World History chapter 4


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World History chapter 4

  1. 1. Life in Medieval Towns I <ul><li>After the fall of Rome trade to the east suffered </li></ul><ul><li>Most people lived in the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Towns suffered </li></ul><ul><li>High Middle Ages, towns grew again </li></ul><ul><li>1. Better farming methods </li></ul><ul><li>2. Surplus of crops to sell in town markets </li></ul><ul><li>3. Trade was revitalized </li></ul>
  2. 2. Life in Medieval Towns II <ul><li>Trade grew via waterways </li></ul><ul><li>Most towns were located on rivers </li></ul><ul><li>Towns grew out of </li></ul><ul><li>1. Specific trade. </li></ul><ul><li>A. Woolen cloth (Flanders) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Glass from Venice </li></ul><ul><li>C. Steel from Toledo </li></ul>
  3. 3. Life in Medieval Towns III <ul><li>As towns grew feudal lord ’ s power lessened </li></ul><ul><li>Didn ’ t need the lord ’ s protection </li></ul><ul><li>Many towns became independent by purchasing a royal charter </li></ul><ul><li>Charter: A written grant of rights and privileges granted by a ruler or government to a community, class of people, or organization </li></ul>
  4. 4. Life in Medieval Towns IV <ul><li>Charter granted the towns </li></ul><ul><li>1. Right to govern themselves </li></ul><ul><li>2. Right to make laws </li></ul><ul><li>3. Raise taxes </li></ul><ul><li>This brought power from feudal lords to a rising class of merchants and craftspeople </li></ul>
  5. 5. Life in Medieval Towns V <ul><li>Trade and production soon were overseen by guilds </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds: An organization of people in the same craft, or trade </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of Guilds </li></ul><ul><li>1. Merchants </li></ul><ul><li>2. Crafts </li></ul>
  6. 6. Life in Medieval towns VI <ul><li>Guilds were the forerunners of Unions </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds had, or did </li></ul><ul><li>1. Had halls, places to meet </li></ul><ul><li>2. Had fairs and festivals </li></ul><ul><li>3. Took care of their members and families who were unable to work, or were sick </li></ul>
  7. 7. Life in Medieval Towns VII <ul><li>Becoming a Guild member </li></ul><ul><li>1. Starts at age 12 </li></ul><ul><li>2. Become an apprentice </li></ul><ul><li>3. Work with, live with, train with a Master for seven years </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentices worked for free </li></ul><ul><li>At the end of seven years they had to prove their mastering of their craft </li></ul>
  8. 8. Life in Medieval Towns VIII <ul><li>Had to produce a “ Master piece ” </li></ul><ul><li>If approved by the Guild they could set-up their own shop </li></ul><ul><li>Shops were expensive. Most became a journeyman </li></ul><ul><li>Journeyman is a craftsman who found work “ by the day ” and did not employ others </li></ul>
  9. 9. Life in Medieval Towns IX <ul><li>At the beginning of the Middle Ages trade was done in luxury goods </li></ul><ul><li>Most people made necessities for themselves </li></ul><ul><li>By the High Middle Ages most people were buying and selling more kinds of goods. </li></ul><ul><li>Towns held merchant fairs, usually twice a year </li></ul><ul><li>There was prejudice against Jews by the Christians </li></ul>
  10. 10. Life in Medieval Towns X <ul><li>Tough for Jews to earn a living </li></ul><ul><li>Often Jews were not allowed to own land </li></ul><ul><li>Belongings were seized by the Lords </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were the target of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Christians were forbidden by the church to exchange money. </li></ul><ul><li>The church said it was sinful </li></ul>
  11. 11. Life in Medieval Towns XI <ul><li>Jews became the bankers, handlers of the money </li></ul><ul><li>They were looked down on for practicing a “ wicked ” trade. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Life in Medieval Towns XII <ul><li>Medieval towns were small and crowded </li></ul><ul><li>They were narrow and could be 4 stories tall </li></ul><ul><li>In poorer neighborhoods several families might share a house </li></ul><ul><li>A family might have only one room where they cooked, ate and slept </li></ul><ul><li>People worked where they lived </li></ul>
