all transfer of nuclear explosives throughout the world, although primarily to non-nuclear weapon state parties (11). It is our job to only promote peaceful scientific nuclear exploration. 2. Do you think the US should be a party to this Treaty? I do think the US should be a part of the Non-Proliferation treaty. I support the experimentation of scientific nuclear explosives but do not believe it should be used as a way of violent destruction. I think many wars and worldly disputes could be put to an end if it weren't for the threat of nuclear weaponry. I believe in order to develope more peaceful relationships within the world, it is necessarily to put an end to the transfer, distribution, and easy access to nuclear explosives. 3. According to your understanding, is the US meeting these obligations?  Based on CBC news reports and my understanding of current threats, the United States is not doing a very good job of following through with the treaty. As a result of a threat from countries such as North Korea, the US has begun to conduct and carry out nuclear explosions (20). we have unfortunately gotten ourselves in the middle of disagreements between both North and South Korea, which has forced the potential use of nuclear explosives.
  9. 9. Pedro Arrupe's Religious Point of View-partVIII 1. How did Arrupe's experience at Hiroshima impact his view of violence?   On August 6, 1945, Pedro Arrupe's life changed forever. He was a Jesuit man who was sent on a catholic mission to Japan resulting in a shocking reality. Arrupe explains how he felt loneliness, poverty, and depression when he arrived in Japan and regardless of his attempts to assimilate with the Japanese culture, it never felt right. It was the day of the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion that allowed Arrupe to discover his real feelings on violence. As his life flashed before his eyes (he only a short distance away from where the bomb landed), he realized that in times of violence is when "God is most near to us" (Arrupe). The explosion left an enormously large negative footprint of his life. Ever since that morning, Arrupe wanted nothing to do with violence and thought it should be prevented no matter what the cost. 2. How do you think this experience contributed to his call for Jesuit schools to educate for justice and form form men and women for others? I think that because Arrupe got to experience such horrific violence taking place literally right in front of him, it allowed him to realize how valuable life was. It is in times of such weakness that God is able to give us strength. Arrupe used his pervious medical knowledge to assist those who were suffering with pain from the attacks. He reached out to be a man for others and grow with them in their time of hardship. His attempt to work towards justice and equally became apparent through his healing deeds in a time of defeat for Japan. His actions are what inspired men and women to be with and for others. The Morality of Nuclear Deterrence 1.What does it mean to have a policy of deterrence? A policy of deterrence allows for the ownership of nuclear weapons but only to serve as a preventative action against the practice of nuclear weaponry from others (16). Although, under the Catholic Bishops, they base the policy of deterrence on very specific criteria. They do not believe the policy could serve as a long-term premises for peace, they will only allow for maintenance of nuclear weapons in the interim if it will prevent discourage others from nuclear weapons, and they state "the deterrence is just a step on the way toward a progressive disarmament" (16).
  10. 10. 2.What dangers do the US bishops connect to a policy of deterrence? The US bishops connect a potential threat of the policy of deterrence failing. If the policy were to fail, nuclear weaponry would be put to use in violent and harmful ways which is not allowed by the church (16). 3.What moral conclusions do the US bishops make regarding a current policy of deterrence? The US bishops are disappointed in the lack of recognition that the policy of deterrence is receiving. They state that "nuclear deterrence is being institutionalized" and is becoming a societal norm. We have witnessed the use of destructive nuclear explosions in World Wars and Cold Wars. The United States insists that they keep their nuclear weapons as a threat to others in the future. This insurance of nuclear weaponry demoralizes the policy of deterrence (16). 4. Do you agree or disagree with the position expressed by the US bishops and Pax Christi? I do agree with the US bishops point of view. I think that a steady elimination of all worldly nuclear weapons would be a large step towards world peace. I think that without the constant threat of nuclear weapons we could reduce the overall worldly violence that is present today. Nuclear war not only destroys innocent human lives but gives us no hope for peace.
