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What were the great civilizations that we discussed
first semester?
•Ancient Greece—500 BC-600 AD
•Persian Empire--530 BC-...
Mongolian Empire
Chapter 14
Middle Ages—Medieval Times—Dark Ages
•What is the difference?
•The Middle Ages lasted roughly 500 AD-1500 AD
•The term med...
The Dark Ages
•Why is the time period known as the Dark Ages?
•Magyars and Vikings raided western European church
monaster...
Ch. 14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades
Key Terms
•Simony
•Romanesque
• Gothic
• Urban II
• Crusade
• Saladin
• Richard th...
Christianity Review Questions
•T or F—Christianity is the largest religion in the world?
• 2.2 billion people—32% of world...
The Age of Faith
•Around the 900s, the church was reborn and a spiritual revival
took place-Known as the “Age of Faith”
•T...
Romanesque vs Gothic Architecture
•Take five minutes and research your assigned
architectural style
•Share your findings t...
Romanesque Cathedrals-800-1100 AD
•Known for having round arches and a heavy roof held up by
thick walls and pillars
•Very...
Bamberg Cathedral in Germany
Gothic Cathedrals-Starting in the 1100’s
•These cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven
•Light streamed in t...
Chartres Cathedral in France
Cologne Cathedral in Germany
Milan Cathedral in Italy
Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France
Inside Notre Dame
Problems in the Church
•Three main issues within the Church and one outside:
1. Many village priests married and had famil...
Church Reforms
• The Roman Catholic Church instituted several reforms:
1. The Pope sent out ambassadors(Papal Curia) to re...
History of Islam
•Founded in 622 AD by Muhammad in what is now Saudi Arabia
• Muhammad is considered to be a prophet, a me...
•One of main differences between Sunnis and Shia Muslims is
their belief about who the leader should be following the deat...
Spread of Islam Video
•The Islamic crescent and star is the international symbol for
Islam
•Islam means “submission (to Allah)” in Arabic
•“Alla...
•Muslims are people that practice Islam
•The word “Muslim” means one who submits to the will
of God, regardless of his/her...
5 Pillars of Islam
1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith
- "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and ...
• 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5
times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10
1. Between first lig...
The Kaaba
3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan
•Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when
Muhammad had t...
4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving money to the poor
• This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % of one's savings each
year
• Giving ...
5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially
able Muslims should make at least once in their life
•M...
Islamic Law
•Sharia Law outlines laws for Muslims and is based from
the Quran
•Many African and Middle Eastern countries l...
•The “belief” component of Sharia commands Muslims to
believe in God, the angels, prophets, etc.
•In terms of “character,”...
Background- Causes
• Jerusalem was a holy land for the
Christians and each year many come to
visit (pilgrimages)
• The Sel...
The Crusades-1095-1291 AD
• The Muslim Seljuk Turks were encroaching upon the Byzantine capital
of Constantinople and were...
The Crusades-1095-1291 AD
•Pope Urban II agreed to help Emperor Alexios and declared a
“holy war” or a crusade to get cont...
GOAL:
Crusades  recapture the holy land from Muslims
1st Crusade- 1096-1099
•Crusaders captured Jerusalem
• Crusaders entered Jerusalem and killed lots of innocent Muslims
•By...
2nd Crusade-1147-1149
• Christians were concerned with Muslims taking over Edessa
• Christians failed to recapture Jerusal...
3rd Crusade-1189-1192
• Led by Richard the Lionhearted- King of England
• Crusaders won back much land in the Middle East,...
4th Crusade-1202-1204
• Power struggles between Europe and the Byzantine Empire drove the Crusaders
to topple the Byzantin...
5th Crusade-1213-1221
• The 5th Crusade was an attempt by European crusaders to
reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Ho...
6th Crusade-1228-1229
• The Sixth Crusade was an attempt to regain Jerusalem
• It began seven years after the failure of t...
7th Crusade-1248-1254
• Even with Jerusalem falling back to the Muslims in 1244, the 7th Crusade was
fought in Egypt and e...
8th Crusade-1270
• The Eighth Crusade was launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in
1270
• The crusade w...
9th Crusade-1271-1272
• Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Henry III of
England's son...
Reconquista-722-1492
•Kick Muslims and non-Christians out of Spain and re-conquer it
for Christianity
•Muslims invaded Spa...
Why did the Crusades fail?
•After the 1st attempt, each attempt was weaker with less
emphasis on winning
•People soon beca...
Effects of Crusades
•Showed power of Church
•Increased trading between East and West
•Led to massive cultural diffusion
•L...
Crusades Crash Course Video
Ch. 14.2
Changes in Medieval Life
•Three-field system
•Guild
•Commercial Revolution
•Thomas Aquinas
Changes in Medieval Life
•European population increased as people lived longer-see next
slide
•Food supply increased due t...
