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Facial Proportions

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Facial Proportions

  1. 1. Facial ProportionsHow to Draw an Average Adult Human Head
  2. 2. General RulesThe eyes are half way bet ween thetop of the head and the chin.The bottom of the nose is half waybet ween the eyes and the chin.The mouth is half way bet ween thenose and the chin.The corners of the mouth line upwith the centers of the eyes.The top of the ears line up with thecenter of the eyes.The bottom of the ears line up withthe bottom of the nose.
  3. 3. Step 1Using a pencil, start by drawing anoval on your sheet of paper.The oval should be the size youwant the final face to be, or a bitsmaller.Leave room at the top of the sheetfor hair and at the bottom of thesheet for a neck and shoulders.The bottom of the oval shouldreflect the jaw line of your subject(i.e. is it square, rounded, pointy?).
  4. 4. Step 2The next step is to make a verylight pencil grid to help you locatefacial features (youll erase thegrid when youre finisheddrawing).
  5. 5. Step 2aTo start the grid, draw a lighthorizontal line at the top of theoval and another at the bottom ofthe oval.
  6. 6. Step 2aTo start the grid, draw a lighthorizontal line at the top of theoval and another at the bottom ofthe oval.Then draw a horizontal linemidway bet ween the first t wolines to divide the oval in half. Thisis the line on which you draw theeyes, which are roughly the shapeof a football.
  7. 7. Step 2bDraw a horizontal line midwaybet ween the eye line and thebottom line.The bottom of the nose falls justabove this line.
  8. 8. Step 2cDraw a horizontal line midwaybet ween the nose line and thebottom line.This is the line on which you centerthe mouth (which is the generalshape of an elongated, pointyfootball, with t wo bumps on thetop and one on the bottom, and asubtle line across the middle).
  9. 9. Step 2dNext, draw some light vertical lineson each side of the oval.
  10. 10. Step 2dNext, draw some light verticallines on each side of the oval.Draw four, equally-spaced verticallines bet ween those t wo lines todivide the space into five equalparts.
  11. 11. Step 2dNext, draw some light verticallines on each side of the oval.Draw four, equally-spaced verticallines bet ween those t wo lines todivide the space into five equalparts.
  12. 12. Step 3Sketch in the features.The eyes fall in columns 2 and 4.The distance bet ween the eyes is the same size as an eye. Youshould be able to fit 5 eyes across the head so use your pencilas a measuring guide.The distance bet ween the eyes is similar to the width of thebottom of the nose.The nose falls in column 3.The corners of the mouth line up with the centers of the eyes.Draw in the ears by aligning the tops with the center of theeyes and the bottoms with the bottom of the nose.
  13. 13. EyesAdd a shaded eyelid fold above the eye for depth.Add eyelashes to the top and bottom of the eye. Thethicker the top eyelashes, the more feminine a facetends to look.You can add emphasis to the upper eyelid by makingthe line a bit thicker than the bottom of the eye.Using light strokes to mimic tiny hairs, pencil in theeyebrows.On a real face, the eyebrows are generally a fingerswidth above the eyes. The eyebrows on women tendto be more fine, shaped, and delicate; on men theytend to be slightly more bushy and erratic. Theeyebrows generally extend a little past the cornersof the eye.
  14. 14. NoseThe nose is difficult to draw because thereare very few lines to help describe itsshape.Start by drawing what you can see, theinside and outside edges of the nostrils.Then try to define the areas of tone thatdefines the planes of the nose
  15. 15. MouthThe mouth is the second most expressivefeature of the face (after the eyes).Begin by drawing the line that separatesthe t wo lips. It is not a straight line buthas very subtle shape to it.The top lip has a characteristic bow to itthat varies considerably from person toperson.The bottom lip is usually larger than thetop and more creased with vertical stretchlines.
  16. 16. Final TipsOnce youve refined all the facial features and arehappy with what you see, erase the pencil grid.Now you can add the neck, shoulders, and hair.In general, the shoulders should be wide enough tosupport three heads.For the hair on a life-size portrait, one or t woinches of hair above the head looks mostrealistic. Add bangs or hair at the sides of theface if appropriate. Make the hair loose looking(think of wind blowing through the strands) sothat its more realistic.Add some subtle shading for the cheekbones. Theyare usually low, ending along the same line as thebottom of the nose.
  17. 17. Final TipsMost people have wrinkles of some degreeat the far corners of the eyes (crows feet)and at the corners of the mouth (laughlines). Including a few subtle lines can addcharacter and realism to your portrait.Sometimes ears are completely covered byhair. If theyre not (or are partiallycovered), notice how much they stick outand their wiggly folds. Include earrings ifyou like and if appropriate.To finish off the drawing, shade inappropriate areas (e.g. hair, lips, aroundeyes, cheekbones, background) to add somecontrast.

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