Philosophy of Edcuation


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Philosophy of Edcuation

  1. 1. Detailed Paradigm in Philosophy of Education Philosophy Philosophers Philosophical Principles Aim of Education Methods of Education Curriculum Personal AssessmentEastern Philosophy No exact known founder rather it Indian philosophies which To provide information about the Emphasis on oral traditions(like The eastern philosophy focused just came out as a way of life includes Hinduism, Buddhism forces of nature so that one could yoga, nirvana, rituals, meditations on their respective principles and base on definite set of doctrines and Jainism best deal with them etc.) and the reading of sacred rules particularly in Asian country. on Indian philosophy literature The nature and practices served People, Wealth and education as as their medium for enlightment Kung Fu-Xi, Meng-Xi, Lao-Xi, the three essential element s of and salvations. These will be the Lao-Xi, Xuang-Xi and Mo-Xi any country Acquisition of knowledge towards Used sacred books for Judaism, basis for their way of life. spiritual salvation and fulfillment Islam, and Christianity Golden Mean Practice the virtues of li, vi, Moral and spiritual formation of They prefer passive learning Hsiao, and cheng-ming the people Taoism (natural simplicity, Emphasis on conformity and effortless action, spontaneity and originality on some rules. compassion) Practice the virtue of wei-wu-wei Ulititarian Influence by Confucius, Imprint in the areas of social Buddhism, neo-Confucianism structure, government and Western philosophers as well organization and ethics for as Taoism on Japanese Confucianism philosophy The Buddhism influence on the impact of psychology, metaphysics and aesthetics Understanding of virtue and the nature of the social self, metaphysical and epistemological influence of neo-Confucianism
  2. 2. The epistemology, social philosophy and philosophical anthropology are the fundamental issues of Western philosophy Zen Buddhism(proposes to discipline the mind and seeks the freedom of the mind) Muhammad (the prophet of Allah) Teachings from Quran which Abu Bakr leads to total support God and Abraham Revolves around the study and observance of God’s laws and commandments as written in Torah Government from Rome to Teachings of Christianity based Constantinople on the life of Jesus Christ and govern human relationship based on universal brotherhood Martin Luther and Huldrych They are the Western Christianity Zwingli emphasizing on corruptions such as simony, Episcopal vacancies and the sale of indulgences Incorporate doctrinal changes such sola fides and sola scripturaIdealism Plato To reminisce our knowledge of Focused on the search for truth, Guide the learner along the In order to search for the truth the real world and free self-realization and character correct path towards the Infinite and reality, the idealist leads to themselves from a concern with development in order to open the soul to God revolve the process on matter so they can advance knowledge and idea where all towards the God Attainment of the true knowledge Encourage to ask questions and matter depends. The virtue, found in spiritual world provide a suitable environment order, synthesis and Universal for learning/Self-education laws are the foundation of true Socrates To know the good is to do the knowledge good and knowledge is a virtue; Stress classical studies/teach hence, ignorance is a vice students to think
  3. 3. St. Augustine of HIppo Lead people back to an Developed curriculum centered awareness of a union with the around five studies: mathematics source from which all things and physics, literature and art, come biology, grammar and historyRene Descartes To search for the idea that is true and indubitable, this will also serve as the foundation of all knowledge. He used the method of Universal Skepticism and the idea of “Cogito, ergo sum”George Berkeley All existence depends on some mind to know it. If there are no minds, then nothing would exist unless they are perceived by God(Material Realism)Immanuel Kant Real knowledge is possible What the human mind can perceive is the phenomenon but not the noumenonFriedrich Hegel Nature is the otherness of idea, its opposite, or we may say, the difference between value and fact The final stage of synthesis of idea and nature is spirit, and this is where the Final Absolute is encounteredJosiah Royce Purposes are incomplete without an external world in which they are idealized, and the external world is meaningless unless it is the fulfillment of such purposes
  4. 4. Realism Aristotle The purpose of humanity is to Self-preservation Lecture method The realization of all the influence use the ability to think of idealist from a well-defined To help individual understand Rhythmic flow of education: process, preparation, association, Balance is central and know the world in order to Stage of romance, Stage of generalization and application. In use it to ensure our own survival precision, and Stage of lieu with these the mind accept The chief good is happiness but generalization the real happiness from the happiness is dependent upon a The practical side of education environment or nature virtuous and well-ordered soul and their concept of practical Formal Steps of learning: includes moral and character preparation, presentation, development association, systematization- St. Thomas Aquinas All truths were eternally in God generalization and application Prepare both boys and girls for Emphasis in the education of the concrete duties of practical living Supports competency, soul upon three camps: