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World War II


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Teacher made PowerPoint for high school level U.S. History.

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World War II

  1. 2. Problems with the Treaty of Versailles (ended WWI) <ul><li>Terms tough on Germany </li></ul><ul><li>a. Had to pay reparations - 31 trillion dollars </li></ul><ul><li>b. Forced to state they started war </li></ul><ul><li>c. Took territory away (COLONIE$) </li></ul><ul><li>d. Made Rhineland non-militarized zone </li></ul><ul><li>e. Self defenses taken away </li></ul>2. Truthfully it was only a truce 3. Helps to lead to the rise of dictatorships and facism
  2. 3. Europe on the Brink of War <ul><li>In 1934, Adolph Hitler announced a program of rearming Germany in violation of the Treaty of Versailles </li></ul><ul><li>In Italy, Benito Mussolini was also building a powerful military force </li></ul><ul><li>Many American adults belonged to peace organizations and were determined never again to enter a foreign war </li></ul><ul><li>Americans wanted to remain neutral, we were in a depression and wanted to avoid another war. </li></ul>
  3. 4. War in Europe <ul><li>March 1938: Hitler takes the Sudetenland of Czechoslovakia </li></ul><ul><li>Great Britain and France wishing to avoid another war do not take action, at this point they realized that the Treaty of Versailles was unfair and sought to ease tension by allowing Germany to keep the Sudetenland as long as Germany would not take over more land, we call this appeasement . </li></ul><ul><li>Appeasement failed , Hitler later took all of Czechoslovakia </li></ul>
  4. 5. War in Europe <ul><li>August 1939: Germany and Russia sign non-aggression pact </li></ul><ul><li>August 1939: Germany attacks Poland, marking the official beginning of World War II </li></ul><ul><li>France and Britain were treaty-bound through the League of Nations to come to the aid of Poland </li></ul>
  5. 6. Lend-Lease Act <ul><li>Roosevelt constructed a plan for sending material aid to Britain without demanding payment termed the Lend-Lease Act of 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>The Act broke our stance of neutrality; German U-Boats began sinking American merchant ships </li></ul>
  6. 9. Pearl Harbor <ul><li>Pearl Harbor, Hawaii was home to the American Pacific Fleet in 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Japan, in retaliation for the economic stance of the U.S. in terms of material sales and trade, launched a surprise attack on the base on December 7 </li></ul><ul><li>This action unified the country and threw America into World War II </li></ul>
  7. 12. On the Home Front
  8. 13. Mobilizing for War <ul><li>Mandated rationing of food and materials </li></ul><ul><li>Large commercial farmers also received incentives for war production </li></ul><ul><li>Labor unions offered “no strike pledges” for the duration of the war </li></ul><ul><li>Taxes were raised, war bonds were sold </li></ul>
  9. 21. Internment of Japanese Americans <ul><li>After the tragedy of Pearl Harbor, Americans were eager to act on racial stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually, the government built special relocation centers in remote sections of the U.S. and evacuated about 110,000 Japanese (including 60,000 citizens of Japanese heritage). </li></ul>
  10. 27. Korematsu v. U.S. <ul><li>Presidential Executive Order 9066 gave authority to exclude citizens of Japanese ancestry from areas deemed critical to national defense. </li></ul><ul><li>Korematsu remained in California and violated Civilian Exclusion Order No. 34 of the U.S. Army. </li></ul>
  11. 28. <ul><li>Supreme Court’s Decision </li></ul><ul><li>The Supreme Court ruled that the President had the right to issue the Executive order as Commander-in-Chief. </li></ul><ul><li>During times of national crisis government has the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus. Government can arrest and detain people arbitrarily. </li></ul>Korematsu v. U.S.
  12. 29. Korematsu v. U.S. <ul><li>Clash between the 14 th Amendment equal protection clause, and Article II power of the president. </li></ul><ul><li>Supreme Court failed to protect the rights of minorities. Third case. </li></ul><ul><li>In 1988 Congress passed a law giving $20,000 to all ancestors of Japanese-Americans who were put in these camps. </li></ul>
  13. 30. Atlantic Charter 1941 A document created by Roosevelt and Churchill at a meeting on a battleship in the North Atlantic. In the document they agreed on certain principles for building a lasting peace and establishing free governments in the world. A common goal of spreading democracy and sovereignty while avoiding future wars.