The Guilds
•Precursor to labor unions
•“An organization of individuals in the same business or
occupation working to impro...
Commercial Revolution
• Period of time(late 1200’s-early 1700’s) where business and trade
expanded greatly throughout Euro...
The Revival of Learning
•The Crusades allowed Europeans to “refind” works from the
Greek philosophers while going through ...
Thomas Aquinas-1225-1274
• Was an Italian Catholic priest as well as an immensely
influential philosopher and theologian
•...
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Chapter 14.1.2

Ch. 14.1.2

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Chapter 14.1.2

  1. 1. What were the great civilizations that we discussed first semester? •Ancient Greece—500 BC-600 AD •Persian Empire--530 BC-330 BC •Roman Republic--509 BC-27 BC •Roman Empire—27 BC-476 AD •Byzantine Empire—Split from Roman Empire in 395 AD- 1453 •Mongolian Empire--1200’s-1300’s •Holy Roman Empire-800-1806
  2. 2. Mongolian Empire
  3. 3. Chapter 14
  4. 4. Middle Ages—Medieval Times—Dark Ages •What is the difference? •The Middle Ages lasted roughly 500 AD-1500 AD •The term medieval simply means “of or relating to the Middle Ages” •The Dark Ages was the period in Western Europe between 500(the fall of Rome) and 1000 AD
  5. 5. The Dark Ages •Why is the time period known as the Dark Ages? •Magyars and Vikings raided western European church monasteries and destroyed many of these centers of learning •Due to this, Europe was thrown backwards in time where science culture and learning were not focused on as much as they had been with Ancient Rome and Greece
  6. 6. Ch. 14.1 Church Reform and the Crusades Key Terms •Simony •Romanesque • Gothic • Urban II • Crusade • Saladin • Richard the Lion-Hearted • Reconquista • Inquisition
  7. 7. Christianity Review Questions •T or F—Christianity is the largest religion in the world? • 2.2 billion people—32% of world’s population •How was Christianity founded? Who founded and when? •Where is Christianity located around the world? •What are the basic beliefs of Christianity? •What was the significance of Peter and Paul? •What was the significance of the Roman Emperor Constantine and Theodosis? •What was the Great Schism of 1054?
  8. 8. The Age of Faith •Around the 900s, the church was reborn and a spiritual revival took place-Known as the “Age of Faith” •The Church restructured itself and started building new churches-$$-next slide •Monasteries led the revival • Cluny Abbey in France -> •Religion played a vital role in pushing education in this era -Monks, friars and nuns
  9. 9. Romanesque vs Gothic Architecture •Take five minutes and research your assigned architectural style •Share your findings to the class •Watch Video •Take quiz as a group-after going over all info •This will be graded
  10. 10. Romanesque Cathedrals-800-1100 AD •Known for having round arches and a heavy roof held up by thick walls and pillars •Very dark inside as the thick walls had tiny windows that let in little light
  11. 11. Bamberg Cathedral in Germany
  12. 12. Gothic Cathedrals-Starting in the 1100’s •These cathedrals thrust upward as if reaching toward heaven •Light streamed in through huge stained glass windows •Other art was included within the cathedral-sculpture, wood- carvings, and stained glass windows •All of these elements were meant to inspire the worshiper with the magnificence of God
  13. 13. Chartres Cathedral in France
  14. 14. Cologne Cathedral in Germany
  15. 15. Milan Cathedral in Italy
  16. 16. Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, France
  17. 17. Inside Notre Dame
  18. 18. Problems in the Church •Three main issues within the Church and one outside: 1. Many village priests married and had families • Such marriages were against Church rulings 2. Bishops sold positions in the Church, a practice called simony-see next slide 3. Lay investiture • Kings appointed church bishops • Church reformers believed the Pope alone should appoint bishops-See slide 31 4. The spread of Islam in to Spain and Turkey
  19. 19. Church Reforms • The Roman Catholic Church instituted several reforms: 1. The Pope sent out ambassadors(Papal Curia) to represent him at European courts and to oversee that area's Bishops 2. Canon law and papal courts(Papal Curia) were created to make the rules clear and to address violations of religious law 3. Simony and marriage for priests were officially outlawed (although these issues didn't completely go away) 4. The church collected tithes(10%) as taxes and used that money to help the poor and to run hospitals
  20. 20. History of Islam •Founded in 622 AD by Muhammad in what is now Saudi Arabia • Muhammad is considered to be a prophet, a messenger of Allah (God) •Muslims believe that the Quran is God’s word as revealed to the prophet Muhammad (570-632 A.D.) through the angel Gabriel •Two Major Sects (split c.650CE) •Sunni •Shi’a (or Shiite)
  21. 21. •One of main differences between Sunnis and Shia Muslims is their belief about who the leader should be following the death of Prophet Muhammad •Sunni, from the Arabic word for “tradition,” accepted the succession of Muhammad’s elected successors • The majority of Muslims in the world today are Sunnis •Shiite, from the Arabic word for “faction,” believe that leaders must be descendants of Muhammad through his daughter Fatima and her husband Ali. •They rule Iran and also have a sizeable presence in Iraq and Syria.