Verbal accountability and performance- realism, Social realism, and based teaching Sense/Scientific realism Francis Bacon To rid our minds of various idols before, which clod our thinking: Idol of the Den, Idol of the Tribe, Idol of the Marketplace and Idol of the Theater Breaking away from dead ideas of the past and begin by using the method of induction Alfred North Whitehead Believed that reality is a process Reconcile some aspects of idealism with realism Bertrand Russell Universal is characterized by pattern but this can be verified with precision and analyzed mathematicallyPragmatism Heraclitus of Ephesus The idea of opposites; the soul Education is a necessity of life They used core approach method The development comes to and water, water and earth, day individual changes upon their and light, winter and summer, Education should not be looked Activity-oriented approach, respective thinking and etc. Constituted for him as the upon as preparation for life but as motivation, experimental method capacities. Even if they are too life itself and project method permissive, there’s a chance for
  5. 5. stages in the process of eternal Education is growth , it should be Believed in diversified curriculum the learner to incorporate all the change pervading all things something that assists social and flexible methods necessities renewalProtagoras of Abdera and Described reality as fire and heldGorgias of Sicily(The Sophists) that all things are exchange for fire and fire for all things Developed the idea that nothing could be certainly known to be true Skepticism and agnosticism Nothing exists, if anything did exist it cannot be known and if something can be known it would remain a secret since the known thing cannot be communicated All things change as knowledge came all from sense of perception Man is the measure of all thingsFrancis Bacon Inductive method and the idea that science as a social pursuit Believed that the consequences that follow the application of a moral belief determine the truth or falsityJean Jacques Rousseau Individuals were basically good but corrupted by civilization Connection between nature and experience
  6. 6. Attention to the nature of child development and his belief in the inherent goodness of people set the stage for contemporary child- centered educationAuguste Comte Naturalism which regards laws and relations as fundamental rather than physical or spiritual substance The three stages of progress: theological, metaphysical and positive Regarded the mathematics as the basis of all the sciencesCharles Sanders Peirce True knowledge of anything depends upon verification of our ideas in actual experience Resolved the problem of dualism of mind and matterWilliam James The idea of workability upon the truth of an idea. Truth is not absolute and immutable; rather it is made in actual, real-life events There is no truth, reality, or Absolute, but as his study of experience revealed to him, the universe is open-ended, pluralistic and in processJohn Dewey Believed that there were no absolute or universals and his primary datum was experience
  7. 7. Naturalism Jean Jacques Rousseau It is an approach that proceeds Preservation of the natural Emphasized physical education Even if the naturalism is limited from an analysis of reality in goodness and virtue of the and health training for a large number of learners it is terms of natural forces (heredity, individual and the formation of a still adaptable to all individuals environment, physical drives) society based upon the natural Tutorial system because of its uniqueness in the individual rights natural phenomenon. No huge Natural laws of human Emphasis on making the child the hassle may encounter because of development, free from all that Natural rights center of the educational process its impact in the nature and was artificial personal drives Man is by nature good and virtuousReconstructionism Theodore Brameld Social change involves both a Emphasized the need for change Directed toward arousing interest There’s a need to reform the reconstruction of education and in public activism school and society by means of the use of education in Make educators engage the preceding philosophies which reconstructing the society themselves in the educational Teachers must be free from their make the society as its best and reforms own passivity and from their fears modern. Everyone should involve They are pragmatic and promote about their participation for in some social responsibilities scientific method, problem The world community, change and social needs for continuous solving, naturalism and brotherhood and democracy are reform humanism the three ideals tin order to Emphasis on truth, brotherhood organize reform in school and and justice as world curriculum society Studies the world history They want teacher to be internationally oriented and humanitarian in their outlook Involved in both community and world affairs Progressivism John Dewey Education should focus on the Emphasis is placed on the Students’ interests and questions The main purpose is child- whole child; rather than on the process on how comes to know centered so it is possible to content or on the teacher connect the interest in the Always held that the school environment for further progress Students should test ideas by should improve the way of life of active experimentation our citizens through experiencing freedom and democracy in schools