  14. 31. Atlantic Charter <ul><li>Listed a number of common principles for lasting peace </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No territorial claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Right of the people to chose their own government . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All nations-equal trading rights no matter what size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freedom of seas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduce arms after war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secure for all people improved labor standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Peace forever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New organization to replace the league of nations </li></ul></ul>
  15. 33. D-Day June 6 th 1944 <ul><li>Americans join the war. </li></ul><ul><li>Largest invasion in history, 150,000 soldiers. </li></ul>
  16. 34. FDR Dies <ul><li>Has a stroke on April 12 th 1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Truman becomes President </li></ul>
  17. 35. 22 nd Amendment <ul><li>1951 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In response to FDR’s lengthy time in office the Congress and the State Governments passed a new amendment limiting the President to a two term presidency (Two four year terms). </li></ul></ul>
  18. 38. <ul><li>1941 – Germany invades the Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>1941 - December 7th Japan enters the war with a surprise attack at </li></ul><ul><li>Pearl Harbor </li></ul><ul><li>1942 – Battle of Midway, the United States regains naval superiority </li></ul><ul><li>thanks to its naval airpower </li></ul><ul><li>1943 – Germany forced to retreat from the Soviet Union after </li></ul><ul><li>suffering thousands of casualties at the Battle of Stalingrad. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the Soviet Union to move west into Germany. </li></ul><ul><li>1944 – June 6th U.S./British invasion of Normandy, France, largest </li></ul><ul><li>invasion in history over 150,000 soldiers. </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – April 12 FDR dies from a brain hemorrhage </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – April Hitler commits suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>1945 – May 8, V-E Day (Victory-Europe) </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – August 6th – “Fat Man” – dropped on Hiroshima </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – August 9th – “Little Boy” – dropped on Nagasaki </li></ul><ul><li>1946 – August 14th – V-J Day (Victory-Japan) Hirohito announces </li></ul><ul><li>Japan’s surrender </li></ul>Major Turning Points of WWII
  19. 39. The Yalta Conference <ul><li>The “big three” Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin outlined the division of postwar Germany into spheres of influence and agreed to have trials for war criminals. </li></ul>
  20. 40. A Strategy for Ending the War <ul><li>Eisenhower decided that the European war had to have priority over the Pacific campaign </li></ul><ul><li>An invasion of France and North Africa, and an airborne assault of Italy were the footholds in the European theater for the Allies </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, the Russian army took Berlin, ending the European war </li></ul><ul><li>Two atomic bombs, “Fat Man” and “Little Boy,” were dropped on the island of Japan, ending the Pacific war in 1945 </li></ul>
  21. 45. FDR’s “Four Freedoms” Speech – 1941 (excerpt) The first is freedom of speech and expression - everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way - everywhere in the world. The third is freedom from want - which, translated into world terms, means economic understandings which will secure to every nation a healthy peace time life for its inhabitants -everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear - which, translated into world terms, means a world-wide reduction of armaments to such a point and in such a thorough fashion that no nation will be in a position to commit an act of physical aggression against any neighbor - anywhere in the world. That is no vision of a distant millennium. It is a definite basis for a kind of world attainable in our own time and generation. That kind of world is the very antithesis of the so-called new order of tyranny which the dictators seek to create with the crash of a bomb. To that new order we oppose the greater conception - the moral order. A good society is able to face schemes of world domination and foreign revolutions alike without fear. Since the beginning of our American history we have been engaged in change - in a perpetual peaceful revolution - a revolution which goes on steadily, quietly adjusting itself to changing conditions - without the concentration camp or the quick-lime in the ditch. The world order which we seek is the cooperation of free countries, working together in a friendly, civilized society. This nation has place its destiny in the hands and heads and hearts of its million of free men and women; and its faith in freedom under the guidance of God. Freedom means the supremacy of human rights everywhere. Our support goes to those who struggle to gain those right or keep them. Our strength is in our unity of purpose. To that high concept there can be no end save victory.