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  1. 1. The Holocaust<br />
  2. 2. Bell Ringer<br /> What 2 major events led to Japan’s surrender?<br />Discuss with Partner<br />30 seconds<br />
  3. 3. The Holocaust<br />
  4. 4. Pre-War<br />Jews were living in every country in Europe before the Nazis came into power in 1933<br />Approximately 9 million Jews<br />Poland and the Soviet Union had the largest populations<br />Jews could be found in all walks of life: farmers, factory workers, business people, doctors, teachers, and craftsmen <br />
  5. 5. Pre-War<br />Group portrait of members of the Jewish community of Sighet (Transylvania/Romania) in front of a wooden synagogue - 1930-1939.<br />
  6. 6. Anti-Semitism<br />“the intense hatred for and discrimination against the Jewish people”<br />over 2,000 years<br />Jews were scapegoats for many problems <br />Example: “Black Death”<br />
  7. 7. Anti-Semitism<br />Pogrom: an organized, often officially encouraged massacre or persecution of a minority group, especially one conducted against Jews<br />Late 1800s - Russian Empire<br />Mobs murdered Jews and looted their homes and stores<br />
  8. 8. Anti-Semitism<br />Political leaders (like Hitler) who used anti-Semitism as a tool relied on the ideas of “racial science” to portray Jews as a race instead of a religion<br />
  9. 9. Antisemitism<br />Nazi teachers began to apply the “principles” of racial science by <br />measured skull size and nose length <br />recorded students’ eye color and hair to determine if students belonged the “Aryan race”<br />
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  11. 11. Etymology of “Aryan”<br />From Sanskrit word meaning “noble”<br />Used in Nazi ideology to mean "member of a Caucasian Gentile race of Nordic type."- a means to weed out “inferior” religions, races & nationalities<br />It DOES NOT mean “blonde hair, blue eyes”<br />
  12. 12. Weimar Republic<br />Extremists blamed Jews for <br />Germany’s defeat in WWI <br /> Treaty of Versailles<br />blamed the German Foreign Minister (a Jew) for his role in reaching a settlement with the Allies<br />
  13. 13. Totalitarian State<br />Total control of a country in the government’s hands<br />Subjugates individual rights<br />Demonstrates a policy of aggression<br />
  14. 14. Totalitarian State<br />Paranoia and fear dominate<br />Government maintains total control over the culture<br />Government is capable of indiscriminate killing<br />During this time in Germany, the Nazis passed laws which restricted the rights of Jews: including the Nuremberg Laws<br />
  15. 15. Totalitarian State<br />The Nuremberg Laws:<br />Stripped Jews of their German citizenship<br />They were prohibited from marrying or having sexual relations with people of “German or related blood”<br />
  16. 16. Totalitarian State<br />Jews, like all other German citizens, were required to carry identity cards, but their cards were stamped with a red “J.” This allowed police to easily identify them.<br />
  17. 17. Totalitarian State<br />The Nazis used propaganda to promote their anti-Semitic ideas<br />One such book was the children’s book, The Poisonous Mushroom.<br />
  18. 18. Persecution<br />The Nazi plan for dealing with the “Jewish Question” evolved in three steps:<br />1. Expulsion: Get them out of Germany<br />2. Containment: Put them all together in one place – namely ghettos<br />3. “Final Solution”: annihilation<br />
  19. 19. Persecution<br />Nazis targeted other individuals and groups in addition to the Jews:<br />Gypsies <br />Homosexual men<br />Jehovah’s Witness<br />Handicapped Germans<br />Poles<br />Political dissidents<br />
  20. 20. Persecution<br />Kristallnachtwas the “Night of Broken Glass” on November 9-10, 1938<br />Germans attacked synagogues and Jewish homes and businesses<br />
  21. 21. U.S. and World Response<br />The Evian Conference took place in the summer of 1938 in Evian, France.<br />32 countries met to discuss what to do about the Jewish refugees who were trying to leave Germany and Austria.<br />Despite voicing feelings of sympathy, most countries made excuses for not accepting more refugees.<br />
  22. 22. U.S. and World Response<br />Some American congressmen proposed the Wagner-Rogers Bill, which offered to let 20,000 endangered Jewish refugee children into the country, but the bill was not supported in the Senate.<br />Anti-Semitic attitudes played a role in the failure to help refugees.<br />
  23. 23. U.S. and World Response<br /> The SS St. Louis, carrying refugees with Cuban visas,were denied admittance both in Cuba and in Florida. After being turned back to Europe, most of the passengers perished in the Holocaust.<br />
  24. 24. Video Clips<br />
  25. 25. Final Solution<br />The Nazis aimed to control the Jewish population by forcing them to live in areas that were designated for Jews only, called ghettos<br />Ghettos were established across all of occupied Europe, especially in areas where there was already a large Jewish population<br />
  26. 26. Final Solution<br />Many ghettos were closed by barbed wire or walls and were guarded by SS or local police.<br />Jews sometimes had to use bridges to go over Aryan streets that ran through the ghetto.<br />
  27. 27. Final Solution<br />Life in the ghettos was hard: <br />food was rationed; <br />several families often shared a small space; <br />disease spread rapidly; <br />heating, ventilation, and sanitation were limited<br />Many children were orphaned in the ghettos<br />
  28. 28. Final Solution<br />Einsatzgruppen were mobile killing squads made up of Nazi (SS) units and police. They killed Jews in mass shooting actions throughout eastern Poland and the western Soviet Union.<br />
