THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE (476 AD-1453 AD) 476 AD SIEGE OF CONSTANTINOPLE BY THE OTTOMAN TURKS
GOVERNMENT IN THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE <ul><li>The Emperor, also called Basileus,had great power. The Byzantines considered that the Emperor was selected by God. </li></ul><ul><li>The Emperor was an autocrat (ruler who has complete authority). He controlled: </li></ul><ul><li>- the administration </li></ul><ul><li>- the justice </li></ul><ul><li>- the law </li></ul><ul><li>- the economy </li></ul><ul><li>He also had an enormous influence over the Church. </li></ul><ul><li>The title of Emperor was not hereditary, though many Byzantine families tried to establish ruling dynasties. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>JUSTINIAN, THE MOST IMPORTANT BYZANTINE EMPEROR
THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE UNDER JUSTINIAN <ul><li>Justinian ruled the Empire between 527 and 565. He was helped by his wife Theodora. They made some reforms that gave more rights to women. Justinian was also responsible for the simplification of Roman laws with the Code of Civil Law (CORPUS IURIS CIVILIS ), also known as Justinian Code . </li></ul>During his rule culture (arts, music, drama,…) flourished. Many buildings were built ( church of Hagia Sophia). He also tried to re-establish the great Roman Empire and he conquered different territories around the Mediterranean Sea.
<ul><li>Justinian´s armies conquered territories in the Italian Peninsula, the North of Africa and the south of the Iberian Peninsula. But these wars had a disastrous effect on the economy (many expenses to defend the Empire). After Justinan´s death, the Byzantine Empire started losing territories. </li></ul>
DECLINE OF THE BYZANTINE EMPIRE The Lombards conquered parts of Italy and the Visigoths expelled the Byzantines from the Iberian Peninsula. The Muslims conquered the southern and eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea during the 7 th and 8 th centuries. At the beginning of the 15 th century only the city of Constantinople remained. In 1453 AD Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Turks and the Byzantine Empire disapperared.
BYZANTINE CULTURE <ul><li>The Byzantines didn´t consider themselves as Romans, even though many of them descended from Roman families. </li></ul><ul><li>- Soon they established Greek as the official language. </li></ul><ul><li>- They also established their own version of Christianity: they didn´t recognize the authority of the Pope in Rome and they considered that the Patriarch of Constantinople was an equal to the Pope. </li></ul><ul><li>Religion had an enormous importance in Byzantine culture. </li></ul>
RELIGION <ul><li>There were big controversies about Christian dogmae. The most important difference was related to icons (images or statues worshipped by believers). Many Christians thought that worshipping icons violated the commandments (that forbade representing the image of God or Christ) </li></ul><ul><li>In the 8 th century Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of all the icons of the Empire. Those who supported the destruction of icons were called iconoclasts. </li></ul><ul><li>The Pope in Rome was against the destruction of the icons. The Byzantines didn´t like that the Pope meddled in this problem and tension grew up, although Iconoclasm didn´t remain. </li></ul>
THE EAST-WEST SCHISM <ul><li>In 1054 the disputes between the Pope and the Byzantine Emperor led to the East- West Schism: separation between the Roman Catholic Church and the Byzantine Orthodox Church. </li></ul><ul><li>Orthodox monks evangelized the peoples of Eastern Europe. Orthodoxy is still the main religion in Russia, Lithuania, Belarus, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece and Macedonia. </li></ul>EVANGELIZATION OF EASTERN EUROPE
BYZANTINE ART <ul><li>Byzantine art was very influenced by religion. The main works of art were related with religion: </li></ul><ul><li>- Churches with a Greek- cross plan and large domes supported by pendentives. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important church was Hagia Sophia in Constantinople (when the Ottoman Turks conquered Constantinople, it became a mosque. Now it´s a museum). </li></ul><ul><li>Another important church in Constantinople was Saint Sergius and Bacchus. </li></ul>GREEK- CROSS DOME OVER PENDENTIVES
BYZANTINE MOSAICS <ul><li>The Byzantines made also lots of mosaics. The most important samples are the mosaics of Justinian and his wife Theodora and their attendants in the church of San Vitale in Ravenna, Italy </li></ul>