  8. 8. Believed that the learner is a problem solver and thinker, who make meaning through his/her individual experiencesFuturism Alvin Toffler Technology is a major force To transform the organizational Mobile education The rise of modernization starting behind the accelerative thrust structure of the educational on the present conditions down to system Super-industrial education future trends. This is to lessen Impart knowledge to a child of the heavy task of human on how long things last Revolutionize its curriculum Abstractions of textbook in formal physical materials and promote application in life globalization. Continuing urbanization and Encourage a more future-focused geographical mobility orientation Focus from the present to the futureMarxism Karl Marx Believed that human society must Solidarity Physical science and grammar The development of technology move from Capitalism to should be the only subjects and skilled individual occurs in Socialism and eventually to Perspective social taught in school this period. Industrialization takes Communism transformation a lot of focused for social Advocated technical and consciousness. Focused that materialism should industrial education be used in arranging the practical Mold a socialist consciousness affairs of humanity and civil and socialist society society Postulated the idea of surplus value Francis Bacon Maintained that science is a tool for creating new knowledge for advancement Thomas Hobbes Believed that science is the process of discovering and studying the laws of motion and their effect on material bodies
  9. 9. John Locke Initiated the philosophy of progress which human nature is basically malleable and can be shaped and formed Etienne Condillac Imposed the doctrine of sensationalism, maintained that human activities and thinking processes are matters of experience and habit (whole development of humanity depends on education and environment) Claude Adrien Helvetius Education can be used to bring about human perfection Henri Saint-Simon Upheld industrialization and pushed for the scientific study of industry / Industrial doctrine Charles Fourier Human perfectability/ Perfection by Association Robert Owen’s Sowing the seeds of a cooperative social system David Ricardo Believed that productive labor is one of the primary bases of wealthRationalism Socrates To designate any mode of To free the intellect from all Focused on intellectual training The idea of rationalist contributed thought in which human reason repression imposed by the (creative thinking and reason and on the true value of the mind over Rene Descartes holds the place of supreme shackles of religious, social, and the use of the inductive method in the distinct power of it. This will criterion of truth political authoritarianism making generalization) make the individuals a servant of Gottfried Liebniz their own Understand the world, they first Enable the individuals to control Immanuel Kant need to understand themselves all aspects of his life guided by reason
  10. 10. Established the principle of pre- Create an aristocracy of family, established harmony, in order to position, church, and blood account for apparent causality in the world Envisioned an education only for the upper classes Human person is an autonomous self-regulating will capable of making moral decisions Perennialism Robert Hutchins Has a conservative/traditional Truth is universal and does not Subject-centered Greatly influence by realism so Realism philosophers view of human nature and depend on the circumstances of therefore searched for the truth education place, time or person Uses mastered discipline on human nature and education. They were also constantly Truth is universal and Good education involves a universal on the understanding of unchanging, and therefore, a search for and an understanding rationalist. good education is also universal of the truth and constant Truth can be found in the great work of civilization Education is a liberal exercise which develop the intellect Develop the power of thoughtPostmodernism Friedrich Nietzsche Originally a reaction to Response to the dilemmas posed Critical theory, philosophy, The relation and reaction on the modernism by modern education in architecture, art, literature, and society, economy, family, sustaining the concept of culture education and truth are more Referring to non-art aspects of knowledge, truth, and the good transparent. Little by little , the history that were influenced by Postmodern approach/pedagogy wide-ranging set of developments the new movement (evolutions in Level of knowledge production occur in this period for such society, economy, and culture) conflict is largely influence Contributed much to our developing less prejudiced understandings
  11. 11. Empiricism Avicenna Emphasizes the role of Asserts that the mind is not a Experimentation We can claim the fact that John Locke experience, especially sensory blank slate at birth therefore empiricism and rationalism are George Berkeley perception, in the formation of obtained from experience and the self-contradictory in the sense David Hume ideas, while discounting the senses that knowledge must be based on notion of innate ideas the experience upon perception and experimentation before we To know-how or procedural conclude or say it is true and real knowledge, rather than propositional knowledge Developed further the theory of tabula rasa Knowledge is entirely dependent on sensations for all its materials other than the notions we have of God and ourselves Necessary connection between cause and effect is based on habit and custom rather than reason or observation There is no pure reason and that all knowledge is a posteriori and derives from sense experience by inductionPhenomenology Edmund Husserl Phenomena is more important Emphasizes the possibility as a Construct an educational method Provides the learner a better way than the ideas goal in education (human being is that provides openness of prevailing nature of education Martin Heidegger always in a state of becoming) and guide them to internalize the Subject-object relationship Involves methodology knowledge for their own. Maurice Merleau-Ponty Learners construct the best life- Preparing them on the present Zuden Sachen Selbst and world’s possible (not rooted on Teacher may make authority and future plans rather than the Absolute the past but the present and claims over the learner previous point Vorauzzetzungslosigkeit(back to future) the things themselves and Learner has the authority thru presuppositionlessness) Understand and comprehend interpretations / standpoint of the lived-experiences learner