  11. 11. Who Really Matters- Hearing from the Scientists-partIX The scientists believe that the aggressive role that the US is taking in terms of multiplying our nuclear supply rather than eliminating it, is becoming a major threat to our country. The rapid development of nuclear weapons, is posing a threat on other countries (especially those who are less stable) and are making us more vulnerable to surprise attacks. Other nations feel competition with the US and feel as if they must keep up with our production of nuclear arms. The scientists sum it up perfectly, calling for " prohibition on nuclear weapons in order to enhance both national and international security" (17). I think the nuclear weapons policy that the scientists want to enforce is extremely beneficial to the well-being of our country. I think it would avoid all unnecessary violent threats from and on other countries. It would promote world peace and allow for worldly communication. I believe the only reason the US should have nuclear weapons is to discourage other counties from harming us.
  12. 12. Nuclear War on the Home Front?-part X On April 3, 2013, Mail Online reported that North Korea threatened to drop some type of nuclear bomb on the US. Since February, North Korea has been conducting underground nuclear testing in preparations for an attack on the United States (18). The US is taking aggressive action, as our soldiers construct bomb disposal robots in order to avert all threats from North Korea. The robots have the ability to destroy the chemical makeup of any type of bomb and ultimately deactivate it (19). Although, this technological advance may not be good enough. As the US maintains an alliance with South Korea, the North Korean government begins to get more feed up. North Korea has threatened to send in missiles which can travel over 1,800 miles into South Korea and if necessary, the United States. The relationships between the countries are deteriorating rapidly. Peace is hard to come by and nuclear weapons are rapidly taking over. Robotic Bomb Disposer (19) **link to article:http: //www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2303725/North-Koreanuclear-war-threat-US-troops-poised-respond-madman-Kim-Jong-Un-says-attackauthorised.html
  13. 13. Citations! (1) "Nuclear Fission Versus Nuclear Fusion." About.com Chemistry. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. (2) "Nuclear Fission vs Nuclear Fusion." Nuclear Fission vs Nuclear FusionDifference and Comparison. Diffen, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. (3) "Nuclear Chain Reaction." Nuclear Chain Reaction. Fission Chain Reaction, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013.   (4) "Basic Nuclear Fission." ThinkQuest. Oracle Foundation, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013. (5)"Nuclear Fission." PhET. N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2013.  (6)"Fukushima Nuclear Reactor Problem Explained (CNN)." YouTube.YouTube, 14 Mar. 2011. Web. 21 May 2013.  (7)"Naked Science Forum." What Is the Difference between an "atomic" and a "nuclear" Bomb? N.p., n.d. Web. 21 May 2013.  (8) "Atomic Bomb (fission Device)." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 21 May 2013.  (9) "Nuclear Weapons: Who Has What?" CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 22 May 2013 (10) "TREATY ON THE NON-PROLIFERATION OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS." NON-PROLIFERATION TREATY. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2013.   (11) "UNODA - Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT)." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 22 May 2013. (12)"Above-Ground Nuclear Blasts." EPA. Environmental Protection Agency, n.d. Web. 22 May 2013.
  14. 14. (13)"Visual Dictionary Online." SCIENCE. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. (14) "The Web's Where You Study In!" Nuclear Fusion. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. (15) "Nuclear Fission." PhET. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. (16) "75 U.S. CATHOLIC BISHOPS CONDEMN U.S. POLICY OF NUCLEAR DETERRENCE." 75 U.S. Catholic Bishops Condemn Policy of Nuclear Detterence. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 May 2013. (17)Union of Concerned Scientists. "Scientists Statements on US Nuclear Weapons Policy." Nuclear Weapons and Global Security. N.p., n.d. Web. (18)Suri, Jeremi. "OP-ED CONTRIBUTOR; Bomb North Korea, Before It’s Too Late." The New York Ti                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    mes. The New York Times, 13 Apr. 2013. Web. 23 May 2013. (19)"'The Moment of Explosion Is Near': North Korean Madman's New Warning as U.S. Deploys Battalion Expert in Nuclear and Chemical Warfare after Rogue State Moves Its Missiles to the Coast." Mail Online. Associated Newspapers Ltd, n.d. Web. 24 May 2013.  (20)Press, The Associated. "North Korea Nuclear Threat 'not a Game,' UN Chief Says." CBCnews. CBC/Radio Canada, 03 Apr. 2013. 

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