His 102 chapter 27 the cold war

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His 102 chapter 27 the cold war

  1. 1. { The Cold War Chapter 27
  2. 2. Introduction  Wasteland  Europe as land of wreckage and confusion  Refugees returned home  Housing now scarce, food in short supply  Trauma  The brutality of war  Civil war  Liberation and betrayal
  3. 3. Introduction  Recovery  Government authority  Functioning bureaucracies  Legitimate legal systems  The emergence of the superpowers and the Cold War  Collapse of the European empires
  4. 4. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Iron Curtain  Soviets argued they had a legitimate claim to Eastern Europe  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  The “people’s republics”  Sympathetic to Moscow  One party took hold of key positions of power  Churchill’s “Iron Curtain” speech (Fulton, Missouri, 1946)
  5. 5. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  Communist governments in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia (1948)  Yugoslavia  Tito declared his government independent of Moscow in 1948  Drew support from Serbs, Croats, and Muslims in Yugoslavia  Expelled from communist countries’ economic and military pacts
  6. 6. Territorial Changes in Europe after the Second World War
  7. 7. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  Soviet purges in the parties and administrations of satellite governments  Began in the Balkans  Extended through Czechoslovakia, East Germany, and Poland  Renewed anti-Semitism
  8. 8. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  Greece  Local communist-led resistance  British and United States determined to keep Greece in their sphere of influence  Greece as touchstone for escalating American fear of communist expansion
  9. 9. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  The two Germanys  Four occupied zones became two hostile states  Berlin divided as well  Three Western allies created a single government for their territories in 1948  Passed reforms to ease economic crisis  Introduced a new currency
  10. 10. Czech Propaganda Poster Celebrating German Defeat Czech Propaganda Poster Celebrating German Defeat, May 1945
  11. 11. Czech Propaganda Card, May 1945
  12. 12. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Soviets and Eastern Europe  The two Germanys  Soviets retaliated with the Berlin Blockade (June 1948–May 1949)  The Berlin airlift  The Federal Republic (West Germany)  The German Democratic Republic (East Germany)
  13. 13. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Marshall Plan  U.S. response to Soviet expansion was massive economic and military aid  The Truman Doctrine (1947)  Military assistance to anticommunists in Greece  Tied the contest for political power to economics
  14. 14. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Marshall Plan  The Marshall Plan (1948)  $13 billion of aid for industrial development over four years  Encouraged states to diagnose their own problems and develop solutions  Founded on the idea of coordination among European countries  The building block of future European economic unity
  15. 15. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  The Marshall Plan  North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO, April 1949)  United States, Canada, and representatives from Western European states  Greece, Turkey, and West Germany added later  Armed attack against one is an armed attack against all
  16. 16. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Two worlds and the race for the bomb  Soviet response  Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON)  Communist Information Bureau (COMINFORM, 1947)  Warsaw Pact (1955)  Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania, East Germany
  17. 17. The Arms Race: a Soviet View
  18. 18. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Two worlds and the race for the bomb  The nuclear arms race  Soviets tested an atom bomb in 1949  Soviets and United States both had the hydrogen bomb in 1953  One thousand times more powerful than the Hiroshima explosion  Intercontinental missiles and delivery systems  Atomic-powered submarines
  19. 19. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Two worlds and the race for the bomb  The nuclear arms race  The “nuclearization of warfare”  Polarized the Cold War  Forced other countries to join United States or Soviets  Generated fears that local conflicts might trigger a general war  The bomb as symbol of an age  Science, technology, and progress  The threat of mass destruction
  20. 20. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Two worlds and the race for the bomb  Was the Cold War inevitable?  Two perspectives  Stalin’s ambitions fueled the Cold War  Used devastation of WWII as excuse to expand a Russian empire  Viewed domination of Eastern Europe as reward for winning WWII  United States feared Soviet expansion  Unwilling to give up military, economic, and political power  Refused to credit Soviet contributions to defeat Germany in WWII  Was trust between Western democracies and Soviet Russia because of propaganda on both sides?
