Taking Notes for Research• Helps you read with more understanding, save time and frustration.• Know what kind of ideas you need to record or exclude.• Read with a purpose in mind.• Sort out relevant ideas.• First review common known facts in texts and encyclopaedias.
continuation….• Prepare list of sub-topics.• Look for facts, theories and people’s opinion that help answer your question.• Don’t write too much notes• Ensure your research paper be an expression of your own thinking and not a patchwork of borrowed ideas.• Learn your sources and integrate them into your own thinking.
Why do we take notes?• To help us remember what we read.• To keep a permanent record of it.• To re-order ideas for generating further.• To help us to concentrate while reading.• To help others to learn from our notes
Before taking notes RATE the source • Is this RELEVANT to my focus? • On what AUTHORITY is this based? • Have I already TAKEN this? What’s new? • Do I need EVERYTHING or just part?
What is “good note taking”?It includes: - facts - statistics - paraphrases - summaries - personal ideas
Steps on Note Taking 1. Read entire section FIRST!
2. Think about what you’ve read, what you already know, & how to say it another way.
3. Shrink it down to a fraction of its original size; use abbreviations, bullets, phrases, etc.
4. Re-word or PARAPHRASE only main ideas, important facts, keywords, etc.
Note Taking helps you avoid plagiarism• Helps figure out which ideas are original and from the research.• Keeps ideas organized.• Gives other people proper credit.• Helps you cite the sources you use.
1. QuotingQuotations – must be identical to the original. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author.
Good Reasons to quote:• Source author has made a point too clearly and concisely that it can’t be expressed more clearly.• A certain phrase or sentence in the source is particularly vivid or striking.• An important passage is sufficiently difficult, dense or rich.• A claim you are making is such that the doubting reader will want to hear exactly what the source said.
Rules for Quoting• Quote only what you need or what is really striking.• Keep your quotations under a sentence whenever possible.• Usually announce a quotation in the words preceding it.• Choose your announcing verb carefully.• Construct your own sentence so the quotation fits smoothly into it.
Technical Rules for Using Quotes • Don’t automatically put a comma before a quotation. • Punctuate the end of a quotation embedded in your sentence with whatever punctuation your sentence requires. • Quote verbatim.
2. Paraphrasing• Your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form.• One legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source.• A more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.
Paraphrasing is a valuableskill because…• It is better than quoting information from an undistinguished passage.• It helps you control the temptation to quote too much.• The mental process required for successful paraphrasing helps you to grasp the full meaning of the original.
Steps in Effective Paraphrasing • Reread the original passage until you understand its full meaning. • Set the original aside, and write your paraphrase on a note card. • Jot down a few words below your paraphrase to remind you later how you envision using this material. At the top of the note card, write a key word or phrase to indicate the subject of your paraphrase.
Continuation…• Check your rendition with the original to make sure that your version accurately expresses all the essential information in a new form.• Use quotation marks to identify any unique term or phraseology you have borrowed exactly from the source.• Record the source (including the page) on your note card so that you can credit it easily if you decide to incorporate the material into your paper.
3. SummarizingA summary is much shorter than the original text. It should communicate the main idea of the text and the main supporting points – written “in your own words” – in a very brief form. It should give someone who has not read the original a clear and accurate overview of the text.
To summary• Record the author, title, year of publication and source of the text.• Skim the text.• Read the text carefully.• Pay special attention to the first and last paragraphs.• Identify the topic sentence in each paragraph.• Identify the main support for the topic sentence.• Write the topic sentence of your summary.
4. Précis WritingIt is a process of extracting the maximum information and then conveying it into minimum of words. The goal is to preserve the core essence of the original report in a manner which is both clear and concise.
Writing a précis• A précis is a condensed restatement of an article, roughly ¼ the length of the original or less.• In contrast to a summary, a précis should preserve the article’s logic and emphases, and include main examples where relevant.• A précis of a primary literature scientific paper should follow the standard format: background/hypothesis, methods, results, and conclusion.
Continuation…• The précis should be written from the original author’s point of view, without editorializing.• A précis demonstrates that you have assimilated the key information provided in an article.• Précis can be used as “briefs”, but are also very similar to the first section of manuscript reviews for peer-reviewed journals.