  22. 22. Spread of Islam Video
  23. 23. •The Islamic crescent and star is the international symbol for Islam •Islam means “submission (to Allah)” in Arabic •“Allah” is an Arabic word which means “the One True God” •Muslims do not believe that Jesus was the Messiah, although they do believe he was a prophet
  24. 24. •Muslims are people that practice Islam •The word “Muslim” means one who submits to the will of God, regardless of his/her race, nationality or ethnic background •Any person who is ready to submit to the will of God is eligible to become a Muslim
  25. 25. 5 Pillars of Islam 1. Shahada(witness) is the Muslim profession of faith - "I witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is the messenger of Allah" • Muslims say this when they wake up in the morning and just before they go to sleep at night
  26. 26. • 2. Salat(daily prayer) is a prayer ritual performed 5 times a day by all Muslims over the age of 10 1. Between first light and sunrise 2. After the sun has passed the middle of the sky 3. Between mid-afternoon and sunset 4. Between sunset and the last light of the day 5. Between darkness and dawn • Face the Kaaba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia
  27. 27. The Kaaba
  28. 28. 3. Sawm(fasting) is abstaining each day during Ramadan •Ramadan is the holiest day for Islam. It marks when Muhammad had the Quran revealed to him •Sawm helps Muslims develop self-control, gain a better understanding of God's gifts and greater compassion towards the deprived. •Not only is food forbidden between dawn and sunset, but also things like smoking, chewing gum, negative thoughts and sexual activity
  29. 29. 4. Zakat(almsgiving) is giving money to the poor • This is a compulsory gift of 2.5 % of one's savings each year • Giving in this way is intended to free Muslims from the love of money • It reminds them that everything they have really belongs to God
  30. 30. 5. Hajj is the pilgrimage to Mecca that all physically/financially able Muslims should make at least once in their life •Mecca is the most holy place for Muslims •Takes place during days 8-13 of the 12th month of the Islamic Lunar calendar •They circle the Kaaba seven times, say prayers, drink from a holy spring, walk to Mount Arafat to pray, feast, cast stones at three pillars(to fight Satan’s temptations), shave hair and run between some hills
  31. 31. Islamic Law •Sharia Law outlines laws for Muslims and is based from the Quran •Many African and Middle Eastern countries laws are based on Sharia Law •5 Major Crimes: •Theft, highway robbery, intoxication, adultery and falsely accusing another of adultery
  32. 32. •The “belief” component of Sharia commands Muslims to believe in God, the angels, prophets, etc. •In terms of “character,” Sharia commands Muslims to strive for traits like humility and kindness, and to avoid traits such as lying and pride •“Actions” include those relating to God, such as prayer, fasting, and pilgrimage, as well as actions relating to other humans, such as marriage, crime, and business
  33. 33. Background- Causes • Jerusalem was a holy land for the Christians and each year many come to visit (pilgrimages) • The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) controlled that land and the amount of visitors grew too much that they began not allowing visitors • It was also believed that the increase in Muslim power would threaten the Byzantine Capital of Constantinople
  34. 34. The Crusades-1095-1291 AD • The Muslim Seljuk Turks were encroaching upon the Byzantine capital of Constantinople and were not friendly to Christians • Byzantine Emperor Alexius Comnenus asked Pope Urban II for help
  35. 35. The Crusades-1095-1291 AD •Pope Urban II agreed to help Emperor Alexios and declared a “holy war” or a crusade to get control of the Holy Land(Israel) back from the Muslims •This started a 200 year fight for control of the Holy Land with 9 different Crusades during that time •Activity-50 Points •Each group will research one of the Crusades-1, 2, 3, 4, 5-9 • Basic facts-who, where, when, why • Causes, Goals, Leaders, Results • Include pictures/maps and other visuals-short videos(less than 5 minutes • Keep presentation under 15 minutes(including video)
  36. 36. GOAL: Crusades  recapture the holy land from Muslims
  37. 37. 1st Crusade- 1096-1099 •Crusaders captured Jerusalem • Crusaders entered Jerusalem and killed lots of innocent Muslims •By 1187- Jerusalem fell back to Muslim rule
  38. 38. 2nd Crusade-1147-1149 • Christians were concerned with Muslims taking over Edessa • Christians failed to recapture Jerusalem but held onto Tyre, Tripoli and Antioch
  39. 39. 3rd Crusade-1189-1192 • Led by Richard the Lionhearted- King of England • Crusaders won back much land in the Middle East, but not Jerusalem • Eventually, King Richard came to a truce with Saladin, leader of Muslims • Christians would be allowed into Jerusalem