  21. 21. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Two worlds and the race for the bomb  Was the Cold War inevitable?  A new balance of power  George Kennan and the policy of containment  Domestic intensification of the Cold War  Anxiety  Air raid drills, spy trials, the menacing “other”
  22. 22. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Khrushchev and “the thaw”  Death of Stalin (March 1953)  Nikita Khrushchev (1894–1971) came to power in 1956  Agreed to summit with Britain, France, and the United States
  23. 23. Nikita Khrushchev
  24. 24. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Khrushchev and “the thaw”  The Secret Speech (1956)  Denounced Stalinist excesses  Allowed rehabilitation of some of Stalin’s victims  “De-Stalinization”  “The thaw” (1956–1958)  Camps released thousands of prisoners
  25. 25. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Khrushchev and “peaceful coexistence”  East Germans continued to flee (2.7 million between 1949 and 1961)  Khrushchev demanded a permanent division of Germany with a free city of Berlin  The Berlin wall (1961)
  26. 26. The Berlin Wall, 1961
  27. 27. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Repression in Eastern Europe  Hungary  Imre Nagy: nationalist and communist  Much broader anticommunist struggle  Attempted to leave Warsaw Pact  Soviet troops entered Budapest on November 4, 1956  Hungarian citizens resorted to street fighting  The Soviets installed Janos Kadar  Staunch (Moscow) Communist
  28. 28. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Repression in Eastern Europe  Poland  Demands for more independence to manage its own economy (1956)  Government responded with military repression and promises of liberalization  Wladyslaw Gomulka pledged Poland’s loyalty to the Warsaw Pact
  29. 29. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Repression in Eastern Europe  East German government faced economic crisis in 1953  Fifty-eight thousand East Germans left for the West  Strikes and unrest
  30. 30. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Khrushchev and “the thaw”  The Secret Speech (1956)  Cultural expression freed up  Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn  One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich (1962)  The Gulag Archipelago (Paris, 1973)
  31. 31. The Cold War and a Divided Continent  Khrushchev and “peaceful coexistence”  East Germans continued to flee (2.7 million between 1949 and 1961)  Khrushchev demanded a permanent division of Germany with a free city of Berlin  The Berlin wall (1961)
  32. 32. Economic Renaissance  The economic “miracle”  War provided technologies with practical and immediate applications  Improved communications  Manufacture of synthetic materials, aluminum, and alloy steels  Advances in techniques of prefabrication  High consumer demand and high levels of employment
  33. 33. Economic Renaissance  The role of government  The necessity of planning  Broad experiments with the nationalization of industry and services  “Mixed economies” providing public and private ownership  France—electricity, gas, banking, radio, television, and auto industry are state-managed  Britain—coal, utilities, road and rail transport, and banking are nationalized
  34. 34. Economic Renaissance  The role of government  West Germany experienced unprecedented economic growth  Production increased sixfold (1948–1964)  Unemployment reached 0.4 percent (1965)  German demand for labor attracted foreign workers
  35. 35. Economic Renaissance  The role of government  Britain  The economy remained sluggish  Obsolete factories and methods  Unwillingness to adopt new techniques
  36. 36. Economic Renaissance  European economic integration  European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC, 1951)  Coal accounted for 82 percent of Europe’s primary energy consumption  Key to relations between West Germany and France
  37. 37. Economic Renaissance  European economic integration  European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market)  France, West Germany, Italy, Britain, Holland, and Luxembourg  Abolition of trade barriers  Committed to common external tariffs  The free movement of labor  A unified wage structure and social security systems
  38. 38. Economic Renaissance  European economic integration  European Economic Community (EEC or Common Market)  Britain  Feared effects of ECSC on declining coal industry  Continued to rely on economic relations with the Empire and Commonwealth  EEC became the world’s largest importer (1963)  Total production 70 percent higher than it had been in 1950
  39. 39. Europe during the Cold War
  40. 40. Economic Renaissance  European economic integration  Bretton Woods (July 1944)  Aimed to coordinate movements of the global economy  Created the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank  All currencies pegged to the dollar