  13. 13. Life in Medieval Towns XIII <ul><li>Wealthy merchants had splendid homes </li></ul><ul><li>Offices and storerooms downstairs </li></ul><ul><li>Living quarters on the middle floor </li></ul><ul><li>Servants and apprentices lived on the upper floor </li></ul><ul><li>Still in all homes fireplaces were the only source of heat and the main source of light </li></ul>
  14. 14. Life in Medieval Towns XIV <ul><li>Windows were small and covered in parchment, not glass so they were very drafty </li></ul><ul><li>About one-half of all children died before they became adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who survived started preparing for adulthood at the age of 7 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Life in Medieval Towns XV <ul><li>Most boys grew up to do the same thing as their fathers </li></ul><ul><li>Most girls married young, some as early as 12 </li></ul><ul><li>They were soon raising their own children </li></ul><ul><li>Most girls education was at home </li></ul><ul><li>1. Learned cooking </li></ul><ul><li>2. Cloth making </li></ul><ul><li>And other skills to run a home and care for their family </li></ul>
  16. 16. Life in Medieval Towns XVI <ul><li>Towns were dirty </li></ul><ul><li>1. No running water </li></ul><ul><li>2. No sewer system (Privies, shelters used as toilets) or (chamber pots that they emptied into streams, or canals </li></ul><ul><li>3. Garbage was dumped into rivers or on the streets. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Life in Medieval Towns XVII <ul><li>People bathed only once a week, sometimes </li></ul><ul><li>Rats and fleas were common and they carried diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Leprosy a skin disease that causes open sores on the body and usually led to death was common </li></ul><ul><li>Measles, cholera and scarlet fever had no cure. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Life in Medieval Towns XVIII <ul><li>No one knew how diseases were spread </li></ul><ul><li>Jews were sometimes accused of poisoning wells </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals were started during the Middle Ages, but there were very few of them </li></ul><ul><li>Doctors used a mixture of prayer, medical treatment and herbs </li></ul><ul><li>Some doctors relied on the positions of planets and magic charms to heal people </li></ul>
  19. 19. Life in Medieval Towns XIX <ul><li>Bloodletting was a common practice </li></ul><ul><li>Open up a wound and apply leeches to suck the blood out and restore balance to the patient. </li></ul><ul><li>Often weakened, or killed the patient. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Life in Medieval Towns XX <ul><li>Early Middle Ages trials were often by ordeal, or combat. </li></ul><ul><li>A trial by ordeal might have a person thrown into a well. If the person floated, instead of drowned they were found guilty because the water rejected them </li></ul><ul><li>Trial by combat meant the person had to fight to prove their innocence. </li></ul><ul><li>God made sure the right person won </li></ul>
  21. 21. Life in Medieval Towns XXI <ul><li>Lesser crimes had people put into stocks for hours, or days </li></ul><ul><li>For serious crimes, highway robbery, stealing livestock, treason, murder people were either hanged, or burned at the stake. </li></ul><ul><li>Executions were carried out in public. </li></ul><ul><li>In the early 1100 ’ s English Kings began setting up a system of courts. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Life in Medieval Towns XXII <ul><li>Court decisions soon became a body of common law. </li></ul><ul><li>Common Law: A body of rulings made by judges that become part of a nations legal system. </li></ul><ul><li>Courts started replacing trial by ordeal and combat. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Life in Medieval Towns XXIII <ul><li>Children played with dolls, wooden swords, hobby horses. </li></ul><ul><li>Badminton, lawn bowling, blind man ’ s bluff were popular with children too </li></ul><ul><li>Adults played chess, checkers and backgammon </li></ul>
  24. 24. Life in Medieval Towns XXIV <ul><li>Guilds put on fairs </li></ul><ul><li>Guilds also put on “ mystery plays ” </li></ul><ul><li>Plays about stories from the Bible </li></ul><ul><li>“ Miracle play ” dramas about the lives of Saints. </li></ul>