  40. 40. 4th Crusade-1202-1204 • Power struggles between Europe and the Byzantine Empire drove the Crusaders to topple the Byzantine emperor, Alexius III, in favor of his nephew, who became Alexius IV in 1203 • Alexius IV attempt to submit the Byzantine church to Rome was met with stiff resistance and Alexius IV was killed by the people from Constantinople • In response, the Crusaders declared war on Constantinople and the Fourth Crusade ended with the conquest and looting of the city
  41. 41. 5th Crusade-1213-1221 • The 5th Crusade was an attempt by European crusaders to reacquire Jerusalem and the rest of the Holy Land by first conquering Egypt • Muslims won and signed an eight year truce with crusaders
  42. 42. 6th Crusade-1228-1229 • The Sixth Crusade was an attempt to regain Jerusalem • It began seven years after the failure of the Fifth Crusade and involved very little fighting • Through the diplomacy Frederick II(Holy Roman Empire), crusaders regained some control over Jerusalem for the next 15 years (1229-1244) as well as over other areas of the Holy Land Frederick II and al-Kamil
  43. 43. 7th Crusade-1248-1254 • Even with Jerusalem falling back to the Muslims in 1244, the 7th Crusade was fought in Egypt and ended a decisive Muslim victory
  44. 44. 8th Crusade-1270 • The Eighth Crusade was launched by Louis IX of France against the city of Tunis in 1270 • The crusade was a failure after Louis IX died shortly after arriving in Tunisia • His disease-ridden army went back to Europe shortly afterwards.
  45. 45. 9th Crusade-1271-1272 • Louis IX of France's failure to capture Tunis in the Eighth Crusade led Henry III of England's son Edward to sail to Acre(in Israel) in what was the Ninth Crusade • This crusade saw several victories for Edward but ultimately, the Crusaders withdrew and eventually lost all land in the Middle East and north Africa • The Crusades were now over
  46. 46. Reconquista-722-1492 •Kick Muslims and non-Christians out of Spain and re-conquer it for Christianity •Muslims invaded Spain in 722 AD •Last Muslim area(Grenada) fell in 1492
  47. 47. Why did the Crusades fail? •After the 1st attempt, each attempt was weaker with less emphasis on winning •People soon became about making money and getting goods •Stealing from Byzantine and Islamic cities and people
  48. 48. Effects of Crusades •Showed power of Church •Increased trading between East and West •Led to massive cultural diffusion •Lead to the Commercial Revolution •Increased trading helped business flourish •Merchants increased •Muslim bitterness and hatred toward Christians •Constantinople (Istanbul) eventually falls to Turks •Almost two million people died
  49. 49. Crusades Crash Course Video
  50. 50. Ch. 14.2 Changes in Medieval Life •Three-field system •Guild •Commercial Revolution •Thomas Aquinas
  51. 51. Changes in Medieval Life •European population increased as people lived longer-see next slide •Food supply increased due to warmer temperatures and increased farmland/agriculture • Horses replaced oxen in the fields-much faster • Three-field system replaced the two-field system • 2/3 of land would be used for farming instead of half—more food-health increases-people live longer-see slide 77 •Surnames(last names) started during this period • Smith, Carpenter(Zimmerman in Germany) •Trade greatly increased-see slide 78
  52. 52. The Guilds •Precursor to labor unions •“An organization of individuals in the same business or occupation working to improve the economic and social conditions of its members” •The guilds set standards for quality of work, wages, and working conditions •Became very wealthy and powerful in Medieval times
  53. 53. Commercial Revolution • Period of time(late 1200’s-early 1700’s) where business and trade expanded greatly throughout Europe • Europe was moving away from the manor system/feudalism(see next slide) where each manor was self-sufficient • Towns and cities became more important and the place where markets and fairs were located • Trade items included cloth, bacon, salt, honey, cheese, wine, leather, dyes, knives, ropes and much more • Trade routes spread throughout Europe and into Asia(see slide 84) • Banks and businesses started expanding as well
  54. 54. The Revival of Learning •The Crusades allowed Europeans to “refind” works from the Greek philosophers while going through the Byzantine Empire and the Muslim world, including in Spain •This rekindled learning throughout Europe •Writers started writing books •Dante Alighieri wrote The Divine Comedy (1308–1314) •Geoffrey Chaucer wrote The Canterbury Tales(1386–1400)
  55. 55. Thomas Aquinas-1225-1274 • Was an Italian Catholic priest as well as an immensely influential philosopher and theologian • One of the Catholic Church's greatest theologians and philosophers • The Catholic Church honors him as a saint and regards him as the model teacher for those studying for the priesthood

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