  41. 41. Economic Renaissance  Economic development in Eastern Europe  National income rose and output increased  Poland and Hungary strengthened their economic connections with the West  30 percent of Eastern European trade done outside the Soviet bloc (1970s)  COMECON compelled other members to trade with the Soviet Union
  42. 42. Economic Renaissance  The welfare state  Economic expansion promised more comprehensive social programs  “Welfare state” coined by Clement Atlee (British Labour Party)
  43. 43. Economic Renaissance  The welfare state  Britain  Free medical healthcare through the National Health Service  Guaranteed secondary education  Welfare relief as entitlement and not poor relief
  44. 44. Economic Renaissance  European politics  Pragmatism  Konrad Adenauer  West German chancellor (1949–1963)  Despised German militarism  Remained apprehensive about German parliamentary government
  45. 45. Economic Renaissance  General Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth French Republic  Retired from politics in 1946  Returned to office after Algerian War (1958)  Insisted on a new constitution
  46. 46. Economic Renaissance  General Charles de Gaulle and the Fifth French Republic  Strengthened executive branch of government  France withdrew from NATO in 1966  Cultivated better relations with Soviet Union  Modern military establishment, with atomic weapons
  47. 47. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The Third World  Avoiding alignment with either superpower  The Chinese Revolution (1949)  Civil war since 1926  Chiang Kai-shek (1887–1975)—nationalist  Mao Zedong (1893–1976)—communist  Nationalists and communists defeated Japan  Mao refused to surrender northern provinces
  48. 48. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The Chinese Revolution (1949)  U.S. intervention  The revolution was the act of a nation of peasants  Mao adapted Marxism to Chinese conditions  The “loss of China” provoked fear in the West  United States considered China and the Soviet Union to be a “communist bloc”
  49. 49. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The Korean War  A Cold War hot spot  Korea under Japanese control during World War II  Post–1945: Soviets controlled North (Kim Jong II) and United States controlled South (Syngman Rhee)  North Korean troops attacked across the border (June 1950)
  50. 50. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The Korean War  UN permitted an American-led “police action”  General Douglas MacArthur (1880–1964)  Former military governor of occupied Japan  Led amphibious assault behind North Korean lines  Wanted to press assault into China  Relieved of duty by Truman  Chinese troops supported North Koreans
  51. 51. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The Korean War  Stalemate  The end of the Korean conflict (June 1953)  Korea remained divided  Decolonization  The decline of older empires  Nationalist movements and independence
  52. 52. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  India  Post–1945: waves of Indian protest for Britain to quit India  Mohandas K. Gandhi (1869–1948)  Pioneered anticolonial ideas and tactics  Jawaharlal Nehru (1889–1964)  Led the pro-independence Congress Party  Ethnic and religious conflict  The Muslim League
  53. 53. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  India  British India partitioned into India (majority Hindu) and Pakistan (majority Muslim)  Brutal religious and ethnic warfare  Gandhi assassinated in January 1948  Nehru as prime minister of India (1947–1964)  Program of industrialization and modernization  Steered a course of nonalignment with Soviet Union and United States
  54. 54. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Palestine  Balfour Declaration (1917)  Promised a “Jewish homeland” in Palestine for European Zionists  Rising conflict between Jewish settlers and Arabs (1930s)  British limited further immigration (1939)
  55. 55. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Palestine  A three-way war  Palestinian Arabs—fighting for land and independence  Jewish settlers determined to defy British rule  British administrators with divided sympathies  United Nations partitioned territory into two states  Israel declared independence in May 1948  Palestinian Arabs clustered in refugee camps  Israel recognized by United States and Soviet Union
  56. 56. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Africa  Several West African colonies moved toward independence  Britain left constitutions and a legal system but no economic support  More African colonies gained independence  Could not redress losses from colonialism  Mau Mau Rebellion (Kenya)  Killing of civilians
  57. 57. Decolonization in Asia
  58. 58. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Africa  Britain tolerated apartheid in South Africa  Required Africans to live in designated “homelands”  Forbade Africans to travel without permits  Banned political protest  Rhodesia declared independence (1945)