  12. 12. “Being there” in the world is a Transmission of cherished values continuous being who thinks and ideas about the meaning of everything because he/she is a thinking being / Average everydayness Human consciousness itself is a product of the world (possess nor embraces) but without which it cannot existExistentialism Soren Kierkegaard Devoted towards developing Call us to examine our personal Positivism on learners upon their The existentialist promotes individuality and the individual’s lives and break away from own education and life subjectivity for Martin Buber relationship with God superficial beliefs and totality/individualism. Every uncommitted action Teacher should be a student and learner is a guide of their own Jean-Paul sarte The “I-Thou” relationship every student is a teacher and not an end of it. There’s a between each and every Focused on the individual’s broad participations of the Carl Rogers individual to have empathy reality and not on his Humanities among the individuals individual to attain the (teacher and students) conceptuality uniqueness and essence of them Student-centered Believed that existence precedes Encourage individuals to ask essence questions as to who am I? where am I going? Why am I here? , Believed in emphatic etc. understanding on teachers and learner. Focus on less fortunate individuals than the gifted ones Examine the perverted and ugly side of life Humanism Scholars of Renaissance Period Interest in human nature through Develop individual personality Focus on art, nature, music, The classical way of stressing the the revival of the classics literature and architecture present nature is the main duty of To get the most possible out of the humanist to exist. Emphasizes on humanistic life Involvement in social cultures education ( Italian or Individual Moral duty and interest in human nature Humanism and Northern or Focus on social development leads them to social reform upon Social Humanism ) rather than individual happiness social relationship
  13. 13. Waldorf System of Education Rudolf Steiner Learning is interdisciplinary, Emphasizes learning through Anthroposophical view of human Waldorf Education is the integrates practical, artistic, and practical activities being in child development baesd modernized system of education intellectual elements and is on their ages governing to its own and unique coordinated with natural rhythms way of instructions. The practical of everyday life Allows for individual variations in Uses imitation and example side is emphasizing to establish the pace of learning the preparedness of the learners Provide young people the basis Oral language development for real interactions. These are with which to develop into free, Stimulate the healthy quit applicable for autonomous moral, and integrated individuals development of the child’s own Arts(Eurythmy), music, drama schools. and to aid every child in the imagination and crafts unfolding of his or her unique destiny Uses the concept of four temperaments to help the child Waldorf are not directed by a interpret principal/head teacher but rather by a number of groups(college Specialist teachers teachers, board of trustees and parents) Government-funded Waldorf method Bounded with oral tradition Essentialism Rooted in Idealism and realism To fit the man to perform justly, Emphasize the necessity of Instructional authority for Essentialism distinguished the philosophers skillfully and magnanimously in teaching pupils how to think teachers learners the capabilities to grasp all the offices, both private and systematically and effectively upon the subject matter because public, of peace and of war Fixed curriculum they are essential. On the basis of good instruction the teacher- Revival of efforts in the direction Intellectual disciplines( literature, student relationship will take a Intellectual disciplines are the of teaching the fundamental tools mathematics, history, etc) smooth flow of interaction on necessary foundations of modern of learning as the most motivating the force of learning life indispensable type of education Behaviorism John Watson Behavior is caused by To shape the behavior Independent reality It is effectively recommended to environmental conditions control the behavior of the B.F. Skinner Materialistic in nature individuals by studying the We can understand human Control the child’s environment to particulars behavior of the behavior by a meticulous study of have a kind of person we so environment to reinforced the particular behaviors desire change in behavior
  14. 14. Senses do not only gainknowledge of the world but theyalso function as instruments inguiding activity for successfulmaintenance of lifeChanging behavior is to changecontingencies (culture, socialenvironment)---------- nothing follows ---------------