  29. 29. Final Solution<br />On January 20, 1942, 15 high-ranking Nazi officials met at the Wannsee Conference to learn about how the Jewish Question would be solved.<br />The Final Solution was outlined by Reinhard Heydrich who detailed the plan to establish death camps with gas chambers.<br />
  30. 30. Final Solution<br />Death camps were the means the Nazis used to achieve the “final solution.”<br />There were six death camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Treblinka, Chelmno, Sobibor, Majdanek, and Belzec.<br />Each used gas chambers to murder the Jews. At Auschwitz prisoners were told the gas chambers were “showers.”<br />
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  32. 32. Final Solution<br />Most of the gas chambers used carbon monoxide from diesel engines.<br />In Auschwitz and Majdanek “Zyklon B” pellets, which were a highly poisonous insecticide, supplied the gas.<br />After the gassings, prisoners removed hair, gold teeth and fillings from the Jews before the bodies were burned in the crematoria or buried in mass graves.<br />
  33. 33. Auschwitz Gas Chamber<br />
  34. 34. Auschwitz Crematorium/Trolleys<br />
  35. 35. Final Solution<br />There were many concentration and labor camps where many people died from exposure, lack of food, extreme working conditions, torture, and executions.<br />
  36. 36. Dachau<br />
  37. 37. Gate into Dachau<br />
  38. 38. Dachau Appelplatz<br />
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  59. 59. Resistance<br />Despite the high risk, some individuals attempted to resist Nazism.<br />
  60. 60. Resistance<br />Some famous acts of resistance include:<br /><ul><li>The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (as seen in the movie, “The Pianist”)
  61. 61. The Sobibor Revolt
  62. 62. Sonderkommando blowing up Crematorium IV at Birkenau
  63. 63. Jewish partisans who escaped to fight in the forests (i.e. movie, “Defiance” based on the life of the Bielski brothers)</li></li></ul><li>Rescue<br />Less than one percent of the non-Jewish European population helped any Jew in some form of rescue.<br />Denmark and Bulgaria were the most successful national resistance movements<br />
  64. 64. Rescue<br />Denmark: 7,220 of the 8,000 Jews were saved by ferrying them to neutral Sweden.<br />
  65. 65. Aftermath<br />Soviet soldiers were the first to liberate camp prisoners on July 23, 1944, at Majdanek in Poland<br />British, Canadian, American, and French troops also liberated camp prisoners<br />Troops were shocked at what they saw…<br />
  66. 66. Video Clip<br />From Band of Brothers<br />
  67. 67. “The memory of starved dazed men who dropped their eyes and heads when we looked at them through the chain-link fence, in the same manner that a beaten, mistreated dog would cringe, leaves feelings that cannot be described and will never be forgotten. The impact of seeing those people behind that fence left me saying, only to myself, ‘Now I know why I am here!’”<br />Dick Winters, 101st Airborne<br /> (Band of Brothers (pg. 263) by Stephen E. Ambrose)<br />
  68. 68. Aftermath<br />Most prisoners were emaciated to the point of being skeletal<br />Many camps had dead bodies lying in piles<br />Many prisoners died even after liberation<br />
  69. 69. Country Jewish Population Number of Jews Percentage of <br /> September, 1939 Murdered Jews Murdered<br />Poland 3,300,000 2,800,000 85.0 <br />USSR 2,100.000 1,500,000 71.4 <br />Romania 850,000 425,000 50.0 <br />Hungary 404,000 200,000 49.5 <br />Czechoslovakia 315,000 260,000 82.5 <br />France 300,000 90,000 30.0 <br />Germany 210,000 171,000 81.0<br />Lithuania 150,000 135,000 90.0 <br />Holland 150,000 90,000 60.0<br />Latvia 95,000 85,000 89.5<br />Belgium 90,000 40,000 44.41<br />Greece 75,000 65,000 80.0<br />Yugoslavia 75,000 55,000 73.3<br />Austria 60,000 40,000 66.6<br />Italy 57,000 15,000 26.31<br />Bulgaria 50,000 7,000 14.0<br />Others 20,000 6,000 30.0 <br />Totals 8,301,000 5,978,000 72.0<br />___________________________________________________________________________________<br />Source: Cited in Landau, The Nazi Holocaust, Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 1994.These data originally appeared in Poliakov and Wulf (eds), Das Dritte Reichund die Juden: Documente und Aufsatze (Arani Verlag, GmbH, Berlin, 1955).<br />
  70. 70. Aftermath<br />Many of the camp prisoners had nowhere to go, so they became “displaced persons” (DPs).<br />These survivors stayed in DP camps in Germany, which were organized and run by the Allies.<br />Initially, the conditions were often very poor in the DP camps. <br />
  71. 71. Aftermath<br />Jewish displaced people eager to leave Europe (“Zionists”), pushed for the founding of a Jewish state in British-controlled Palestine<br />Modern day Israel<br />U.S. President Harry Truman issued an executive order allowing Jewish refugees to enter the United States without normal immigration restrictions<br />
  72. 72. Aftermath<br />The Nuremberg Trials brought some of those responsible for the atrocities of the war to justice.<br />There were 22 Nazi criminals tried by the Allies in the International Military Tribunal.<br />Twelve subsequent trials followed as well as national trials throughout formerly occupied Europe.<br />
  73. 73. Aftermath<br />The International Military Tribunal took place in Nuremberg, Germany in 1945 and 1946.<br />12 prominent Nazis were sentenced to death.<br />Most claimed that they were only following orders, which was judged to be an invalid defense.<br />