  59. 59. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Crisis in Suez and the end of an era  Britain found the cost of maintaining naval and air bases too high  Protected oil-rich states of the Middle East  Nationalists forced British to withdraw troops from Egypt within three years (1951)  King Farouk (1921–1965) deposed by nationalist officers and a republic is proclaimed (1952)
  60. 60. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Crisis in Suez and the end of an era  Gamal Abdel Nasser (1918–1970)  Became Egyptian president  Nationalization of the Suez Canal Company  Pan-Arabism  Willing to take aid and support from the Soviets  Israel, France, and Britain found pan-Arabism threatening
  61. 61. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  The British Empire unravels  Crisis in Suez and the end of an era  Egypt attacked by Israel, France, and Britain (1956)  United States inflicted financial penalties on Britain and France, and they were forced to withdraw
  62. 62. Decolonization in the Middle East
  63. 63. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  French decolonization  The French experience  Decolonization was bloodier, more difficult, and more damaging to French prestige  The first Vietnam War, 1946–1954  The French in Indochina—one of France’s last imperial acquisitions  Nationalist and communist independence movements
  64. 64. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  French decolonization  The first Vietnam War, 1946–1954  Ho Chi Minh (1890–1969)  Hoped for independence at Versailles (1919)  Marxist peasants organized around social, agrarian, and national issues  Allies supported communist independence movement  Vietnamese guerrilla war against the French  French pressed on for total victory
  65. 65. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  French decolonization  The first Vietnam War, 1946–1954  French established a base at Dien Bien Phu (fell in May 1954)  French began peace talks at Geneva  The Geneva Accords  Indochina divided into four countries: North Vietnam, South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia  North Vietnam—taken over by Ho Chi Minh’s party  South Vietnam—taken over by pro-Western politicians  A virtual guarantee that war would continue
  66. 66. “Dien-Bien-Phu: . . . They Sacrificed themselves for Liberty.”
  67. 67. Decolonization of Africa
  68. 68. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  French decolonization  Algeria  Since the 1830s, a settler state of three social groups  Post–1945: Algerian nationalists called on the Allies to recognize their independence  Public demonstrations  Arab activists form the National Liberation Front (FLN) in the mid-1950s
  69. 69. Revolution, Anticolonialism, and the Cold War  French decolonization  Algeria  Civil war on many fronts  Guerrilla war between regular French army and FLN  FLN terrorism in Algerian cities  Systematic torture by French security forces  Algeria declared its independence by referendum in 1962  The war divided French society
  70. 70. Postwar Culture and Thought  The black presence  Aimé Césaire (b. 1913) and Léopold Senghor (1906–2001)  Both men were exponents of Negritude (black consciousness)  Powerful indictments of colonialism
  71. 71. Postwar Culture and Thought  The black presence  Frantz Fanon (1925–1961)  Withdrawing into black culture was not an answer to racism  A theory of radical social change  The Wretched of the Earth (1961)  The reevaluation of blackness
  72. 72. Postwar Culture and Thought  Existentialism  Jean-Paul Sartre (1905–1980) and Albert Camus (1913–1960)  Individuality, commitment, and choice  “Existence precedes essence”  Meaning in life is not given, it is created  “Bad faith”—denying one’s freedom
  73. 73. Postwar Culture and Thought  Existentialism  Existentialism and race  Race derived meaning from lived experience  Simone de Beauvoir (1908–1986)  The Second Sex (1949)  “One is not born a woman, one becomes one”
  74. 74. Postwar Culture and Thought  Memory and amnesia: the aftermath of war  Individual helplessness in the face of state power  George Orwell (1903–1950)—Animal Farm (1946) and Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)  Hannah Arendt (1906–1975)  Nazism and Stalinism should be understood as a form of totalitarianism
  75. 75. Postwar Culture and Thought  Memory and amnesia: the aftermath of war  Hannah Arendt (1906–1975)  The Origins of Totalitarianism (1951)  Totalitarianism worked by mobilizing mass support  Used terror to crush resistance  Reaching a larger audience  The Diary of Anne Frank (1947)
  76. 76. Postwar Culture and Thought  Memory and amnesia: the aftermath of war  Repressing the past  War crimes and trials  Few executions led to cynicism  Mythologizing the resistance movement  The Cold War and the burying and distortion of memory

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