Process in Writing Précis • Identify the reader and purpose of the précis. • Read the original document’s • Underline the key ideas and concepts • Write a not-form summary of each paragraph • Write a précis • Review and edit
Do’s and Don’ts of Précis Writing • Start your précis by creating context (setting) and stating the main idea of the pieces. • Always state the name of the article/document, the author and source. • Do not use the word “in this article”. • When writing about history, use the past tense. • Do not use abbreviations or contractors.
Continuation…• Avoid words like big, good, bad, little and a lot, also do not use cliché.• Titles of texts should be put in italics or underlined.• Make sure there is a clear “impact to the organization” mentioned.• Give a recommendation required.• Run a spell check.
a. Intentional• Copying a friend’s work• Buying or borrowing papers• Cutting and pasting blocks of text from electronic sources without documenting• Media “borrowing” without documentation• Web publishing without permissions of creators.
b. Unintentional • Careless paraphrasing • Poor documentation • Quoting excessively • Failure to use your own “voice”
How to avoid plagiarism?• Plan well.• Write down all sources.• Read and take notes by paraphrasing and summarizing. Never write directly from sources.• Use many sources and organize information by subject.
Continuation…• Whenever you use exact words, use quotes and footnote.• Don’t cut and paste from internet sources. Try reading and minimizing.• Try the paper folding method.
Why should we use thestrategies on note taking? • Provide support for claims or add credibility to your writing. • Refer to work that leads up to the work you are now doing. • Give examples of several points of view on a subject. • Call attention to a position that you wish to agree or disagree with.
Continuation…• Highlight a particularly striking phrase, sentence, or passage by quoting the original.• Distance yourself from the original by quoting it in order to cue readers that the words are not your own.• Expand the breadth or depth of your writing.
How to use them?• Read the entire text, nothing the key points and the main ideas.• Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is.• Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay.• Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly.
Citing your SourcesCiting sources make you and your research project more creditable. Having facts and figures to back up your ideas makes them more believable and makes you look like an expert.
BibliographyIt literally means “list of books”. It is a list of all the materials that you used to help you write a paper. This may include books, articles, websites, communication, television or radio programs, film or video recordings, etc.
Why should you write aBibliography?Anytime you use the words, ideas, data or research of others, you must acknowledge where you got that information from. If you do not acknowledge where you got the information from, you may be accused of plagiarism.
What should you include?• Articles, Websites, books or other research materials that you used to help you write a paper.• Names of people that you interviewed or gave you help with your paper.• Any other materials that you used to help you with your paper including movies, radio shows, TV shows, etc.
What should you not include? You don’t have to include common knowledge.
BooksLast name, First name. Title of book. Location: Publisher, year.Example:Lipson, Charles. Doing Honest Work in College. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2004
Article in a MagazineLast name, First name. “Title of Article”. Title of Magazine” day month year: pagesExample:Weintraub, Arlene, and Laura Cohan. “A thousand Year Plan for Nuclear Waste.” Business Week 6 May 2002: 94 – 96.
Website, with authorAuthor(s). “Title.” Website. Edition or version. Website Publisher, Date. Web. Date accessed <link>Example:Stolley, Karl. “MLA Formatting and Style Guide.” The OWL at Purdue. Purdue University Writing Lab, 10 May 2006.<http://owl.english.purdue.edu/Owl/resource/557101/>
Website, with no author“Title”. Website, Date. Website Publisher. Date accessed <link>Example:“Mr. Darcy.” Jane Custen Information Page. N.p., 6 September 2000. Web.15 June 2002 <http://pemberly.com/janeinfo/janeinfo.html>
Website, with corporate authorCorporate Author. “Title”. Website. Website Publisher. Date accessed <link>Example:Federal Bureau of Investigation. “Fingerprint Identification: An Overview.” FBI Website. US Department of Justice, N.D. Web. 17 July 2009 <http://www.fbi.gov/hg/cjusd/ident.htm>
Slide Show Created By:• Maryleigh P. Castillo• MS MATHEMATI CS• firstname.lastname@example.org